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Fiberglass
Fiberglass
Fiberglass
(US) or fibreglass (UK) is a common type of fiber-reinforced plastic using glass fiber. The fibers may be randomly arranged, flattened into a sheet (called a chopped strand mat), or woven into a fabric. The plastic matrix may be a thermoset polymer matrix – most often based on thermosetting polymers such as epoxy, polyester resin, or vinylester – or a thermoplastic. Cheaper and more flexible than carbon fiber, it is stronger than many metals by weight, and can be molded into complex shapes. Applications include aircraft, boats, automobiles, bath tubs and enclosures, swimming pools, hot tubs, septic tanks, water tanks, roofing, pipes, cladding, casts, surfboards, and external door skins. Other common names for fiberglass are glass-reinforced plastic (GRP),[1] glass-fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP)[2] or GFK (from German: Glasfaserverstärkter Kunststoff)
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Cyanamid
American Cyanamid
American Cyanamid
Company was a leading American conglomerate which became one of the nation's top 100 manufacturing companies during the 1970s and 1980s, according to the Fortune 500
Fortune 500
listings at the time.[citation needed] Founded by Frank Washburn in 1907, the company grew to over 100,000 employees worldwide, and had over 200,000 shareholders by the mid-1970s. Its stock was traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol ACY. It was repeatedly reorganized after the mid-1990s, merged with other firms, and saw brands and divisions sold or spun off. The bulk of the former company is now part of Pfizer, with smaller portions belonging to BASF, Procter & Gamble and other firms. Although originally a manufacturer of agricultural chemicals the product line was soon broadened into many different types of industrial chemicals and specialty chemicals
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Fluorspar
Fluorite
Fluorite
(also called fluorspar) is the mineral form of calcium fluoride, CaF2. It belongs to the halide minerals. It crystallizes in isometric cubic habit, although octahedral and more complex isometric forms are not uncommon. Mohs scale of mineral hardness, based on scratch Hardness comparison, defines value 4 as Fluorite. Fluorite
Fluorite
is a colorful mineral, both in visible and ultraviolet light, and the stone has ornamental and lapidary uses. Industrially, fluorite is used as a flux for smelting, and in the production of certain glasses and enamels. The purest grades of fluorite are a source of fluoride for hydrofluoric acid manufacture, which is the intermediate source of most fluorine-containing fine chemicals. Optically clear transparent fluorite lenses have low dispersion, so lenses made from it exhibit less chromatic aberration, making them valuable in microscopes and telescopes
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Du Pont
E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, commonly referred to as DuPont, is an American conglomerate that was founded in July 1802 as a gunpowder mill by French-American
French-American
chemist and industrialist Éleuthère Irénée du Pont. In the 20th century, DuPont
DuPont
developed many polymers such as Vespel, neoprene, nylon, Corian, Teflon, Mylar, Kapton, Kevlar, Zemdrain, M5 fiber, Nomex, Tyvek, Sorona, Corfam, and Lycra. DuPont
DuPont
developed Freon (chlorofluorocarbons) for the refrigerant industry, and later more environmentally friendly refrigerants
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Peroxide
Peroxide
Peroxide
is a compound with the structure R-O-O-R.[1] The O−O group in a peroxide is called the peroxide group or peroxo group. In contrast to oxide ions, the oxygen atoms in the peroxide ion have an oxidation state of −1. The most common peroxide is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), colloquially known as "peroxide." It is marketed as a solution in water at various concentrations. Since hydrogen peroxide is colorless, so are these solutions. It is mainly used as an oxidant and bleaching agent. Concentrated solutions are potentially dangerous when in contact with organic compounds.Structure and dimensions of H2O2.Aside from hydrogen peroxide, some other major classes of peroxides are these:Peroxy acids, the peroxy derivatives of many familiar acids, examples being peroxymonosulfuric acid and peracetic acid. Metal peroxides, examples being barium peroxide (BaO2) and sodium peroxide (Na2O2). Organic peroxides, compounds with the linkage C-O-O-C/H
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Pultrusion
Pultrusion
Pultrusion
is a continuous process for manufacture of composite materials with constant cross-section. The term is a portmanteau word, combining "pull" and "extrusion". As opposed to extrusion, which pushes the material, pultrusion works by pulling the material.Contents1 History 2 Process 3 Process modifications 4 Equipment 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] A very early pultrusions type patent was filed by J.H. Watson in 1944. This was followed by M.J. Meek’s filing of 1950. The first commercial pultrusions were provided by Glastic Company of Cleveland, Ohio under the patent filed in 1952 by Rodger B. White. The patent issued to W. B. Goldsworthy in 1959 helped initiate the promotion and knowledge spread within the industry. W
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Silica
Silica Silicic oxide Silicon(IV) oxide Crystalline silicaIdentifiersCAS Number7631-86-9 YChEBICHEBI:30563 YChemSpider22683 YECHA InfoCard 100.028.678EC Number 231-545-4E number E551 (acidity regulators, ...)Gmelin Reference200274KEGGC16459 NMeSH Silicon+dioxide PubChem CID24261 RTECS number VV7565000UNIIETJ7Z6XBU4 YInChIInChI=1S/O2Si/c1-3-2 Y Key: VYPSYNLAJGMNEJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N YPropertiesChemical formulaSiO2Molar mass 60.08 g/molAppearance
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Limestone
Limestone
Limestone
is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years
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Kaolin Clay
Kaolinite
Kaolinite
/ˈkeɪəlɪˌnaɪt/[4][5] is a clay mineral, part of the group of industrial minerals, with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. It is a layered silicate mineral, with one tetrahedral sheet of silica (SiO4) linked through oxygen atoms to one octahedral sheet of alumina (AlO6) octahedra.[6] Rocks that are rich in kaolinite are known as kaolin /ˈkeɪəlɪn/ or china clay.[7] The name "kaolin" is derived from "Gaoling" (Chinese: 高嶺; pinyin: Gāolǐng; literally: "High Ridge"), a Chinese village near Jingdezhen in southeastern China's Jiangxi
Jiangxi
Province.[8] The name entered English in 1727 from the French version of the word: kaolin, following Francois Xavier d'Entrecolles's reports from Jingdezhen.[9] Kaolinite
Kaolinite
has a low shrink–swell capacity and a low cation-exchange capacity (1–15 meq/100 g)
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Colemanite
Colemanite
Colemanite
(Ca2B6O11·5H2O)[5] or (CaB3O4(OH)3·H2O)[3] is a borate mineral found in evaporite deposits of alkaline lacustrine environments. Colemanite
Colemanite
is a secondary mineral that forms by alteration of borax and ulexite.[2] It was first described in 1884 for an occurrence near Furnace Creek in Death Valley
Death Valley
and was named after William Tell Coleman
William Tell Coleman
(1824–1893), owner of the mine Harmony Borax
Borax
Works where it was first found.[3] At the time, Coleman had alternatively proposed the name "smithite" instead after his business associate Francis Marion Smith.[6]Contents1 Uses 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksUses[edit] Colemanite
Colemanite
is an important ore of boron, and was the most important boron ore until the discovery of kernite in 1926
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Serendipity
Serendipity
Serendipity
means an unplanned, fortuitous discovery. The term was coined by Horace Walpole
Horace Walpole
in 1754. In a letter he wrote to his friend Horace Mann, Walpole explained an unexpected discovery he had made about a (lost) painting[1] of Bianca Cappello
Bianca Cappello
by Giorgio Vasari
Giorgio Vasari
by reference to a Persian fairy tale, The Three Princes of Serendip. The princes, he told his correspondent, were "always making discoveries, by accidents and sagacity, of things which they were not in quest of". The notion of serendipity is a common occurrence throughout the history of scientific innovation
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Dolomite
Dolomite
Dolomite
( /ˈdɒləmaɪt/) is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally CaMg(CO3)2. The term is also used for a sedimentary carbonate rock composed mostly of the mineral dolomite. An alternative name sometimes used for the dolomitic rock type is dolostone.Contents1 History 2 Properties 3 Formation 4 Uses 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] Most probably the mineral dolomite was first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1768.[6] In 1791, it was described as a rock by the French naturalist and geologist Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu
Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu
(1750–1801), first in buildings of the old city of Rome, and later as samples collected in the mountains now known as the Dolomite Alps
Dolomite Alps
of northern Italy
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Minerals
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound,[1] usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes. A mineral has one specific chemical composition, whereas a rock can be an aggregate of different minerals or mineraloids. The study of minerals is called mineralogy. As of March 2018[update], there are more than 5,500 known mineral species;[2] 5,312 of these have been approved by the International Mineralogical Association (IMA).[3] Minerals are distinguished by various chemical and physical properties. Differences in chemical composition and crystal structure distinguish the various species, which were determined by the mineral's geological environment when formed. Changes in the temperature, pressure, or bulk composition of a rock mass cause changes in its minerals
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Roving
A roving is a long and narrow bundle of fiber. Rovings are produced during the process of making spun yarn from wool fleece, raw cotton, or other fibres. Their main use is as fibre prepared for spinning, but they may also be used for specialised kinds of knitting or other textile arts. After carding, the fibres lie roughly parallel in smooth bundles. These are drawn out, by hand or machine, and slightly twisted to form lengths suitable for spinning. These unspun strands of fibre are the rovings. Roving
Roving
can also mean a roll of these strands, the strands in general (as a mass noun), or the process of creating them. Because it is carded, the fibres are less parallel than top (which is combed) and are not of uniform length. Carded rovings look fluffier than combed top, which looks smooth and has a high lustre. The fibres in combed top tend to be of a fairly uniform length due to the method of preparation
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Isotropic
Isotropy
Isotropy
is uniformity in all orientations; it is derived from the Greek isos (ἴσος, "equal") and tropos (τρόπος, "way"). Precise definitions depend on the subject area. Exceptions, or inequalities, are frequently indicated by the prefix an, hence anisotropy. Anisotropy
Anisotropy
is also used to describe situations where properties vary systematically, dependent on direction
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Tension (physics)
In physics, tension may be described as the pulling force transmitted axially by the means of a string, cable, chain, or similar one-dimensional continuous object, or by each end of a rod, truss member, or similar three-dimensional object; tension might also be described as the action-reaction pair of forces acting at each end of said elements. Tension could be the opposite of compression. At the atomic level, when atoms or molecules are pulled apart from each other and gain potential energy with a restoring force still existing, the restoring force might create what is also called tension. Each end of a string or rod under such tension could pull on the object it is attached to, in order to restore the string/rod to its relaxed length. In physics, tension, as a transmitted force, as an action-reaction pair of forces, or as a restoring force, may be a force and has the units of force measured in newtons (or sometimes pounds-force)
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