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Film Industry
The FILM INDUSTRY or MOTION PICTURE INDUSTRY comprises the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking , i.e., film production companies , film studios , cinematography , animation , film production , screenwriting , pre-production , post production , film festivals , distribution ; and actors , film directors and other film crew personnel. Though the expense involved in making films almost immediately led film production to concentrate under the auspices of standing production companies. Advances in affordable film making equipment, and expansion of opportunities to acquire investment capital from outside the film industry itself, have allowed independent film production to evolve. Hollywood is the oldest film industry of the world and the largest in terms of box office gross and number of screens.In terms of viewership Bollywood is the most watched with 3.2 billion viewers mainly in Asia, as compared to Hollywood which has 2.6 billion viewers
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Film Crew
A FILM CREW is a group of people, hired by a production company, for the purpose of producing a film or motion picture . The _crew _ is distinguished from the _cast_ as the _cast_ are understood to be the actors who appear in front of the camera or provide voices for characters in the film. The _crew_ is also separate from the _producers_ as the _producers_ are the ones who own a portion of either the film company or the film's intellectual property rights . A film crew is divided into different departments, each of which specializes in a specific aspect of the production. Film
Film
crew positions have evolved over the years, spurred by technological change, but many traditional jobs date from the early 20th century and are common across jurisdictions and film-making cultures. Motion picture projects have three discrete stages: development, production and distribution. Within the production stage there are also three clearly defined sequential phases — pre-production, principal photography and post-production — and many film crew positions are associated with only one or two of the phases. Distinctions are also made between above-the-line personnel (such as the director, the screenwriter and the producers) who begin their involvement during the project's development stage, and the below-the-line "technical" crew involved only with the production stage
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Filmmaking
FILMMAKING is the process of making a film . Filmmaking involves a number of discrete stages including an initial story , idea , or commission, through screenwriting , casting , shooting, sound recording and reproduction , editing , and screening the finished product before an audience that may result in a film release and exhibition. Filmmaking takes place in many places around the world in a range of economic , social , and political contexts, and using a variety of technologies and cinematic techniques . Typically, it involves a large number of people, and can take from a few months to several years to complete. CONTENTS* 1 Stages of production * 1.1 Development * 1.2 Pre-production * 1.3 Production * 1.4 Post-production * 1.5 Distribution * 2 Independent filmmaking * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links STAGES OF PRODUCTION Film production consists of five major stages: * DEVELOPMENT: The first stage in which the ideas for the film are created, rights to books/plays are bought etc., and the screenplay is written
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Production Company
A PRODUCTION COMPANY or a PRODUCTION HOUSE provides the physical basis for works in the realms of the performing arts , new media art , film , television , radio , and video . CONTENTS * 1 Tasks and functions * 2 Type * 2.1 Book to film unit * 2.1.1 Background * 2.1.2 History * 3 Operation and profit * 4 Staffing, funds, and equipment * 5 Production * 6 Other details * 7 See also * 8 References TASKS AND FUNCTIONSThe production company may be directly responsible for fundraising for the production or may accomplish this through a parent company , partner, or private investor. It handles budgeting, scheduling, scripting, the supply with talent and resources , the organization of staff, the production itself, post-production , distribution , and marketing . Production companies are often either owned or under contract with a media conglomerate , film studio , entertainment company , or Motion Picture Company, who act as the production company's partner or parent company . This has become known as the "studio system". They can also be mainstream , independent (see Lucasfilm ), or completely independent (see Lionsgate ). In the case of television, a production company would serve under a television network . Production companies can work together in co-productions
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Movie Studio
A FILM STUDIO (also known as MOVIE STUDIO or simply STUDIO) is a major entertainment company or motion picture company that has its own privately owned studio facility or facilities that are used to make films , which is handled by the production company . The majority of firms in the entertainment industry have never owned their own studios, but have rented space from other companies. There are also independently owned studio facilities, who have never produced a motion picture of their own because they are not entertainment companies or motion picture companies; they are companies who sell only studio space. The largest film studio in the world is Ramoji Film City
Ramoji Film City
, in Hyderabad
Hyderabad
, India
India
. CONTENTS * 1 Beginnings * 2 The "majors" * 3 The minors * 4 The independents * 5 Typical major film studio components * 6 Film
Film
to television * 7 Today * 8 Independent film
Independent film
and the studios * 9 Notable film studios * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 External links BEGINNINGS The Babelsberg Studio
Studio
near Berlin
Berlin
was the first large-scale film studio in the world and the forerunner to Hollywood
Hollywood
. It still produces global blockbusters every year
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Cinematography
CINEMATOGRAPHY is the science or art of motion-picture photography by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation , either electronically by means of an image sensor , or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as film stock . Typically, a lens is used to repeatedly focus the light reflected from objects into real images on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a questioned exposure , creating multiple images. With an electronic image sensor, this produces an electrical charge at each pixel , which is electronically processed and stored in a video file for subsequent display or processing. The result with photographic emulsion is a series of invisible latent images on the film stock, which are later chemically "developed " into a visible image . The images on the film stock are played back at a rapid speed and projected onto a screen, creating the illusion of motion. Cinematography finds uses in many fields of science and business as well as for entertainment purposes and mass communication
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Animation
ANIMATION is the process of making the illusion of motion and the illusion of change by means of the rapid succession of sequential images that minimally differ from each other. The illusion—as in motion pictures in general—is thought to rely on the phi phenomenon and beta movement , but the exact causes are still unclear. There are some forms of animation that do not feature a rapid succession of sequential images, but these are usually not considered to be "true" or "full" animation. For instance, the physical movement of image parts through simple mechanics in magic lantern slides and the movement of the projector (the magic lantern) in phantasmagoria provided popular moving picture shows. Animators are artists who specialize in the creation of animation. Animation can be recorded with either analogue media, a flip book , motion picture film , video tape, digital media , including formats with animated GIF , Flash animation , and digital video. To display animation, a digital camera , computer, or projector are used along with new technologies that are produced. Animation creation methods include the traditional animation creation method and those involving stop motion animation of two and three-dimensional objects, paper cutouts , puppets and clay figures . Images are displayed in a rapid succession, usually 24, 25, 30, or 60 frames per second
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Film Production
FILMMAKING is the process of making a film . Filmmaking involves a number of discrete stages including an initial story , idea , or commission, through screenwriting , casting , shooting, sound recording and reproduction , editing , and screening the finished product before an audience that may result in a film release and exhibition. Filmmaking takes place in many places around the world in a range of economic , social , and political contexts, and using a variety of technologies and cinematic techniques . Typically, it involves a large number of people, and can take from a few months to several years to complete. CONTENTS* 1 Stages of production * 1.1 Development * 1.2 Pre-production * 1.3 Production * 1.4 Post-production * 1.5 Distribution * 2 Independent filmmaking * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links STAGES OF PRODUCTION Film production consists of five major stages: * DEVELOPMENT: The first stage in which the ideas for the film are created, rights to books/plays are bought etc., and the screenplay is written
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Screenwriting
SCREENWRITING, also called SCRIPTWRITING, is the art and craft of writing scripts for mass media such as feature films , television productions or video games . It is frequently a freelance profession. Screenwriters are responsible for researching the story, developing the narrative, writing the screenplay, and delivering it, in the required format, to development executives. Screenwriters therefore have great influence over the creative direction and emotional impact of the screenplay and, arguably, of the finished film. They either pitch original ideas to producers in the hope that they will be optioned or sold, or screenwriters are commissioned by a producer to create a screenplay from a concept, true story, existing screen work or literary work, such as a novel, poem, play, comic book or short story
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Pre-production
PRE-PRODUCTION is the process of fixing some of the elements involved in a film , play , or other performance . There are three parts in a production: pre-production, production, and post-production. Pre-production ends when the planning ends and the content starts being produced. IN FILM Main article: Filmmaking § Pre-production In filmmaking and video production , pre-production formally begins once a project has been greenlit . At this stage, finalizing preparations for production go into effect. Financing will generally be confirmed and many of the key elements such as principal cast members , director and cinematographer are set. By the end of pre-production, the screenplay is usually finalized and satisfactory to all the financiers and other stakeholders. During pre-production, the script is broken down into individual scenes storyboards and all the locations, props, cast members, costumes, special effects and visual effects are identified. An extremely detailed _schedule_ is produced and arrangements are made for the necessary elements to be available to the film-makers at the appropriate times. Sets are constructed, the crew is hired, financial arrangements are put in place and a start date for the beginning of principal photography is set
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Post Production
POST-PRODUCTION, or POSTPRODUCTION, is part of the process of filmmaking , video production , and photography . It occurs in the making of motion pictures , television programs , radio programs , advertising , audio recordings , photography , and digital art . Post-production includes all stages of production occurring after shooting or recording individual program segments. Traditional (analogue) post-production has mostly been replaced by video editing software that operates on a non-linear editing system (NLE)
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Film Festival
A FILM FESTIVAL is an organised, extended presentation of films in one or more cinemas or screening venues, usually in a single city or region. Increasingly, film festivals show some films outdoors. Films may be of recent date and, depending upon the festival's focus, can include international and domestic releases. Some festivals focus on a specific film-maker or genre (e.g., film noir ) or subject matter (e.g., horror film festivals). A number of film festivals specialise in short films of a defined maximum length. Film festivals are typically annual events. Some film historians, including Jerry Beck, do not consider film festivals official releases of film. The best-known film festivals are the Cannes Film Festival , the Venice Film Festival , the Toronto International Film Festival , Sundance Film Festival , and the Berlin International Film Festival , the latter being the largest film festival worldwide, based on attendance. The Venice Film Festival is the oldest major festival. The Melbourne International Film Festival is the largest film festival in the Southern Hemisphere and one of the oldest in the world. The San Sebastián International Film Festival is one of the most important and oldest film festivals in Europe, having been host to the world premiere of North by Northwest as well as the first screening of Star Wars in Europe
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Distribution (business)
DISTRIBUTION (or PLACE) is one of the four elements of the marketing mix . Distribution is the process of making a product or service available for the consumer or business user that needs it. This can be done directly by the producer or service provider, or using indirect channels with intermediaries . The other three parts of the marketing mix are product , pricing , and promotion . CONTENTS * 1 Distribution strategies * 2 Channels and intermediaries * 3 Channel design * 4 Channel mix * 5 Managing channels * 5.1 Channel motivation * 5.2 Channel conflict * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links DISTRIBUTION STRATEGIESPrior to designing a distribution system, the planner needs to determine what the distribution channel is to achieve in broad terms. The overall approach to distributing products or services depends on a number of factors including the type of product, especially perishability; the market served; the geographic scope of operations and the firm's overall mission and vision. The process of setting out a broad statement of the aims and objectives of a distribution channel is a strategic level decision
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Actor
An ACTOR (often ACTRESS for females; see terminology ) is a person who portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre , or in modern mediums such as film , radio , and television . The analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής (_hupokritḗs_), literally "one who answers". The actor's interpretation of their role pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs even when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms of experimental performance art , or, more commonly; to act, is to create, a character in performance. Formerly, in some societies, only men could become actors, and women's roles were generally played by men or boys. When used for the stage, women occasionally played the roles of prepubescent boys
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Film Director
A FILM DIRECTOR is a person who directs the making of a film . Generally, a film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay (or script) while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfillment of that vision. The director has a key role in choosing the cast members , production design, and the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film. The film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film eventually becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions and stay within the boundaries of the film's budget. There are many pathways to becoming a film director. Some film directors started as screenwriters, cinematographers , film editors or actors. Other film directors have attended a film school. Directors use different approaches. Some outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue, while others control every aspect, and demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely. Some directors also write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners. Some directors edit or appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films
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Film
A FILM, also called a MOVIE, MOTION PICTURE, THEATRICAL FILM, or PHOTOPLAY, is a series of still images which, when shown on a screen, creates the illusion of moving images due to the phi phenomenon . This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed rapidly in succession. The process of filmmaking is both an art and an industry . A film is created by photographing actual scenes with a motion picture camera ; by photographing drawings or miniature models using traditional animation techniques; by means of CGI and computer animation ; or by a combination of some or all of these techniques and other visual effects . The word "CINEMA", short for cinematography , is often used to refer to the industry of films and filmmaking or to the art of filmmaking itself. The contemporary definition of cinema is the art of simulating experiences to communicate ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty or atmosphere by the means of recorded or programmed moving images along with other sensory stimulations. Films were originally recorded onto plastic film through a photochemical process and then shown through a movie projector onto a large screen. The adoption of CGI-based special effects led to the use of digital intermediates . Most contemporary films are now fully digital through the entire process of production, distribution, and exhibition from start to finish
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