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Fiddle
A fiddle is a bowed string musical instrument, most often a violin.[1] It is a colloquial term for the violin, used by players in all genres including classical music. Fiddle
Fiddle
playing, or fiddling, refers to various styles of music. The fiddle is part of many traditional (folk) styles of music which are aural traditions, taught 'by ear' rather than via written music.[2] Although violins and fiddles are essentially synonymous, more primitively constructed and smaller violins are more likely to be called fiddles
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Bariolage
The bowed string instrument musical technique bariolage (French for "multi-colored"[1] or, since the word is a noun rather than an adjective, "odd mixture of colours",[2] from the verb barioler, "to streak with several colors"[3]) involves, "the alternation of notes on adjacent strings, one of which is usually open",[4] exploiting, "the individual timbre of the various strings."[5] This may involve quick alternation between a static note and changing notes, that form a melody either above or below the static note.[6] The static note is usually an open string note, which creates a highly resonant sound
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Viol
The viol /ˈvaɪəl/,[1] viola da gamba[2] [viˈɔːla da ˈɡamba], or (informally) gamba, is any one of a family of bowed, fretted and stringed instruments with hollow wooden bodies and pegboxes where the tension on the strings can be increased or decreased to adjust the pitch of each of the strings. Frets
Frets
on the viol are usually made of gut, tied on the fingerboard around the instrument's neck, to enable the performer to stop the strings more cleanly. Frets
Frets
improve consistency of intonation and lend the stopped notes a tone which better matches the open strings
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Persian People
The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.[3][2] They share a common cultural system and are native speakers of the Persian language,[4][5][6] as well as closely related languages.[7][8] The ancient Persians were a nomadic branch of the ancient Iranian population that entered modern-day Iran
Iran
by the early 10th century BC.[9][10] Together with their compatriot allies, they established and ruled some of the world's most powerful empires,[11][12] well-recognized for their massive cultural, political, and social influence covering much of the territory and population of the ancient world.[13][14] Th
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Ibn Khordadbeh
Abu'l-Qasim Ubaydallah ibn Abdallah ibn Khordadbeh
Abdallah ibn Khordadbeh
(Persian: ابوالقاسم عبیدالله ابن خردادبه‎) (c. 820 – 912 CE), better known as Ibn Khordadbeh or Ibn Khurradadhbih,[1] was the author of the earliest surviving Arabic book of administrative geography.[2] He was a Persian geographer and bureaucrat of the 9th century. He was the son of Abdallah ibn Khordadbeh, a prominent Abbasid
Abbasid
general, who was the son of a Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
convert to Islam. Ibn Khordadbeh was appointed "Director of Posts and Intelligence" for the province of Jibal
Jibal
in northwestern Iran under the Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliph al-Mutammid (ruled 869–885 CE)
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Rabāb
The rebab (Arabic: ربابة‎, rabāb, variously spelled rebap, rabab, rebeb, rababa and rabeba, also known as جوزه jawza or joza in Iraq[1]) is a type of a bowed string instrument so named no later than the 8th century and spread via Islamic trading routes over much of North Africa, the Middle East, parts of Europe, and the Far East.[2] The bowed variety often has a spike at the bottom to rest on the ground (see first image to the right), and is thus called a spike fiddle in certain areas, but plucked versions like the kabuli rebab (sometimes referred to as the robab or rubab) also exist. Besides the spike fiddle variant, there also exists a variant with a pear-shaped body, quite similar to the Byzantine lyra and the Cretan lyra
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Viola Da Gamba
The viol /ˈvaɪəl/,[1] viola da gamba[2] [viˈɔːla da ˈɡamba], or (informally) gamba, is any one of a family of bowed, fretted and stringed instruments with hollow wooden bodies and pegboxes where the tension on the strings can be increased or decreased to adjust the pitch of each of the strings. Frets
Frets
on the viol are usually made of gut, tied on the fingerboard around the instrument's neck, to enable the performer to stop the strings more cleanly. Frets
Frets
improve consistency of intonation and lend the stopped notes a tone which better matches the open strings
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Renaissance
The Renaissance
Renaissance
(UK: /rɪˈneɪsəns/, US: /rɛnəˈsɑːns/)[1] is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries. It is an extension of the Middle Ages, and is bridged by the Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
to modern history. It grew in fragments, with the very first traces found seemingly in Italy, coming to cover much of Europe, for some scholars marking the beginning of the modern age. The intellectual basis of the Renaissance
Renaissance
was its own invented version of humanism, derived from the concept of Roman Humanitas and the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras, who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, architecture, politics, science and literature
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Etymology
Etymology
Etymology
(/ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/)[1] is the study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time.[1] By extension, the term "the etymology (of a word)" means the origin of the particular word. For a language such as Greek with a long written history, etymologists make use of texts in these languages and texts about the languages to gather knowledge about how words were used during earlier periods of their history and when they entered the languages in question. Etymologists also apply the methods of comparative linguistics to reconstruct information about languages that are too old for any direct information to be available. By analyzing related languages with a technique known as the comparative method, linguists can make inferences about their shared parent language and its vocabulary
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Germanic Languages
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus
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Romance Languages
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus
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Old English
Old English
Old English
(Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon,[2] is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland
Scotland
in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain
Great Britain
by Anglo-Saxon settlers probably in the mid-5th century, and the first Old English
Old English
literary works date from the mid-7th century. After the Norman conquest
Norman conquest
of 1066, English was replaced, for a time, as the language of the upper classes by Anglo-Norman, a relative of French
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Cello
The cello (/ˈtʃɛloʊ/ CHEL-oh; plural cellos or celli) or violoncello (/ˌvaɪələnˈtʃɛloʊ/ VY-ə-lən-CHEL-oh;[1] Italian pronunciation: [vjolonˈtʃɛllo]) is a bowed, and sometimes plucked, string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. The strings from low to high are generally tuned to C2, G2, D3 and A3, an octave lower than the viola. It is the bass member of the violin family of musical instruments, which also includes the violin, viola and the double bass. The cello is used as a solo musical instrument, as well as in chamber music ensembles (e.g., string quartet), string orchestras, as a member of the string section of symphony orchestras, and some types of rock bands
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Vibrato
Vibrato
Vibrato
(Italian, from past participle of "vibrare", to vibrate) is a musical effect consisting of a regular, pulsating change of pitch. It is used to add expression to vocal and instrumental music. Vibrato
Vibrato
is typically characterised in terms of two factors: the amount of pitch variation ("extent of vibrato") and the speed with which the pitch is varied ("rate of vibrato").[1] In singing it can occur spontaneously through variations in the larynx
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Viola
The viola (/viˈoʊlə/;[1] Italian pronunciation: [viˈɔːla]) is a string instrument that is bowed or played with varying techniques. It is slightly larger than a violin and has a lower and deeper sound. Since the 18th century, it has been the middle or alto voice of the violin family, between the violin (which is tuned a perfect fifth above) and the cello (which is tuned an octave below).[2] The strings from low to high are typically tuned to C3, G3, D4, and A4. In the past, the viola varied in size and style as did its names. The word viola originates from Italian. The Italians often used the term: "viola da braccio" meaning literally: 'of the arm'. "Brazzo" was another Italian word for the viola, which the Germans adopted as Bratsche. The French had their own names: cinquiesme was a small viola, haute contre was a large viola, and taile was a tenor
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Irish Traditional Music Session
Irish traditional music sessions are mostly informal gatherings at which people play Irish traditional music.[1] The Irish language word for "session" is seisiún. This article discusses tune-playing, although "session" can also refer to a singing session or a mixed session (tunes and songs). Barry Foy's Field Guide to the Irish Music Session defines a session as:[2]...a gathering of Irish traditional musicians for the purpose of celebrating their common interest in the music by playing it together in a relaxed, informal setting, while in the process generally beefing up the mystical cultural mantra that hums along uninterruptedly beneath all manifestations of Irishness worldwide.Contents1 Social and cultural aspects 2 Musical aspects 3 Locations and times 4 See also 5 ReferencesSocial and cultural aspects[edit]Irish music enthusiasts gather at a pub to play and drink beerThe general session scheme is that someone starts a tune, and those who know it join in
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