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Finnish National Opera
The FINNISH NATIONAL OPERA (Finnish : _Suomen Kansallisooppera_; Swedish : _Finlands Nationalopera_) is a Finnish opera company based in Helsinki
Helsinki
. Its home base is the Opera
Opera
House on Töölönlahti bay in Töölö , which opened in 1993, and is state-owned through Senate Properties . The Opera
Opera
House features two auditoriums, the main auditorium with 1,350, seats and a smaller studio auditorium with 300-500 seats. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Personnel * 3 Productions * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYRegular opera performances began in Finland in 1873 with the founding of the Finnish Opera
Opera
by Kaarlo Bergbom . Prior to that, opera had been performed in Finland sporadically by touring companies, and on occasion by Finnish amateurs, the first such production being _The Barber of Seville _ in 1849. However, the Finnish Opera
Opera
company soon plunged into a financial crisis and folded in 1879. During its six year's of operation, Bergbom’s opera company had given 450 performances of a total of 26 operas, and the company had managed to demonstrate that opera can be sung in Finnish too
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Finnish Language
FINNISH (_ suomi_ (help ·info ), or _suomen kieli_ ) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland. It is one of the two official languages of Finland and an official minority language in Sweden . In Sweden, both standard Finnish and Meänkieli , a Finnish dialect, are spoken. The Kven language , a dialect of Finnish, is spoken in Northern Norway by a minority group of Finnish descent. Finnish is the eponymous member of the Finnic language family and is typologically between fusional and agglutinative languages . It modifies and inflects nouns , adjectives , pronouns , numerals and verbs , depending on their roles in the sentence
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Swedish Language
SWEDISH (_ svenska_ (help ·info ) ) is a North Germanic language, spoken natively by more than 9 million people predominantly in Sweden (as sole official language) and parts of Finland , where it has equal legal standing with Finnish . It is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and Danish . Swedish is a descendant of Old Norse , the common language of the Germanic peoples living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era . It is currently the largest of the North Germanic languages by number of speakers. Standard Swedish , spoken by most Swedes , is the national language that evolved from the Central Swedish dialects in the 19th century and was well established by the beginning of the 20th century. While distinct regional varieties descended from the older rural dialects still exist, the spoken and written language is uniform and standardized. The standard word order is, as in most Germanic languages, V2 , which means that the finite verb (V) appears in second position (2) of a declarative main clause. Swedish morphology is similar to English; that is, words have comparatively few inflections . There are two genders , no grammatical cases (except for pronouns), and a distinction between plural and singular . Older analyses posit the cases nominative and genitive and there are some remains of distinct accusative and dative forms as well
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Opera House
An OPERA HOUSE is a theatre building used for opera performances that consists of a stage , an orchestra pit , audience seating, and backstage facilities for costumes and set building. While some venues are constructed specifically for operas, other opera houses are part of larger performing arts centers. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Features * 2.1 Acoustic enhancement with loudspeakers * 3 Other uses of the term * 4 Gallery * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORY Opera- Theatre
Theatre
of Metz
Metz
, built by benefactor Duke de Belle-Isle during the 18th century, it is the oldest opera house working in France The first public opera house came into existence in 1637 as the Teatro San Cassiano in Venice
Venice
, Italy, in a country where opera has been popular through the centuries among ordinary people as well as wealthy patrons; it still has a large number of working opera houses. In contrast, there was no opera house in London
London
when Henry Purcell
Henry Purcell
was composing and the first opera house in Germany
Germany
was built in Hamburg
Hamburg
in 1678. Early United States opera houses served a variety of functions in towns and cities, hosting community dances, fairs, plays, and vaudeville shows as well as operas and other musical events
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Helsinki
HELSINKI (/hɛlˈsɪŋki/ ; Finnish pronunciation: (_ listen ); Swedish : Helsingfors_; Swedish pronunciation: ( listen )) is the capital and largest city of Finland . It is in the region of Uusimaa , in southern Finland, on the shore of the Gulf of Finland . Helsinki has a population of 629,512, an urban population of 1,231,595, and a metropolitan population of over 1.4 million, making it the most populous municipality and urban area in Finland. Helsinki is located some 80 kilometres (50 mi) north of Tallinn , Estonia , 400 km (250 mi) east of Stockholm , Sweden , and 390 km (240 mi) west of Saint Petersburg , Russia . Helsinki has close historical connections with these three cities. The Helsinki metropolitan area includes the urban core of Helsinki, Espoo , Vantaa , Kauniainen , and surrounding commuter towns . It is the world's northernmost metro area of over one million people, and the city is the northernmost capital of an EU member state . The Helsinki metropolitan area is the third largest metropolitan area in the Nordic countries after Stockholm and Copenhagen , and the City of Helsinki being the third largest after Stockholm and Oslo
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Töölönlahti
TööLö (Swedish : Tölö) is the collective name for the neighbourhoods Etu- Töölö (Swedish : Främre Tölö; lit. Front Töölö) and Taka- Töölö (Swedish : Bortre Tölö; lit. Rear Töölö) in Helsinki
Helsinki
, Finland . The neighbourhoods are located next to the city centre, occupying the western side of the Helsinki Peninsula. Etu-Töölö, the southern neighbourhood, borders Kamppi
Kamppi
and is the location of the Finnish Parliament House . Taka-Töölö, the northern neighbourhood, borders Meilahti
Meilahti
and Laakso . Contrary to popular belief, Töölö is not the official name of any district or neighbourhood in Helsinki. Töölö was built in 1920–1930 when Helsinki
Helsinki
suffered from rapid population growth and needed more housing. It was the site of the first ever town planning competition in Finland in 1898-1900
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Töölö
TööLö (Swedish : Tölö) is the collective name for the neighbourhoods Etu- Töölö
Töölö
(Swedish : Främre Tölö; lit. Front Töölö) and Taka- Töölö
Töölö
(Swedish : Bortre Tölö; lit. Rear Töölö) in Helsinki
Helsinki
, Finland . The neighbourhoods are located next to the city centre, occupying the western side of the Helsinki Peninsula. Etu-Töölö, the southern neighbourhood, borders Kamppi
Kamppi
and is the location of the Finnish Parliament House . Taka-Töölö, the northern neighbourhood, borders Meilahti
Meilahti
and Laakso . Contrary to popular belief, Töölö
Töölö
is not the official name of any district or neighbourhood in Helsinki. Töölö
Töölö
was built in 1920–1930 when Helsinki
Helsinki
suffered from rapid population growth and needed more housing. It was the site of the first ever town planning competition in Finland in 1898-1900
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Senate Properties
SENATE PROPERTIES (in Finnish : SENAATTI-KIINTEISTöT, in Swedish : SENATFASTIGHETER) is a Finnish unincorporated state-owned enterprise , which manages a major part of the real estate assets owned by the Republic of Finland . Declaration made 3 September 1811 by Tsar Alexander I of Russia to establish the Office of the Intendant. Handwriting in Swedish . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Legal status * 3 Finance * 4 Development projects * 5 General information * 6 Gallery of buildings * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 External links HISTORY Senate Properties
Senate Properties
descends from the Office of the Intendant (corresponding names in Finnish and Swedish are listed in the table below), established 3 September 1811, the goal of which was to supervise the planning of government buildings. In 1865, the name was changed to the Board of Public Buildings; and in 1936 to the National Board of Public Building. In 1995, the National Board of Public Building — which was a government agency managing state property — was dissolved. Facility management operations were incorporated into Engel kiinteistöpalveluyhtymä Oy, which was fully privatized in 2004, the buyer being ISS A/S . The majority of the state property assets were transferred into the newly formed State Real Property Agency
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Opera
OPERA (Italian: ; English plural: _operas_; Italian plural: _opere_ ) is an art form in which singers and musicians perform a dramatic work combining text (libretto ) and musical score , usually in a theatrical setting . In traditional opera, singers do two types of singing: recitative , a speech-inflected style and arias , a more melodic style, in which notes are sung in a sustained fashion. Opera incorporates many of the elements of spoken theatre , such as acting , scenery , and costumes and sometimes includes dance . The performance is typically given in an opera house , accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble , which since the early 19th century has been led by a conductor . Opera is a key part of the Western classical music tradition. It started in Italy at the end of the 16th century (with Jacopo Peri 's mostly lost _ Dafne _, produced in Florence in 1598) and soon spread through the rest of Europe: Heinrich Schütz in Germany, Jean-Baptiste Lully in France, and Henry Purcell in England all helped to establish their national traditions in the 17th century. In the 18th century, Italian opera continued to dominate most of Europe (except France), attracting foreign composers such as George Frideric Handel
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Kaarlo Bergbom
KAARLO BERGBOM (2 October 1843, Viipuri – 17 January 1906) was a Finnish theatre director. He was the founder of the Finnish National Theatre , the first Finnish language theatre company. Though he wrote very little as a playwright, he was responsible for introducing a number of important Finnish dramatists, particularly Minna Canth , and Finnish translations of William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
and other foreign writers. Bergbom also founded the magazine Kirjallinen Kuukausilehti. He was the brother of senator Ossian Wuorenheimo and Emilie Bergbom . He is buried in the Hietaniemi Cemetery in Helsinki. NOTES * ^ "Hietaniemen hautausmaa – merkittäviä vainajia" (PDF). Helsingin seurakuntayhtymä
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The Barber Of Seville
_THE BARBER OF SEVILLE, OR THE FUTILE PRECAUTION_ (Italian : _IL BARBIERE DI SIVIGLIA, OSSIA L\'INUTILE PRECAUZIONE_ ) is an opera buffa in two acts by Gioachino Rossini with an Italian libretto by Cesare Sterbini . The libretto was based on Pierre Beaumarchais 's French comedy _Le Barbier de Séville _ (1775). The première of Rossini's opera (under the title _Almaviva, o sia L'inutile precauzione_) took place on 20 February 1816 at the Teatro Argentina , Rome. Rossini's _Barber_ has proven to be one of the greatest masterpieces of comedy within music, and has been described as the opera buffa of all "opere buffe". Even after two hundred years, it remains a popular work. CONTENTS * 1 Composition history * 2 Performance history * 3 Roles * 4 Synopsis * 4.1 Act 1 * 4.2 Act 2 * 5 Recordings * 6 References * 7 External links COMPOSITION HISTORYRossini's opera recounts the events of the first of the three plays by French playwright Pierre Beaumarchais that revolve around the clever and enterprising character named Figaro . Mozart 's opera _The Marriage of Figaro ,_ composed 30 years earlier in 1786, is based on the second part of the Beaumarchais trilogy. The first Beaumarchais play was originally conceived as an opéra comique , but was rejected as such by the Comédie-Italienne
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Finnish National Theatre
The FINNISH NATIONAL THEATRE (Finnish : Suomen Kansallisteatteri), established in 1872, is a theatre located in central Helsinki
Helsinki
on the northern side of the Helsinki
Helsinki
Central Railway Station Square . The Finnish National Theatre
Finnish National Theatre
is the oldest Finnish speaking professional theatre in Finland. It was known as the FINNISH THEATRE until 1902, when it was renamed the Finnish National Theatre. For the first thirty years of its existence, the theatre functioned primarily as a touring company. The theatre did not acquire a permanent home until 1902, when a purpose-built structure was erected in the heart of Helsinki, adjacent to the city's main railway station. The building hosting the Finnish National Theatre
Finnish National Theatre
today was completed in 1902 and designed by architect Onni Tarjanne in the National Romantic style , inspired by romantic nationalism . The theatre still operates in these premises today, and over the years the building has expanded from its original size to encompass another three permanent stages. In addition to the Main Stage (Suuri näyttämö), the theatre comprises the Small Stage (Pieni näyttämö) built in 1954 (by architects Heikki Siren and Kaija Siren ), the Willensauna Stage built in 1976, and the Omapohja studio built in 1987
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Soprano
A SOPRANO is a type of classical female singing voice and has the highest vocal range of all voice types . The soprano's vocal range (using scientific pitch notation ) is from approximately middle C (C4) = 261 Hz to "high A" (A5) =880 Hz in choral music , or to "soprano C" (C6, two octaves above middle C) =1046 Hz or higher in operatic music. In four-part chorale style harmony, the soprano takes the highest part, which usually encompasses the melody . The soprano voice type is generally divided into the coloratura , soubrette , lyric , spinto , and dramatic soprano. The lyric soprano is the most common female singing voice. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Voice type * 3 Subtypes and roles in opera * 3.1 Coloratura * 3.2 Soubrette * 3.3 Lyric * 3.4 Spinto * 3.5 Dramatic * 3.6 Other types * 4 In choral music * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links ETYMOLOGYThe word "soprano" comes from the Italian word _sopra_ (which means above), as the soprano is the highest pitch human voice, often given to the leading female roles in operas
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Aino Ackté
AINO ACKTé (originally ACHTE; 23 April 1876 – 8 August 1944) was a Finnish soprano . She was the first international star of the Finnish opera scene after Alma Fohström , and a groundbreaker for the domestic field. Ackté was born in Helsinki
Helsinki
. Her parents were mezzo-soprano Emmy Achté (née Strömer) and the conductor-composer Lorenz Nikolai Achté . Aino Ackté
Aino Ackté
married a doctor, Heikki Renvall, in 1901 and gave birth to a daughter, Glory Leppänen, the same year. Their son, Mies Reenkola, was born in 1908. The young Ackté studied singing under her mother's tutelage until 1894 when she entered the Paris Conservatory, studying under Edmond Duvernoy and Alfred Girodet. Her debut at the Paris Grand Opera was in 1897 in Faust and she was signed on for six years as a result. In 1904 Ackté was engaged by the New York Metropolitan Opera where she remained until 1906. She created the title role of Richard Strauss 's Salome at its local premieres in Leipzig (1907) and London (1910). The Covent Garden premiere was an enormous success and Strauss himself proclaimed Ackté the "one and only Salome". Ackté considered the London performances her real breakthrough. In 1911, Ackté, Oskar Merikanto , and Edvard Fazer founded the Kotimainen Ooppera (renamed in 1914 Finnish Opera, and then in 1956 the Finnish National Opera )
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Aleksanterin Teatteri
ALEXANDER THEATRE (Finnish : ALEKSANTERIN TEATTERI, Swedish : ALEXANDERSTEATERN) is a Finnish theatre in the city of Helsinki
Helsinki
at Bulevardi 23-27, also known as RUSSIAN THEATER. HISTORYIn the summer of 1875, the Governor-General of Russian Finland in 1866–1881, Count Nikolay Adlerberg , who was a frequent theatregoer, received Alexander II of Russia 's permission to build a theatre for Russians living in Helsinki
Helsinki
. The building was designed by the engineer Colonel Pjotr Petrovitš Benard, though probably on the basis of standardized drawings. The auditorium of the theatre was decorated by the Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
architect Jeronim Osuhovsky, and the Finnish artist Severin Falkman decorated the ceiling paintings, which depict twelve cupids, reminding of the Mariinsky Theatre
Mariinsky Theatre
in Saint Petersburg. The theatre technology was designed by Iosif Vorontsov . The theatre was completed in October 1879, and in February 1880 it was named after Russian Tsar Alexander II . The grand opening of the theatre occurred on 30 March 1880 with Charles Gounod 's Faust . In 1918 Finnish National Opera and Ballet moved to the Alexander Theatre and remained in the premises till 1993
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Giuseppe Verdi
GIUSEPPE FORTUNINO FRANCESCO VERDI (Italian: ; 9 or 10 October 1813 – 27 January 1901) was an Italian opera composer. Verdi was born near Busseto to a provincial family of moderate means, and developed a musical education with the help of a local patron. Ve