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Finnish National Opera
The FINNISH NATIONAL OPERA (Finnish : Suomen Kansallisooppera; Swedish : Finlands Nationalopera) is a Finnish opera company based in Helsinki
Helsinki
. Its home base is the Opera
Opera
House on Töölönlahti bay in Töölö , which opened in 1993, and is state-owned through Senate Properties . The Opera
Opera
House features two auditoriums, the main auditorium with 1,350, seats and a smaller studio auditorium with 300-500 seats. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Personnel * 3 Productions * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYRegular opera performances began in Finland in 1873 with the founding of the Finnish Opera
Opera
by Kaarlo Bergbom . Prior to that, opera had been performed in Finland sporadically by touring companies, and on occasion by Finnish amateurs, the first such production being The Barber of Seville in 1849
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Alexander II Of Russia
ALEXANDER II (Russian : Алекса́ндр II Никола́евич, tr. Aleksandr II Nikolayevich; IPA: ; 29 April 1818 in Moscow
Moscow
– 13 March 1881 in Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
) was the Emperor
Emperor
of Russia from 2 March 1855 until his assassination on 13 March 1881. He was also the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Finland . Alexander's most significant reform as emperor was emancipation of Russia\'s serfs in 1861, for which he is known as ALEXANDER THE LIBERATOR (Russian : Алекса́ндр Освободи́тель, tr. Aleksandr Osvoboditel; IPA: ). The tsar was responsible for other reforms, including reorganizing the judicial system, setting up elected local judges, abolishing corporal punishment, promoting local self-government through the zemstvo system, imposing universal military service, ending some privileges of the nobility, and promoting university education
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Tsar
TSAR /zɑːr/ or /tsɑːr/ ( Old Church Slavonic : ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled TZAR, CSAR, or CZAR, is a title used to designate certain Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers. As a system of government in the Tsardom of Russia
Tsardom of Russia
and the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
, it is known as Tsarist autocracy , or Tsarism. The term is derived from the Latin
Latin
word Caesar , which was intended to mean " Emperor
Emperor
" in the European medieval sense of the term—a ruler with the same rank as a Roman emperor, holding it by the approval of another emperor or a supreme ecclesiastical official (the Pope
Pope
or the Ecumenical Patriarch )—but was usually considered by western Europeans to be equivalent to king, or to be somewhat in between a royal and imperial rank
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Aida (opera)
AIDA (Italian: ) is an opera in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi
Giuseppe Verdi
to an Italian libretto by Antonio Ghislanzoni . Set in Egypt, it was commissioned by and first performed at Cairo
Cairo
's Khedivial Opera
Opera
House on 24 December 1871; Giovanni Bottesini conducted after Verdi himself withdrew. Today the work holds a central place in the operatic canon, receiving performances every year around the world; at New York's Metropolitan Opera
Opera
alone, Aida
Aida
has been sung more than 1,100 times since 1886. Ghislanzoni's scheme follows a scenario often attributed to the French Egyptologist Auguste Mariette
Auguste Mariette
, but Verdi biographer Mary Jane Phillips-Matz argues that the source is actually Temistocle Solera
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Finnish Language
FINNISH ( suomi (help ·info ), or suomen kieli ) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland
Finland
and by ethnic Finns
Finns
outside Finland. It is one of the two official languages of Finland
Finland
and an official minority language in Sweden
Sweden
. In Sweden, both standard Finnish and Meänkieli , a Finnish dialect, are spoken. The Kven language , a dialect of Finnish, is spoken in Northern Norway
Norway
by a minority group of Finnish descent. Finnish is the eponymous member of the Finnic language family and is typologically between fusional and agglutinative languages . It modifies and inflects nouns , adjectives , pronouns , numerals and verbs , depending on their roles in the sentence
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Tauno Pylkkänen
TAUNO PYLKKäNEN (March 22, 1918, Helsinki - March 13, 1980, Helsinki) was a Finnish composer. Pylkkänen was a student of Leevi Madetoja and Selim Palmgren , and studied at the Helsinki Conservatory , then in Paris, Rome, and Vienna. He made his breakthrough as a composer with the opera Mare ja hänen poikansa (1943) after Aino Kallas , who was premiered in the Finnish Opera in 1945. It was followed by ten more operas, including the internationally successful Sudenmorsian (1950). From 1960 to 1967 he was artistic director of the Finnish Opera
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Michael Güttler
MICHAEL GüTTLER is a German operatic conductor . REFERENCES * ^ " Michael Güttler to conduct Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg at Glyndebourne Festival 2016". Glyndebourne. March 23, 2016. Retrieved June 12, 2016. This German biographical article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Einojuhani Rautavaara
EINOJUHANI RAUTAVAARA (Finnish pronunciation: ( listen ); 9 October 1928 – 27 July 2016) was a Finnish composer of classical music . He is among the most notable Finnish composers since Jean Sibelius (1865–1957). Rautavaara wrote a great number of works spanning various styles. These include eight symphonies , nine operas and twelve concertos , as well as numerous vocal and chamber works. Having written early works using 12-tone serial techniques, his later music may be described as neo-romantic and mystical. His major works include Cantus Arcticus and Symphony
Symphony
No. 7 " Angel
Angel
of Light" . CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Music * 2.1 1960s * 2.2 1970s * 2.3 1980s and 1990s * 2.4 2000s * 3 Works * 4 Discography * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links LIFERautavaara was born in Helsinki
Helsinki
in 1928
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Soprano
A SOPRANO is a type of classical female singing voice and has the highest vocal range of all voice types . The soprano's vocal range (using scientific pitch notation ) is from approximately middle C (C4) = 261 Hz to "high A" (A5) =880 Hz in choral music , or to "soprano C" (C6, two octaves above middle C) =1046 Hz or higher in operatic music. In four-part chorale style harmony, the soprano takes the highest part, which usually encompasses the melody . The soprano voice type is generally divided into the coloratura , soubrette , lyric , spinto , and dramatic soprano. The lyric soprano is the most common female singing voice
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Giuseppe Verdi
GIUSEPPE FORTUNINO FRANCESCO VERDI (Italian: ; 9 or 10 October 1813 – 27 January 1901) was an Italian opera composer. Verdi was born near Busseto to a provincial family of moderate means, and developed a musical education with the help of a local patron. Verdi came to dominate the Italian opera scene after the era of Bellini , Donizetti , and Rossini , whose works significantly influenced him, becoming one of the pre-eminent opera composers in history. In his early operas, Verdi demonstrated a sympathy with the Risorgimento movement which sought the unification of Italy. He also participated briefly as an elected politician. The chorus "Va, pensiero " from his early opera Nabucco (1842), and similar choruses in later operas, were much in the spirit of the unification movement, and the composer himself became esteemed as a representative of these ideals
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Opera House
An OPERA HOUSE is a theatre building used for opera performances that consists of a stage , an orchestra pit , audience seating, and backstage facilities for costumes and set building. While some venues are constructed specifically for operas, other opera houses are part of larger performing arts centers
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Finnish National Theatre
The FINNISH NATIONAL THEATRE (Finnish : Suomen Kansallisteatteri), established in 1872, is a theatre located in central Helsinki
Helsinki
on the northern side of the Helsinki
Helsinki
Central Railway Station Square . The Finnish National Theatre
Finnish National Theatre
is the oldest Finnish speaking professional theatre in Finland. It was known as the FINNISH THEATRE until 1902, when it was renamed the Finnish National Theatre. For the first thirty years of its existence, the theatre functioned primarily as a touring company
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Helsinki
HELSINKI (/hɛlˈsɪŋki/ ; Finnish pronunciation: ( listen ); Swedish : Helsingfors; Swedish pronunciation: ( listen )) is the capital and largest city of Finland
Finland
. It is in the region of Uusimaa
Uusimaa
, in southern Finland, on the shore of the Gulf of Finland
Finland
. Helsinki has a population of 629,512, an urban population of 1,231,595, and a metropolitan population of over 1.4 million, making it the most populous municipality and urban area in Finland. Helsinki
Helsinki
is located some 80 kilometres (50 mi) north of Tallinn
Tallinn
, Estonia
Estonia
, 400 km (250 mi) east of Stockholm
Stockholm
, Sweden
Sweden
, and 390 km (240 mi) west of Saint Petersburg , Russia
Russia

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Kaarlo Bergbom
KAARLO BERGBOM (2 October 1843, Viipuri – 17 January 1906) was a Finnish theatre director. He was the founder of the Finnish National Theatre , the first Finnish language
Finnish language
theatre company. Though he wrote very little as a playwright, he was responsible for introducing a number of important Finnish dramatists, particularly Minna Canth
Minna Canth
, and Finnish translations of William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
and other foreign writers. Bergbom also founded the magazine Kirjallinen Kuukausilehti. He was the brother of senator Ossian Wuorenheimo and Emilie Bergbom . He is buried in the Hietaniemi Cemetery
Hietaniemi Cemetery
in Helsinki. NOTES * ^ "Hietaniemen hautausmaa – merkittäviä vainajia" (PDF). Helsingin seurakuntayhtymä
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