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Flamenco
Flamenco
Flamenco
(Spanish pronunciation: [flaˈmeŋko]), in its strictest sense, is a professionalized art-form based on the various folkloric music traditions of Southern Spain in the autonomous communities of Andalusia, Extremadura
Extremadura
and Murcia. In a wider sense, it refers to these musical traditions and more modern musical styles which have themselves been deeply influenced by and become blurred with the development of flamenco over the past two centuries. It includes cante (singing), toque (guitar playing), baile (dance), jaleo (vocalizations), palmas (handclapping) and pitos (finger snapping).[1] The oldest record of flamenco dates to 1774 in the book Las Cartas Marruecas by José Cadalso.[2] The genre originated in the music and dance styles of Andalusia
Andalusia
which is mostly related to the Middle-East[citation needed]
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Islamic
Islam
Islam
(/ˈɪslɑːm/)[note 1] is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God
God
(Allah)[1] and that Muhammad
Muhammad
is the messenger of God.[2][3] It is the world's second-largest religion[4] and the fastest-growing major religion in the world,[5][6][7] with over 1.8 billion followers or 24.1% of the global population,[8] known as Muslims.[9] Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries.[4] Islam
Islam
teaches that God
God
is merciful, all-powerful, unique[10] and has guided mankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs.[3][11] The primary scriptures of Islam
Islam
are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad
Muhammad
(c
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Japan
Coordinates: 35°N 136°E / 35°N 136°E / 35; 136Japan 日本国 Nippon-koku or Nihon-kokuFlagImperial SealAnthem: "Kimigayo" 君が代"His Imperial Majesty's Reign"[2][3] Government
Government
Seal of JapanGo-Shichi no Kiri (五七桐)Area controlled by Japan
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UNESCO
The United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO;[2] French: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris
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Region Of Murcia
The Region of Murcia
Murcia
(/ˈmʊərsiə/; Spanish: Región de Murcia [reˈxjon de ˈmuɾθja], Catalan: Regió de Múrcia) is an autonomous community of Spain
Spain
located in the southeast of the state, between Andalusia
Andalusia
and Valencian Community, on the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coast. The autonomous community consists of a single province, unlike most autonomous communities, which have several provinces within the same territory. Because of this, the autonomous community and the province are operated as one unit of government. The city of Murcia
Murcia
is the capital of the region and seat of government organs, except for the parliament, the Regional Assembly of Murcia, which is located in Cartagena
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Extremadura
Extremadura
Extremadura
(English: /ˌɛkstrɪməˈdjʊərə/; Spanish: [e(ɣ)stɾemaˈðuɾa]; Extremaduran: Estremaúra [eʰtːɾemaˈuɾa]; Portuguese: Estremadura [(ɨ)ʃtɾɨmɐˈðuɾɐ]) is an autonomous community of western Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
whose capital city is Mérida, recognised by the State of Autonomy of Extremadura. It is made up of the two largest provinces of Spain: Cáceres and Badajoz. It is bordered by Portugal to the west; by the provinces of Salamanca and Ávila (Castile and León) to the north; by the provinces of Huelva, Seville, and Córdoba (Andalusia) to the south; and by provinces of Toledo and Ciudad Real (Castile–La Mancha)
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Blas Infante
Blas Infante
Blas Infante
Pérez de Vargas (Casares, Spain; 5 July 1885 – Seville, Spain; 11 August 1936) was an Andalucista politician, Georgist,[2] writer, historian and musicologist, known as the father of Andalusian nationalism
Andalusian nationalism
(Padre de la Patria Andaluza).[3] Infante was a Georgist
Georgist
idealist who initiated an assembly at Ronda
Ronda
in 1913
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Arabic Language
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎) al-ʻarabiyyah [ʔalʕaraˈbijːah] ( listen) or (Arabic: عَرَبِيّ‎) ʻarabī [ˈʕarabiː] ( listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[4] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic
Arabic
is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form (Modern Standard Arabic) [5]. The modern written language (Modern Standard Arabic) is derived from Classical Arabic
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Moriscos
Moriscos
Moriscos
(Spanish: [moˈɾiskos], Catalan: [muˈɾiskus], [moˈɾiskos]; Portuguese: mouriscos [mo(w)ˈɾiʃkuʃ], [mo(w)ˈɾiskus]; meaning "Moorish") were former Muslims who converted or were coerced into converting to Christianity, after Spain
Spain
finally outlawed the open practice of Islam
Islam
by its sizeable Muslim
Muslim
population (termed mudéjar) in the early 16th century. The Moriscos
Moriscos
were subject to systematic expulsions from Spain's various kingdoms between 1609 and 1614, the most severe of which occurred in the eastern Kingdom of Valencia
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Chill-out Music
Chill-out (shortened as chill; also typeset as chillout or chill out) is a loosely defined style of popular music characterized by slow tempos and relaxed moods.[1][2] The definition of the term has evolved throughout the decades, and generally refers to anything seen as a modern form of easy listening. Some of the genres associated with "chill" include downtempo, classical, dance, jazz, hip hop, world, pop, lounge, and ambient.[1] History[edit] During the 1980s, there was a trend of electronic and dance music producers who created specialized descriptions of their music as a way to assert their individuality.[3] "Chill-out" originated from an area called "The White Room" at the Heaven nightclub in London in 1989.[4] Its DJs were Jimmy Cauty
Jimmy Cauty
and Alex Patterson, later of the Orb.[5] They created ambient mixes from sources such as Brian Eno, Pink Floyd, the Eagles, Mike Oldfield, 10cc, and War
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Fire
Fire
Fire
is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction products.[1] Slower oxidative processes like rusting or digestion are not included by this definition. Fire
Fire
is hot because the conversion of the weak double bond in molecular oxygen, O2, to the stronger bonds in the combustion products carbon dioxide and water releases energy (418 kJ per 32 g of O2); the bond energies of the fuel play only a minor role here.[2] At a certain point in the combustion reaction, called the ignition point, flames are produced. The flame is the visible portion of the fire
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Chord Progression
A chord progression or harmonic progression is a succession of musical chords, which are two or more notes, typically sounded simultaneously. Chord progressions are the foundation of harmony in Western musical tradition from the common practice era of Classical music
Classical music
to the 21st century. Chord progressions are the foundation of Western popular music styles (e.g., pop music, rock music) and traditional music (e.g., blues and jazz). In tonal music, chord progressions have the function of establishing or contradicting a tonality, the technical name for what is commonly understood as the "key" of a song or piece. Chord progressions are usually expressed by Roman numerals
Roman numerals
in Classical music
Classical music
music theory; for example, the common chord progression I vi/ii V7
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Stanza
In poetry, a stanza (/ˈstænzə/; from Italian stanza [ˈstantsa], "room") is a grouped set of lines within a poem, usually set off from other stanzas by a blank line or indentation.[1] Stanzas can have regular rhyme and metrical schemes, though stanzas are not strictly required to have either. There are many unique forms of stanzas. Some stanzaic forms are simple, such as four-line quatrains. Other forms are more complex, such as the Spenserian stanza. Fixed verse poems, such as sestinas, can be defined by the number and form of their stanzas. The term stanza is similar to strophe, though strophe sometimes refers to irregular set of lines, as opposed to regular, rhymed stanzas.[2] The stanza in poetry is analogous with the paragraph that is seen in prose; related thoughts are grouped into units.[3] In music, groups of lines are typically referred to as verses
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Alegrías
Alegrías (Spanish pronunciation: [aleˈɣɾi.as]) is a flamenco palo or musical form, which has a rhythm consisting of 12 beats. It is similar to Soleares. Its beat emphasis is as follows: 1 2 [3] 4 5 [6] 7 [8] 9 [10] 11 [12]. Alegrías originated in Cádiz. Alegrías belongs to the group of palos called Cantiñas and it is usually played in a lively rhythm (120-170 beats per minute). The livelier speeds are chosen for dancing, while quieter rhythms are preferred for the song alone. One of the structurally strictest forms of flamenco, a traditional dance in alegrías must contain each of the following sections: a salida (entrance), paseo (walkaround), silencio (similar to an adagio in ballet), castellana (upbeat section) zapateado (Literally "a tap of the foot") and bulerías. This structure though, is not followed when alegrías are sung as a standalone song (with no dancing)
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Granaína
Granaína (Spanish pronunciation: [ɡɾanaˈina]) is a flamenco style of singing and guitar playing from Granada. It is a variant of the Granada
Granada
fandangos. It was originally danceable, but now has lost its rhythm, is much slower, and is usually only sung or played as a guitar solo, reflecting its Arab-Moorish heritage more strongly than other fandangos.[1] The famous singer Don Antonio Chacón (1869–1929) is attributed with freeing the granaína from its rhythmic ties and making it popular. Singers usually finish their rendering of the granaína with a media granaína, a similar tune but rising to a higher pitch. Manuel Vallejo (1891–1960) was a famous exponent of this latter cante. References[edit]^ Claus Schreiner, ed. (1990). Flamenco: Gypsy Dance and Music from Andalusia. Portland, OR: Amadeus Press
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José Cadalso
José de Cadalso y Vázquez (Cádiz, 1741 – Gibraltar, 1782), Spanish, Colonel of the Royal Spanish Army, author, poet, playwright and essayist, one of the canonical producers of Spanish Enlightenment literature. Before completing his twentieth year, Cadalso had traveled through Italy, Germany, England, France and Portugal, and he had studied the history and literature of these countries. On his return to Spain he entered the army and rose to the rank of colonel. Cadalso was the embodiment of the Enlightenment ideal of the "hombre de bien", a learned and well-rounded citizen whose multitude of interests could be utilized to improve society. He was a central figure in the literary landscape of eighteenth-century Spain, especially in the tertulia held at the Fonda de San Sebastián. He influenced a number of Spanish authors, not least among them a young and talented Juan Meléndez Valdés. His first published work was a verse tragedy, Don Sancho García, Conde de Castilla (1771)
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