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Flamenco
FLAMENCO (Spanish pronunciation: ), in its strictest sense, is a professionalized art-form based on the various folkloric music traditions of Southern Spain
Spain
in the autonomous communities of Andalusia
Andalusia
, Extremadura
Extremadura
and Murcia . In a wider sense, it refers to these musical traditions and more modern musical styles which have themselves been deeply influenced by and become blurred with the development of flamenco over the past two centuries. It includes cante (singing), toque (guitar playing), baile (dance), jaleo (vocalizations), palmas (handclapping) and pitos (finger snapping). The oldest record of flamenco dates to 1774 in the book Las Cartas Marruecas by José Cadalso . The genre originated in the music and dance styles of Andalusia
Andalusia
, of much older origin
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Region Of Murcia
The REGION OF MURCIA (/ˈmʊərsiə/ ; Spanish : Región de Murcia
Murcia
) is an autonomous community of Spain
Spain
located in the southeast of the state, between Andalusia and Valencian Community , on the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coast. The autonomous community consists of a single province , unlike most autonomous communities, which have several provinces within the same territory. Because of this, the autonomous community and the province are operated as one unit of government. The city of Murcia
Murcia
is the capital of the region and seat of government organs, except for the parliament, the Regional Assembly of Murcia
Murcia
, which is located in Cartagena . The autonomous community and province is subdivided into municipalities
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Extremadura
EXTREMADURA (English: /ˌɛkstrᵻməˈdjuːrə/ ; Spanish: ; Extremaduran : Estremaúra ; Portuguese : Estremadura ) is an autonomous community of western Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
whose capital city is Mérida , recognised by the State of Autonomy of Extremadura. Its compounded by the two largest provinces of Spain
Spain
: Cáceres and Badajoz
Badajoz
. It is bordered by Portugal
Portugal
to the west; by provinces of Salamanca and Ávila ( Castile and León ) to the north; by provinces of Huelva , Seville , and Córdoba ( Andalusia
Andalusia
) to the south; and by provinces of Toledo and Ciudad Real ( Castile–La Mancha ). Its official language is Spanish
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Islamic
ISLAM (/ˈɪslɑːm/ ) is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one incomparable God
God
( Allah ) and that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world\'s second-largest religion and the fastest-growing major religion in the world , with over 1.8 billion followers or 24.1% of the global population, who are known as Muslims . Muslims make up a majority of the population in 49 countries . Islam teaches that God
God
is merciful , all-powerful , unique , and has guided mankind through prophets , revealed scriptures and natural signs . The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran
Quran
, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah , composed of accounts called hadith ) of Muhammad (c. 570–8 June 632 CE)
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Moriscos
MORISCOS (Spanish: , Catalan: , ; Portuguese : mouriscos , ; meaning "Moorish") were former Muslims who converted or were coerced into converting to Christianity , after Spain
Spain
finally outlawed the open practice of Islam
Islam
by its sizeable Muslim
Muslim
population (termed Mudejar ) in the early 16th century. The Moriscos
Moriscos
were subject to systematic expulsions from Spain's various kingdoms between 1609 and 1614, the most severe of which occurred in the eastern Kingdom of Valencia
Kingdom of Valencia

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Arabic Language
ARABIC ( Arabic
Arabic
: العَرَبِيَّة‎‎, al-ʻarabiyyah ( listen ) or Arabic
Arabic
: عَرَبِيّ‎‎ ʻarabī ( listen ) or ) is a Central Semitic language complex that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world . It is named after the Arabs , a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. The modern written language ( Modern Standard Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic
) is derived from Classical Arabic
Classical Arabic
. It is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media
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José Cadalso
JOSé DE CADALSO Y VáZQUEZ ( Cádiz
Cádiz
, 1741 – Gibraltar
Gibraltar
, 1782), Spanish , Colonel of the Royal Spanish Army, author, poet, playwright and essayist, one of the canonical producers of Spanish Enlightenment literature . Before completing his twentieth year, Cadalso had traveled through Italy
Italy
, Germany, England, France and Portugal
Portugal
, and he had studied the history and literature of these countries. On his return to Spain
Spain
he entered the army and rose to the rank of colonel. Cadalso was the embodiment of the Enlightenment ideal of the "hombre de bien", a learned and well-rounded citizen whose multitude of interests could be utilized to improve society. He was a central figure in the literary landscape of eighteenth-century Spain, especially in the tertulia held at the Fonda de San Sebastián
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UNESCO
United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture (in French) ABBREVIATION UNESCO FORMATION 16 November 1945 TYPE Specialized agency LEGAL STATUS Active HEADQUARTERS Place de Fontenoy , Paris, France MEMBERSHIP 195 member states HEAD Irina Bokova Director-General of UNESCO
UNESCO
WEBSITE www.unesco.orgThe UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (UNESCO) (French : Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris
Paris

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Japan
Coordinates : 35°N 136°E / 35°N 136°E / 35; 136 Japan 日本国 Nippon-koku Nihon-koku Flag Imperial Seal ANTHEM: * " Kimigayo " * 君が代 "His Imperial Majesty's Reign" GOVERNMENT SEAL OF JAPAN * * Go-Shichi no Kiri (五七桐) Area controlled by Japan
Japan
shown in green Capital and largest city
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Eastern Europe
EASTERN EUROPE is the eastern part of the European continent . There is no consensus on the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of geopolitical , geographical, cultural, and socioeconomic connotations. There are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe
Europe
as there are scholars of the region". A related United Nations paper adds that "every assessment of spatial identities is essentially a social and cultural construct ". One definition describes Eastern Europe
Europe
as a cultural entity: the region lying in Europe
Europe
with the main characteristics consisting of Byzantine
Byzantine
, Eastern Orthodox , and some Ottoman influences. Another definition was created during the Cold War
Cold War
and used more or less synonymously with the term Eastern Bloc
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Blas Infante
BLAS INFANTE PéREZ DE VARGAS (Casares , Spain
Spain
; 5 July 1885 – Seville
Seville
, Spain
Spain
; 11 August 1936) was an Andalucista politician, Georgist
Georgist
, writer, historian and musicologist, known as the father of Andalusian nationalism (Padre de la Patria Andaluza). Infante was a Georgist
Georgist
idealist who initiated an assembly at Ronda
Ronda
in 1913. This assembly adopted a charter based on the autonomist Constitución Federal de Antequera written in 1883 during the First Spanish Republic . It also embraced the current flag and coat of arms as "national symbols ", designed by Infante himself based on various historic Andalusian standards. During the Second Spanish Republic
Second Spanish Republic
, the Andalucismo was represented by the Junta Liberalista, a federalist political party led by Infante
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Fire
FIRE is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion , releasing heat , light , and various reaction products . Slower oxidative processes like rusting or digestion are not included by this definition. Fire
Fire
is hot because conversion of the weak double bond in molecular oxygen, O2, to the stronger bonds in the combustion products carbon dioxide and water releases energy (418 kJ per 32 g of O2); the bond energies of the fuel play only a minor role here. At a certain point in the combustion reaction, called the ignition point, flames are produced. The flame is the visible portion of the fire. Flames consist primarily of carbon dioxide, water vapor, oxygen and nitrogen. If hot enough, the gases may become ionized to produce plasma . Depending on the substances alight, and any impurities outside, the color of the flame and the fire's intensity will be different
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Chord Progression
A CHORD PROGRESSION or HARMONIC PROGRESSION is a succession of musical chords , which are three or more notes, typically sounded simultaneously. Chord progressions are the foundation of harmony in Western musical tradition from the common practice era of Classical music to the 21st century. Chord progressions are the foundation of Western popular music styles (e.g., pop music , rock music ) and traditional music (e.g., blues and jazz ). In tonal music, chord progressions have the function of establishing or contradicting a tonality , the technical name for what is commonly understood as the "key" of a song or piece. Chord progressions are usually expressed by Roman numerals in Classical music music theory; for example, the common chord progression I vi/ii V7. In many styles of popular and traditional music, chord progressions are expressed using the name and "quality" of the chords
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History Of The Jews In Spain
Spanish Jews
Jews
once constituted one of the largest and most prosperous Jewish communities in the world. Spain was the unquestioned leader of world Jewry: scientific and philological study of the Hebrew Bible began, Hebrew was used for the first time for secular poetry, and for the only time between Biblical times and the origins of the modern state of Israel, a Jew ( Samuel ha-Nagid ) commanded a Jewish army. This period ended definitively with the anti-Jewish riots of 1391 and Alhambra Decree
Alhambra Decree
of 1492, as a result of which the majority of Jews
Jews
in Spain (between 200,000 and 250,000) converted to Catholicism and those remaining (between 40,000 and 100,000) were forced into exile
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Tientos
TIENTO (Spanish pronunciation: , Portuguese : Tento ) is a musical genre originating in Spain in the mid-15th century. It is formally analogous to the fantasia (fantasy) , found in England, Germany, and the Low Countries, and also the ricercare , first found in Italy. By the end of the 16th century the tiento was exclusively a keyboard form, especially of organ music. It continued to be the predominant form in the Spanish organ tradition through the time of Cabanilles , and developed many variants. Additionally, many 20th-century composers have written works entitled "tiento". CONTENTS * 1 Name * 2 Formal aspects * 3 Composers * 4 Contemporary composers * 5 Notes * 6 References NAMEThe word derives from the Spanish verb tentar (meaning either to touch, to tempt or to attempt), and was originally applied to music for various instruments
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Chord Sequence
A CHORD PROGRESSION or HARMONIC PROGRESSION is a succession of musical chords , which are two or more notes, typically sounded simultaneously. Chord progressions are the foundation of harmony in Western musical tradition from the common practice era of Classical music to the 21st century. Chord progressions are the foundation of Western popular music styles (e.g., pop music , rock music ) and traditional music (e.g., blues and jazz ). In tonal music, chord progressions have the function of establishing or contradicting a tonality , the technical name for what is commonly understood as the "key" of a song or piece. Chord progressions are usually expressed by Roman numerals in Classical music
Classical music
music theory; for example, the common chord progression I vi/ii V7. In many styles of popular and traditional music, chord progressions are expressed using the name and "quality" of the chords
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