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Fibre-optic Communication
Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending pulses of light through an optical fiber. The light forms an electromagnetic carrier wave that is modulated to carry information. Fiber is preferred over electrical cabling when high bandwidth, long distance, or immunity to electromagnetic interference are required. Optical fiber is used by many telecommunications companies to transmit telephone signals, Internet communication, and cable television signals
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Single-mode Optical Fiber
In fiber-optic communication, a single-mode optical fiber (SMF) is an optical fiber designed to carry light only directly down the fiber - the transverse mode. Modes are the possible solutions of the Helmholtz equation for waves, which is obtained by combining Maxwell's equations and the boundary conditions. These modes define the way the wave travels through space, i.e. how the wave is distributed in space. Waves can have the same mode but have different frequencies. This is the case in single-mode fibers, where we can have waves with different frequencies, but of the same mode, which means that they are distributed in space in the same way, and that gives us a single ray of light. Although the ray travels parallel to the length of the fiber, it is often called transverse mode since its electromagnetic oscillations occur perpendicular (transverse) to the length of the fiber. The 2009 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Charles K
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Corning Glass Works
Corning may refer to:

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Telephone
A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly. A telephone converts sound, typically and most efficiently the human voice, into electronic signals that are transmitted via cables and other communication channels to another telephone which reproduces the sound to the receiving user. In 1876, Scottish emigrant Alexander Graham Bell was the first to be granted a United States patent for a device that produced clearly intelligible replication of the human voice. This instrument was further developed by many others. The telephone was the first device in history that enabled people to talk directly with each other across large distances
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Harold Hopkins (physicist)
Harold Horace Hopkins FRS (6 December 1918 – 22 October 1994) was a British physicist. His Wave Theory of Aberrations, (published by Oxford University Press 1950), is central to all modern optical design and provides the mathematical analysis which enables the use of computers to create the wealth of high quality lenses available today. In addition to his theoretical work, his many inventions are in daily use throughout the world. These include zoom lenses, coherent fibre-optics and more recently the rod-lens endoscopes which 'opened the door' to modern key-hole surgery. He was the recipient of many of the world's most prestigious awards and was twice nominated for a Nobel Prize
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Narinder Singh Kapany
Narinder Singh Kapany (Punjabi: ਨਰਿੰਦਰ ਸਿੰਘ) (born 31 October 1926) is an Indian-born American physicist known for his work in fibre optics.

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Jun-ichi Nishizawa
Jun-ichi Nishizawa (西澤 潤一, Nishizawa Jun'ichi, born September 12, 1926) is a Japanese engineer and inventor. He is known for his electronic inventions since the 1950s, including the PIN diode, static induction transistor, and static induction thyristor. He is currently a professor at Sophia University
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Tohoku University
Tohoku University (東北大学 (東北帝國大學 prior to 1945), Tōhoku daigaku), abbreviated to Tohokudai (東北大, Tōhokudai), located in Sendai, Miyagi in the Tōhoku Region, Japan, is a Japanese national university. It is the third oldest Imperial University in Japan and among the National Seven Universities
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PIN Diode
A PIN diode is a diode with a wide, undoped intrinsic semiconductor region between a p-type semiconductor and an n-type semiconductor region. The p-type and n-type regions are typically heavily doped because they are used for ohmic contacts. The wide intrinsic region is in contrast to an ordinary p–n diode
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Static Induction Transistor
Static induction transistor (SIT) is a high power, high frequency transistor device. It is a vertical structure device with short multichannel. Being a vertical device, the SIT structure offers advantages in obtaining higher breakdown voltages than a field-effect transistor (FET)
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Charles K. Kao
Sir Charles Kuen Kao, GBM, KBE, FRS, FREng (born 4 November 1933) is a Chinese-born Shanghainese electrical engineer and physicist who pioneered the development and use of fiber optics in telecommunications. In the 1960s, Kao created various methods to combine glass fibers with lasers in order to transmit digital data, which laid the groundwork for the evolution of the Internet
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George Hockham
George Alfred Hockham FREng FIET (7 December 1938 – 16 September 2013) was a British engineer. He worked for over 40 years in theoretical analysis and design techniques applied to the solution of electromagnetic problems covering many different antenna types for radar, electronic warfare and communication systems
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Standard Telephones And Cables
Standard Telephones and Cables Ltd (later STC plc) was a British telephone, telegraph, radio, telecommunications, and related equipment R&D manufacturer. During its history, STC invented and developed several groundbreaking new technologies including pulse code modulation (PCM) and optical fibres. The company was founded in 1883 in London as International Western Electric by Western Electric, shortly after becoming the telephone equipment supplier for the Bell System in the United States. In 1925, Western Electric divested itself of all foreign operations and general electric supply units, other than telephony, and sold International Western Electric to International Telephone and Telegraph (ITT). In mid-1982 it became an independent company and was listed on the London Stock Exchange. At one time it was a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index
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Decibel
The decibel (symbol: dB) is a unit of measurement used to express the ratio of one value of a physical property to another on a logarithmic scale. It can be used to express a change in value (e.g., +1 dB or −1 dB) or an absolute value. In the latter case, it expresses the ratio of a value to a reference value; when used in this way, the decibel symbol should be appended with a suffix that indicates the reference value or some other property. For example, if the reference value is 1 volt, then the suffix is "V" (e.g, "20 dBV"), and if the reference value is one milliwatt, then the suffix is "m" (e.g., "20 dBm"). There are two different scales used when expressing a ratio in decibels depending on the nature of the quantities: field, power, and root-power
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GaAs
Generally Accepted Auditing Standards, or GAAS are sets of standards against which the quality of audits are performed and may be judged. Several organizations have developed such sets of principles, which vary by territory. In the United States, the standards are promulgated by the Auditing Standards Board, a division of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA). AU Section 150 states that there are ten standards: three general standards, three fieldwork standards, and four reporting standards. These standards are issued and clarified Statements of Accounting Standards, with the first issued in 1972 to replace previous guidance. Typically, the first number of the AU section refers to which standard applies
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