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Firmware
In electronic systems and computing, firmware[a] is a computer program that provides the low-level control for the device's specific hardware. Firmware
Firmware
can either provide a standardized operating environment for the device's more complex software (allowing more hardware-independence), or, for less complex devices, act as the device's complete operating system, performing all control, monitoring and data manipulation functions. Typical examples of devices containing firmware are embedded systems, consumer appliances, computers, computer peripherals, and others. Almost all electronic devices beyond the simplest contain some firmware. Firmware
Firmware
is held in non-volatile memory devices such as ROM, EPROM, or flash memory. Changing the firmware of a device may rarely or never be done during its lifetime; some firmware memory devices are permanently installed and cannot be changed after manufacture
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Remote Control
In electronics, a remote control is a component of an electronic device used to operate the device from a distance, usually wirelessly. For example, in consumer electronics, a remote control can be used to operate devices such as a television set, DVD
DVD
player, or other home appliance, from a short distance. A remote control is primarily a convenience feature for the user, and can allow operation of devices that are out of convenient reach for direct operation of controls
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Microwave Oven
A microwave oven (also commonly referred to as a microwave) is an electric oven that heats and cooks food by exposing it to electromagnetic radiation in the microwave frequency range. This induces polar molecules in the food to rotate and produce thermal energy in a process known as dielectric heating. Microwave
Microwave
ovens heat foods quickly and efficiently because excitation is fairly uniform in the outer 25–38 mm (1–1.5 inches) of a homogeneous, high water content food item; food is more evenly heated throughout than generally occurs in other cooking techniques. The development of the cavity magnetron in the UK made possible the production of electromagnetic waves of a small enough wavelength (microwaves). American engineer Percy Spencer is generally credited with inventing the modern microwave oven after World War II
World War II
from radar technology developed during the war
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Computer Peripheral
A peripheral device is "an ancillary device used to put information into and get information out of the computer."[1] Three categories of peripheral devices exist based on their relationship with the computer:an input device sends data or instructions to the computer, such as a mouse, keyboard, graphics tablet, image scanner, barcode reader, game controller, light pen, light gun, microphone, digital camera, webcam, dance pad, and read-only memory); an output device provides output from the computer, such as a computer monitor, projector, printer, and computer speaker); and an input/output device performs both input and output functions, such as a computer data storage device (including a disk drive, USB flash drive, memory card, and tape drive) and a touchscreen).Many modern electronic devices, such as digital watches, smartphones, and tablet computers, have interfaces that allow them to be used as computer peripheral devices. See also[edit]Look up peripheral in Wi
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Baby AT
In the area of IBM compatible
IBM compatible
personal computers, the AT form factor referred to the dimensions and layout (form factor) of the motherboard for the IBM
IBM
AT. Like the IBM PC
IBM PC
and IBM XT
IBM XT
models before it, many third-party manufacturers produced motherboards compatible with the IBM AT
IBM AT
form factor, allowing end users to upgrade their computers for faster processors. The IBM AT
IBM AT
became a widely copied design in the booming home computer market of the 1980s. IBM
IBM
clones made at the time began using AT compatible designs, contributing to its popularity. In the 1990s many computers still used AT and its variants
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LED Lights
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source. It is a p–n junction diode that emits light when activated.[5] When a suitable current is applied to the leads,[6][7] electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence, and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy band gap of the semiconductor. LEDs are typically small (less than 1 mm2) and integrated optical components may be used to shape the radiation pattern.[8] Appearing as practical electronic components in 1962, the earliest LEDs emitted low-intensity infrared light.[9] Infrared LEDs are still frequently used as transmitting elements in remote-control circuits, such as those in remote controls for a wide variety of consumer electronics. The first visible-light LEDs were of low intensity and limited to red
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USB Flash Drive
A USB
USB
flash drive, also variously known as a thumb drive, pen drive, gig stick, jump drive, disk key, disk on key, flash-drive, memory stick or USB
USB
memory,[a] is a data storage device that includes flash memory with an integrated USB
USB
interface. It is typically removable, rewritable and much smaller than an optical disc. Most weigh less than 30 g (1 ounce). Since first appearing on the market in late 2000, as with virtually all other computer memory devices, storage capacities have risen while prices have dropped
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Portable Music Player
A portable audio player is a personal mobile device that allows the user to listen to recorded audio while mobile. Sometimes a distinction is made between a portable player, battery-powered and with one or more small loudspeakers, and a personal player, listened to with earphones.Contents1 History 2 CD players 3 Digital players 4 Further readingHistory[edit] Portable battery-operated reel-to-reel tape recorders were introduced in the 1950s, initially tending to be high-priced units for reporters, produced by Uher and Nagra. Lower-priced units became available later. In the mid-1960s Philips introduced the battery-operated compact cassette recorder, originally used for recording speech. At about the same time the 8-track player was introduced. It was very successful at the time, though bulky and inconvenient to use. There was a pause at the end of each track as the program changed
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Datamation
Datamation
Datamation
is a computer magazine that was published in print form in the United States
United States
between 1957 and 1998,[1][2] and has since continued publication on the web. Today, Datamation
Datamation
is owned by QuinStreet and is published as an online magazine at Datamation.com.Contents1 History and profile 2 Computer
Computer
humor 3 References 4 External linksHistory and profile[edit] When Datamation
Datamation
was first launched in 1957, it was not clear there would be a significant market for a computer magazine given how few computers there were. The idea for the magazine came from Donald Prell who was Vice President of Application Engineering at a Los Angeles computer input-output company
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Core Rope Memory
Core rope memory
Core rope memory
is a form of read-only memory (ROM) for computers, first used in the 1960s by early NASA Mars space probes and then in the Apollo Guidance Computer
Computer
(AGC) designed and programmed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
(MIT) Instrumentation Lab and built by Raytheon. Contrary to ordinary coincident-current magnetic-core memory, which was used for random access memory (RAM) at the time, the ferrite cores in a core rope are just used as transformers. The signal from a word line wire passing through a given core is coupled to the bit line wire and interpreted as a binary "one", while a word line wire that bypasses the core is not coupled to the bit line wire and is read as a "zero"
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Magnetic-core Memory
Magnetic-core memory
Magnetic-core memory
was the predominant form of random-access computer memory for 20 years between about 1955 and 1975. Such memory is often just called core memory, or, informally, core. Core uses tiny magnetic toroids (rings), the cores, through which wires are threaded to write and read information. Each core represents one bit of information. The cores can be magnetized in two different ways (clockwise or counterclockwise) and the bit stored in a core is zero or one depending on that core's magnetization direction. The wires are arranged to allow for an individual core to be set to either a one or a zero and for its magnetization to be changed by sending appropriate electric current pulses through selected wires. The process of reading the core causes the core to be reset to a zero, thus erasing it. This is called destructive readout
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Vorbis
Vorbis
Vorbis
is a free and open-source software project headed by the Xiph.Org Foundation. The project produces an audio coding format and software reference encoder/decoder (codec) for lossy audio compression
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Diode Matrix
A diode matrix is a two-dimensional grid of wires: each "intersection" wherein one row crosses over another has either a diode connecting them, or the wires are isolated from each other. It is one of the most popular techniques for implementing a read-only memory. A diode matrix is used as the control store or microprogram in many early computers. A logically equivalent transistor matrix is still used as the control store or microprogram or 'decode ROM' in many modern microprocessors. At any one instant, a single row of the diode matrix (or transistor matrix) is activated. Charge flows through each diode connected to that row. That activates the column corresponding to each row
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Semiconductor Diode
A diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts current primarily in one direction (asymmetric conductance); it has low (ideally zero) resistance in one direction, and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other. A semiconductor diode, the most common type today, is a crystalline piece of semiconductor material with a p–n junction connected to two electrical terminals.[5] A vacuum tube diode has two electrodes, a plate (anode) and a heated cathode. Semiconductor diodes were the first semiconductor electronic devices. The discovery of crystals' rectifying abilities was made by German physicist Ferdinand Braun in 1874. The first semiconductor diodes, called cat's whisker diodes, developed around 1906, were made of mineral crystals such as galena
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Mobile Phone
A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area. The radio frequency link establishes a connection to the switching systems of a mobile phone operator, which provides access to the public switched telephone network (PSTN). Modern mobile telephone services use a cellular network architecture, and, therefore, mobile telephones are called cellular telephones or cell phones, in North America. In addition to telephony, 2000s-era mobile phones support a variety of other services, such as text messaging, MMS, email, Internet
Internet
access, short-range wireless communications (infrared, Bluetooth), business applications, video games, and digital photography
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Integrated Circuit
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip results in circuits that are orders of magnitude smaller, cheaper, and faster than those constructed of discrete electronic components. The IC's mass production capability, reliability and building-block approach to circuit design has ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors. ICs are now used in virtually all electronic equipment and have revolutionized the world of electronics
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