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Filtered
FILTRATION is any of various mechanical, physical or biological operations that separate solids from fluids (liquids or gases ) by adding a medium through which only the fluid can pass. The fluid that passes through is called the FILTRATE. In physical filters oversize solids in the fluid are retained and in biological filters particulates are trapped and ingested and metabolites are retained and removed. However, the separation is not complete; solids will be contaminated with some fluid and filtrate will contain fine particles (depending on the pore size, filter thickness and biological activity). Filtration
Filtration
occurs both in nature and in engineered systems; there are biological , geological , and industrial forms
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Suction Filtration
VACUUM FILTRATION is a fast filtration technique used to separate solids from liquids . CONTENTS* 1 Principle * 1.1 Diagram annotations * 2 Uses * 3 Practical aspects * 4 Sources PRINCIPLE Diagram of the vacuum filtration apparatus By flowing through the aspirator , water will suck out the air contained in the vacuum flask and the Büchner flask . There is therefore a difference in pressure between the exterior and the interior of the flasks : the contents of the Büchner funnel are sucked towards the vacuum flask. The filter , which is placed at the bottom of the Büchner funnel, separates the solids from the liquids. The solid residue , which remains at the top of the Büchner funnel, is therefore recovered more efficiently : it is much drier than it would be with a simple filtration. The rubber conical seal ensures the apparatus is hermetically closed, preventing the passage of air between the Büchner funnel and the vacuum flask
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Fluid
In physics, a FLUID is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress . Fluids are a subset of the phases of matter and include liquids , gases, plasmas , and to some extent, plastic solids . Fluids are substances that have zero shear modulus , or, in simpler terms, a fluid is a substance which cannot resist any shear force applied to it. Although the term "fluid" includes both the liquid and gas phases, in common usage, "fluid" is often used as a synonym for "liquid", with no implication that gas could also be present. For example, "brake fluid " is hydraulic oil and will not perform its required incompressible function if there is gas in it. This colloquial usage of the term is also common in medicine and in nutrition ("take plenty of fluids"). Liquids form a free surface (that is, a surface not created by the container) while gases do not. The distinction between solids and fluid is not entirely obvious
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Büchner Funnel
A BüCHNER FUNNEL is a piece of laboratory equipment used in filtration . It is traditionally made of porcelain , but glass and plastic funnels are also available. On top of the funnel-shaped part there is a cylinder with a fritted glass disc/perforated plate separating it from the funnel. The HIRSCH FUNNEL has a similar design; it is used similarly, but for smaller quantities of material. The main difference is that the plate of a Hirsch funnel is much smaller, and the walls of the funnel angle outward instead of being vertical. A funnel with a fritted glass disc can be used immediately. For a funnel with a perforated plate, filtration material in the form of filter paper is placed on the plate, and the filter paper is moistened with a liquid to prevent initial leakage. The liquid to be filtered is poured into the cylinder and drawn through the perforated plate/fritted glass disc by vacuum suction
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Büchner Flask
A BüCHNER FLASK, also known as a VACUUM FLASK, filter flask, suction flask, side-arm flask or KITASATO FLASK, is a thick-walled Erlenmeyer flask with a short glass tube and hose barb protruding about an inch from its neck. The short tube and hose barb effectively act as an adapter over which the end of a thick-walled flexible hose (tubing) can be fitted to form a connection to the flask. The other end of the hose can be connected to source of vacuum such as an aspirator , vacuum pump , or house vacuum. Preferably this is done through a trap (see below), which is designed to prevent the sucking back of water from the aspirator into the Büchner flask. The thick wall of the Büchner flask provides it the strength to withstand the pressure difference while holding a vacuum inside. It is primarily used together with a Büchner funnel fitted through a drilled rubber bung or an elastomer adapter (a BüCHNER RING) at the neck on top of the flask for filtration of samples
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Filter Paper
FILTER PAPER is a semi-permeable paper barrier placed perpendicular to a liquid or air flow. It is used to separate fine substances from liquids or air. CONTENTS * 1 Properties * 2 Manufacture * 3 Types * 3.1 Air filters * 3.2 Coffee filter * 3.3 Fuel filters * 4 Laboratory
Laboratory
filters * 4.1 Qualitative filter paper * 4.1.1 Grade 1 * 4.1.2 Grade 2 * 4.1.3 Grade 3 * 4.1.4 Grade 4 * 4.1.5 Grade 602 h * 4.2 Quantitative Filter Paper
Paper
* 4.3 Chromatography Papers * 4.4 Extraction Thimbles * 4.5 Glass Fiber Filters * 4.6 Quartz Fiber Filter * 4.7 PTFE filter * 4.8 Oil filters * 4.9 Tea bags * 5 See also * 6 References PROPERTIES Filter paper
Filter paper
comes in various porosities and grades depending on the applications it is meant for
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Separation Of Mixtures
A SEPARATION PROCESS is a method to achieve any phenomenon that converts a mixture of chemical substance into two or more distinct product mixtures, which may be referred to as mixture, at least one of which is enriched in one or more of the mixture's constituents. In some cases, a separation may fully divide the mixture into its pure constituents. Separations differ in chemical properties or physical properties such as size, shape, mass, density, or chemical affinity, between the constituents of a mixture. They are often classified according to the particular differences they use to achieve separation. Usually there is only physical movement and no substantial chemical modification. If no single difference can be used to accomplish a desired separation, multiple operations will often be performed in combination to achieve the desired end. With a few exceptions, elements or compounds are naturally found in an impure state
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Fuel Oils
FUEL OIL (also known as HEAVY OIL, MARINE FUEL or FURNACE OIL) is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation , either as a distillate or a residue. In general terms, fuel oil is any liquid fuel that is burned in a furnace or boiler for the generation of heat or used in an engine for the generation of power, except oils having a flash point of approximately 42 °C (108 °F) and oils burned in cotton or wool-wick burners. Fuel oil is made of long hydrocarbon chains, particularly alkanes , cycloalkanes and aromatics . The term fuel oil is also used in a stricter sense to refer only to the heaviest commercial fuel that can be obtained from crude oil , i.e., heavier than gasoline and naphtha
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Activated Carbon
ACTIVATED CARBON, also called ACTIVATED CHARCOAL, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions . Activated is sometimes substituted with active. Due to its high degree of microporosity, just one gram of activated carbon has a surface area in excess of 3,000 m2 (32,000 sq ft), as determined by gas adsorption . An activation level sufficient for useful application may be attained solely from high surface area; however, further chemical treatment often enhances adsorption properties. Activated carbon
Activated carbon
is usually derived from charcoal and is sometimes utilized as biochar . Those derived from coal and coke are referred as ACTIVATED COAL and ACTIVATED COKE respectively
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Ion Exchange Resin
An ION-EXCHANGE RESIN or ION-EXCHANGE POLYMER is a resin or polymer that acts as a medium for ion exchange . It is an insoluble matrix (or support structure) normally in the form of small (0.25–0.5 mm radius) microbeads , usually white or yellowish, fabricated from an organic polymer substrate. The beads are typically porous , providing a large surface area on and inside them. The trapping of ions occurs along with the accompanying release of other ions, and thus the process is called ion exchange. There are multiple types of ion-exchange resin. Most commercial resins are made of polystyrene sulfonate . Ion-exchange resin beads Ion-exchange resins are widely used in different separation , purification, and decontamination processes. The most common examples are water softening and water purification
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Magnetic
MAGNETISM is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields . Electric currents and the magnetic moments of elementary particles give rise to a magnetic field, which acts on other currents and magnetic moments. The most familiar effects occur in ferromagnetic materials, which are strongly attracted by magnetic fields and can be magnetized to become permanent magnets , producing magnetic fields themselves. Only a few substances are ferromagnetic; the most common ones are iron , nickel and cobalt and their alloys. The prefix ferro- refers to iron , because permanent magnetism was first observed in lodestone , a form of natural iron ore called magnetite , Fe3O4. Although ferromagnetism is responsible for most of the effects of magnetism encountered in everyday life, all other materials are influenced to some extent by a magnetic field, by several other types of magnetism
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Lubrication
LUBRICATION is the process or technique employed to reduce friction between, and wear of one or both, surfaces in proximity and moving relative to each other, by interposing a substance called a lubricant in between them. The lubricant can be a solid, (e.g. Molybdenum disulfide MoS2) a solid/liquid dispersion, a liquid such as oil or water, a liquid-liquid dispersion (a grease ) or a gas. With fluid lubricants the applied load is either carried by pressure generated within the liquid due to the frictional viscous resistance to motion of the lubricating fluid between the surfaces, or by the liquid being pumped under pressure between the surfaces. Lubrication
Lubrication
can also describe the phenomenon where reduction of friction occurs unintentionally, which can be hazardous such as hydroplaning on a road. The science of friction , lubrication and wear is called tribology
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Belt Filter
The BELT FILTER (sometimes called a BELT PRESS FILTER, or BELT FILTER PRESS) is an industrial machine , used for solid/liquid separation processes, particularly the dewatering of sludges in the chemical industry , mining and water treatment . Belt filter presses are also used in the production of apple juice, cider and winemaking. The process of filtration is primarily obtained by passing a pair of filtering cloths and belts through a system of rollers. The system takes a sludge or slurry as a feed, and separates it into a filtrate and a solid cake. CONTENTS * 1 Applications * 2 Advantages/limitations * 3 Designs available * 4 Process characteristics * 5 Heuristics of the design * 6 Necessary post-treatment systems * 7 Recent developments * 8 See also * 9 References APPLICATIONSThe belt filter is mainly used for dewatering of sludge and slurry and juice extraction from apples, pears and other fruits, as well as grapes for winemaking, etc
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Rotary Vacuum-drum Filter
ROTARY VACUUM FILTER DRUM consists of a drum rotating in a tub of liquid to be filtered. The technique is well suited to slurries , and liquids with a high solid content, which could clog other forms of filter. The drum is pre-coated with a filter aid, typically of diatomaceous earth (DE) or Perlite . After pre-coat has been applied, the liquid to be filtered is sent to the tub below the drum. The drum rotates through the liquid and the vacuum sucks liquid and solids onto the drum pre-coat surface, the liquid portion is "sucked" by the vacuum through the filter media to the internal portion of the drum, and the filtrate pumped away. The solids adhere to the outside of the drum, which then passes a knife, cutting off the solids and a small portion of the filter media to reveal a fresh media surface that will enter the liquid as the drum rotates. The knife advances automatically as the surface is removed
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Diatomaceous Earth
DIATOMACEOUS EARTH ( /ˌdaɪ.ətəˌmeɪʃəs ˈɜːrθ/ ), also known as D.E., DIATOMITE, or KIESELGUR/KIESELGUHR, is a naturally occurring, soft, siliceous sedimentary rock that is easily crumbled into a fine white to off-white powder. It has a particle size ranging from less than 3 micrometres to more than 1 millimetre, but typically 10 to 200 micrometres. Depending on the granularity, this powder can have an abrasive feel, similar to pumice powder, and has a low density as a result of its high porosity . The typical chemical composition of oven-dried diatomaceous earth is 80 to 90% silica , with 2 to 4% alumina (attributed mostly to clay minerals ) and 0.5 to 2% iron oxide . Diatomaceous earth
Diatomaceous earth
consists of fossilized remains of diatoms , a type of hard-shelled algae
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Pump
A PUMP is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases ), or sometimes slurries , by mechanical action. Pumps can be classified into three major groups according to the method they use to move the fluid: direct lift, displacement, and gravity pumps. Pumps operate by some mechanism (typically reciprocating or rotary ), and consume energy to perform mechanical work by moving the fluid. Pumps operate via many energy sources, including manual operation, electricity , engines , or wind power , come in many sizes, from microscopic for use in medical applications to large industrial pumps. Mechanical pumps serve in a wide range of applications such as pumping water from wells , aquarium filtering , pond filtering and aeration , in the car industry for water-cooling and fuel injection , in the energy industry for pumping oil and natural gas or for operating cooling towers
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