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Filtered
Filtration
Filtration
is any of various mechanical, physical or biological operations that separate solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by adding a medium through which only the fluid can pass. The fluid that passes through is called the filtrate.[1] In physical filters oversize solids in the fluid are retained and in biological filters particulates are trapped and ingested and metabolites are retained and removed. However, the separation is not complete; solids will be contaminated with some fluid and filtrate will contain fine particles (depending on the pore size, filter thickness and biological activity). Filtration
Filtration
occurs both in nature and in engineered systems; there are biological, geological, and industrial forms
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Perlite
Perlite
Perlite
is an amorphous volcanic glass that has a relatively high water content, typically formed by the hydration of obsidian. It occurs naturally and has the unusual property of greatly expanding when heated sufficiently. It is an industrial mineral and a commercial product useful for its low density after processing.Contents1 Properties 2 Typical analysis of perlite 3 Production and uses3.1 Substitutes4 Applications 5 Occupational safety5.1 United States6 See also 7 References 8 External linksProperties[edit] Perlite
Perlite
boulders with fireweed in foreground Perlite
Perlite
softens when it reaches temperatures of 850–900 °C (1,560–1,650 °F). Water
Water
trapped in the structure of the material vaporises and escapes, and this causes the expansion of the material to 7–16 times its original volume
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Belt Filter
The belt filter (sometimes called a belt press filter, or belt filter press) is an industrial machine, used for solid/liquid separation processes, particularly the dewatering of sludges in the chemical industry, mining and water treatment. Belt filter presses are also used in the production of apple juice, cider and winemaking.[1] The process of filtration is primarily obtained by passing a pair of filtering cloths and belts through a system of rollers. The system takes a sludge or slurry as a feed, and separates it into a filtrate and a solid cake.Contents1 Applications 2 Advantages/limitations 3 Designs available 4 Process characteristics 5 Heuristics of the design 6 Necessary post-treatment systems 7 Recent developments 8 See also 9 ReferencesApplications[edit] The belt filter is mainly used for dewatering[2] of sludge and slurry and juice extraction from apples, pears and other fruits, as well as grapes for winemaking, etc
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Ion Exchange Resin
An ion-exchange resin or ion-exchange polymer is a resin or polymer that acts as a medium for ion exchange. It is an insoluble matrix (or support structure) normally in the form of small (0.25–0.5 mm radius) microbeads, usually white or yellowish, fabricated from an organic polymer substrate. The beads are typically porous, providing a large surface area on and inside them. The trapping of ions occurs along with the accompanying release of other ions, and thus the process is called ion exchange. There are multiple types of ion-exchange resin. Most commercial resins are made of polystyrene sulfonate.[1] Ion-exchange resin
Ion-exchange resin
beadsIon-exchange resins are widely used in different separation, purification, and decontamination processes. The most common examples are water softening and water purification
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Magnetic
Magnetism
Magnetism
is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields. Electric currents and the magnetic moments of elementary particles give rise to a magnetic field, which acts on other currents and magnetic moments. The most familiar effects occur in ferromagnetic materials, which are strongly attracted by magnetic fields and can be magnetized to become permanent magnets, producing magnetic fields themselves. Only a few substances are ferromagnetic; the most common ones are iron, nickel and cobalt and their alloys. The prefix ferro- refers to iron, because permanent magnetism was first observed in lodestone, a form of natural iron ore called magnetite, Fe3O4. Although ferromagnetism is responsible for most of the effects of magnetism encountered in everyday life, all other materials are influenced to some extent by a magnetic field, by several other types of magnetism
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Lubrication
Lubrication
Lubrication
is the process or technique of using a lubricant to reduce friction and/or wear in a contact between two surfaces. The study of lubrication is a discipline in the field of tribology. Lubricants can be solids (such as Molybdenum disulfide
Molybdenum disulfide
MoS2)[1], solid/liquid dispersions (such as grease), liquids (such as oil or water), liquid-liquid dispersions[citation needed] or gases. Fluid-lubricated systems are designed so that the applied load is partially or completely carried by hydrodynamic or hydrostatic pressure, which reduces solid body interactions (and consequently friction and wear). Depending on the degree of surface separation, different lubrication regimes can be distinguished. Adequate lubrication allows smooth, continuous operation of machine elements, reduces the rate of wear, and prevents excessive stresses or seizures at bearings
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Fuel Oils
Fuel oil
Fuel oil
(also known as heavy oil, marine fuel or furnace oil) is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation, either as a distillate or a residue. In general terms, fuel oil is any liquid fuel that is burned in a furnace or boiler for the generation of heat or used in an engine for the generation of power, except oils having a flash point of approximately 42 °C (108 °F) and oils burned in cotton or wool-wick burners. Fuel oil
Fuel oil
is made of long hydrocarbon chains, particularly alkanes, cycloalkanes and aromatics. The term fuel oil is also used in a stricter sense to refer only to the heaviest commercial fuel that can be obtained from crude oil, i.e., heavier than gasoline and naphtha
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Separation Of Mixtures
A separation process is a method to achieve any phenomenon that converts a mixture of chemical substance into two or more distinct product mixtures, which may be referred to as mixture,[1] at least one of which is enriched in one or more of the mixture's constituents. In some cases, a separation may fully divide the mixture into its pure constituents. Separations differ in chemical properties or physical properties such as size, shape, mass, density, or chemical affinity, between the constituents of a mixture. They are often classified according to the particular differences they use to achieve separation. Usually there is only physical movement and no substantial chemical modification. If no single difference can be used to accomplish a desired separation, multiple operations will often be performed in combination to achieve the desired end. With a few exceptions, elements or compounds are naturally found in an impure state
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Fluid
In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress. Fluids are a subset of the phases of matter and include liquids, gases, plasmas, and to some extent, plastic solids. Fluids are substances that have zero shear modulus, or, in simpler terms, a fluid is a substance which cannot resist any shear force applied to it. Although the term "fluid" includes both the liquid and gas phases, in common usage, "fluid" is often used as a synonym for "liquid", with no implication that gas could also be present. For example, "brake fluid" is hydraulic oil and will not perform its required incompressible function if there is gas in it. This colloquial usage of the term is also common in medicine and in nutrition ("take plenty of fluids"). Liquids form a free surface (that is, a surface not created by the container) while gases do not. The distinction between solids and fluid is not entirely obvious
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Suction Filtration
Vacuum filtration is a fast filtration technique used to separate solids from liquids.Contents1 Principle1.1 Diagram annotations2 Uses 3 Practical aspects 4 SourcesPrinciple[edit]Diagram of the vacuum filtration apparatusBy flowing through the aspirator, water will suck out the air contained in the vacuum flask and the Büchner flask. There is therefore a difference in pressure between the exterior and the interior of the flasks : the contents of the Büchner funnel are sucked towards the vacuum flask. The filter, which is placed at the bottom of the Büchner funnel, separates the solids from the liquids. The solid residue, which remains at the top of the Büchner funnel, is therefore recovered more efficiently : it is much drier than it would be with a simple filtration. The rubber conical seal ensures the apparatus is hermetically closed, preventing the passage of air between the Büchner funnel and the vacuum flask
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Büchner Funnel
A Büchner funnel is a piece of laboratory equipment used in filtration.[1] It is traditionally made of porcelain, but glass and plastic funnels are also available. On top of the funnel-shaped part there is a cylinder with a fritted glass disc/perforated plate separating it from the funnel. The Hirsch funnel has a similar design; it is used similarly, but for smaller quantities of material. The main difference is that the plate of a Hirsch funnel is much smaller, and the walls of the funnel angle outward instead of being vertical. A funnel with a fritted glass disc can be used immediately. For a funnel with a perforated plate, filtration material in the form of filter paper is placed on the plate, and the filter paper is moistened with a liquid to prevent initial leakage
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Büchner Flask
A Büchner flask, also known as a vacuum flask,[1] filter flask, suction flask, side-arm flask or Kitasato flask, is a thick-walled Erlenmeyer flask with a short glass tube and hose barb protruding about an inch from its neck. The short tube and hose barb effectively act as an adapter over which the end of a thick-walled flexible hose (tubing) can be fitted to form a connection to the flask. The other end of the hose can be connected to source of vacuum such as an aspirator, vacuum pump, or house vacuum. Preferably this is done through a trap (see below), which is designed to prevent the sucking back of water from the aspirator into the Büchner flask. The thick wall of the Büchner flask provides it the strength to withstand the pressure difference while holding a vacuum inside. It is primarily used together with a Büchner funnel fitted through a drilled rubber bung or an elastomer adapter (a Büchner ring) at the neck on top of the flask for filtration of samples
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Filter Paper
Filter paper
Filter paper
is a semi-permeable paper barrier placed perpendicular to a liquid or air flow. It is used to separate fine substances from liquids or air.Contents1 Properties 2 Manufacture 3 Types3.1 Air filters 3.2 Coffee filter 3.3 Fuel filters4 Laboratory
Laboratory
filters4.1 Qualitative filter paper4.1.1 Grade 1 4.1.2 Grade 2 4.1.3 Grade 3 4.1.4 Grade 4 4.1.5 Grade 602 h4.2 Quantitative Filter Paper 4.3 Chromatography Papers 4.4 Extraction Thimbles 4.5 Glass Fiber Filters 4.6 Quartz Fiber Filter 4.7 PTFE filter 4.8 Oil filters 4.9 Tea bags5 See also 6 ReferencesProperties[edit] Filter paper
Filter paper
has various properties
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Rotary Vacuum-drum Filter
Rotary vacuum filter drum consists of a drum rotating in a tub of liquid to be filtered. The technique is well suited to slurries, and liquids with a high solid content, which could clog other forms of filter. The drum is pre-coated with a filter aid, typically of diatomaceous earth (DE) or Perlite. After pre-coat has been applied, the liquid to be filtered is sent to the tub below the drum. The drum rotates through the liquid and the vacuum sucks liquid and solids onto the drum pre-coat surface, the liquid portion is "sucked" by the vacuum through the filter media to the internal portion of the drum, and the filtrate pumped away. The solids adhere to the outside of the drum, which then passes a knife, cutting off the solids and a small portion of the filter media to reveal a fresh media surface that will enter the liquid as the drum rotates
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Surface Charge
Surface charge
Surface charge
is the electrical potential difference between the inner and outer surface of the dispersed phase in a colloid. There are many different processes which can lead to a surface being charged, including adsorption of ions, protonation/deprotonation, and the application of an external electric field. Surface charge
Surface charge
causes a particle to emit an electric field, which causes particle repulsion and attraction, affecting many colloidal properties.[1] Surface charge
Surface charge
practically always appears on the particle surface when it is placed into a fluid. Most fluids contain ions, positive (cations) and negative (anions). These ions interact with the object surface. This interaction might lead to the adsorption of some of them onto the surface
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Cross-flow Filtration
In chemical engineering, biochemical engineering and protein purification, crossflow filtration[1] (also known as tangential flow filtration[2]) is a type of filtration (a particular unit operation). Crossflow filtration is different from dead-end filtration in which the feed is passed through a membrane or bed, the solids being trapped in the filter and the filtrate being released at the other end. Cross-flow filtration
Cross-flow filtration
gets its name because the majority of the feed flow travels tangentially across the surface of the filter, rather than into the filter.[1] The principal advantage of this is that the filter cake (which can blind the filter) is substantially washed away during the filtration process, increasing the length of time that a filter unit can be operational
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