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Flash (photography)
A flash is a device used in photography producing a flash of artificial light (typically 1/1000 to 1/200 of a second) at a color temperature of about 5500 K[citation needed] to help illuminate a scene. A major purpose of a flash is to illuminate a dark scene. Other uses are capturing quickly moving objects or changing the quality of light. Flash refers either to the flash of light itself or to the electronic flash unit discharging the light. Most current flash units are electronic, having evolved from single-use flashbulbs and flammable powders. Modern cameras often activate flash units automatically. Flash units are commonly built directly into a camera. Some cameras allow separate flash units to be mounted via a standardized "accessory mount" bracket (a hot shoe). In professional studio equipment, flashes may be large, standalone units, or studio strobes, powered by special battery packs or connected to mains power
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Macroglossum Stellatarum

Its long proboscis (25–28 mm)[7] and its hovering behavior, accompanied by an audible humming noise, make it look remarkably like a hummingbird while feeding on flowers. Like hummingbirds, it feeds on flowers which have tube-shaped corollae.[7] It should not be confused with the moths called hummingbird moths in North America, genus Hemaris, members of the same family and with similar appearance and behavior. The resemblance to hummingbirds is an example of convergent evolution. It flies during the day, especially in bright sunshine, but also at dusk,[6] dawn, and even in the rain, which is unusual for even diurnal hawkmoths.[4] M
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Fulminate
Fulminates are chemical compounds which include the fulminate ion. The fulminate ion, CNO
, is a pseudohalic ion because its charge and reactivity are similar to those of the halogens. Due to the instability of the ion, fulminate salts are friction-sensitive explosives. The best known is mercury(II) fulminate, which has been used as a primary explosive in detonators. Fulminates can be formed from metals, such as silver and mercury, dissolved in nitric acid and reacted with ethanol. The weak single nitrogen-oxygen bond is responsible for their instability. Nitrogen very easily forms a stable triple bond to another nitrogen atom, forming nitrogen gas. Fulminates were discovered by Edward Charles Howard in 1800.[1][2][3] The use of fulminates for firearms was first demonstrated by a Scottish minister, A. J
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Brownie (camera)
The Brownie was a long-running popular series of simple and inexpensive cameras made by Eastman Kodak. Introduced in 1900,[1] it introduced the snapshot to the masses. It was a basic cardboard box camera with a simple meniscus lens that took 2 1/4-inch square pictures on 117 roll film. It was conceived and marketed for sales of Kodak roll films. Because of its simple controls and initial price of $1 (equivalent to $31 in 2019) along with the low price of Kodak roll film and processing, the Brownie camera surpassed its marketing goal[2] It was invented by Frank A. Brownell.[3] The name comes from the brownies (spirits in folklore) in Palmer Cox cartoons. Over 150,000 Brownie cameras were shipped in the first year of production.[4] An improved model, called No
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Carbon Arc Lamp
An arc lamp or arc light is a lamp that produces light by an electric arc (also called a voltaic arc). The carbon arc light, which consists of an arc between carbon electrodes in air, invented by Humphry Davy in the first decade of the 1800s, was the first practical electric light.[1] It was widely used starting in the 1870s for street and large building lighting until it was superseded by the incandescent light in the early 20th century.[1] It continued in use in more specialized applications where a high intensity point light source was needed, such as searchlights and movie projectors until after World War II. The carbon arc lamp is now obsolete for most of these purposes, but it is still used as a source of high intensity ultraviolet light. The term is now used for gas discharge lamps, which produce light by an arc between metal electrodes through an inert gas in a glass bulb
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Potassium Chlorate
Potassium chlorate is a compound containing potassium, chlorine and oxygen, with the molecular formula KClO3. In its pure form, it is a white crystalline substance. It is the most common chlorate in industrial use. It is used, On the industrial scale, potassium chlorate is produced by the Liebig process: passing chlorine into hot calcium hydroxide, subsequently adding potassium chloride:[7]
6 Ca(OH)2 + 6 Cl2 → Ca(ClO3)2 + 5 CaCl2 + 6 H2O
Ca(ClO3)2 + 2 KCl → 2 KClO3 + CaCl2
The electrolysis of KCl in aqueous solution is also used sometimes, in which elemental chlorine formed at the anode react with KOH in situ
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Robert Bunsen

Robert Wilhelm Eberhard Bunsen (/ˈbʌnsən/; German: [ˈbʊnzən]; 30 March 1811[a] – 16 August 1899) was a German chemist. He investigated emission spectra of heated elements, and discovered caesium (in 1860) and rubidium (in 1861) with the physicist Gustav Kirchhoff.[11] The Bunsen–Kirchhoff Award for spectroscopy is named after Bunsen and Kirchhoff./ˈbʌnsən/; German: [ˈbʊnzən]; 30 March 1811[a] – 16 August 1899) was a German chemist. He investigated emission spectra of heated elements, and discovered caesium (in 1860) and rubidium (in 1861) with the physicist Gustav Kirchhoff.[11] The Bunsen–Kirchhoff Award for spectroscopy is named after Bunsen and Kirchhoff.[
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