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Fever Of Unknown Origin
Fever
Fever
of unknown origin (FUO), pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO) or febris e causa ignota (febris E.C.I.) refers to a condition in which the patient has an elevated temperature (fever) but despite investigations by a physician no explanation has been found.[1][2][3][4][5] If the cause is found it is usually a diagnosis of exclusion, that is, by eliminating all possibilities until only one explanation remains, and taking this as the correct one.Contents1 Causes1.1 Infection 1.2 Neoplasm 1.3 Noninfectious inflammatory diseases 1.4 Miscellaneous conditions 1.5 Inherited and
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International Statistical Classification Of Diseases And Related Health Problems
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes". Its full official name is International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems.[1] The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization
World Health Organization
(WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System.[2] The ICD is designed as a health care classification system, providing a system of diagnostic codes for classifying diseases, including nuanced classifications of a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances, and external causes of injury or disease. This system is designed to map health conditions to corresponding generic categories together with specific variations, assigning for these a designated code, up to six characters long
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Bartonellosis
Bartonellosis is an infectious disease produced by bacteria of the genus Bartonella.[1] Bartonella
Bartonella
species cause diseases such as Carrión´s disease, trench fever, cat-scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, peliosis hepatis, chronic bacteremia, endocarditis, chronic lymphadenopathy, and neurological disorders.[2]Contents1 Presentation1.1 Carrión's disease 1.2 Cat-scratch disease 1.3 Bacillary angiomatosis 1.4 Peliosis hepatis 1.5
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Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Pelvic inflammatory disease
or pelvic inflammatory disorder (PID) is an infection of the upper part of the female reproductive system namely the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries, and inside of the pelvis.[5][2] Often there may be no symptoms.[1] Signs and symptoms, when present may include lower abdominal pain, vaginal discharge, fever, burning with urination, pain with sex, or irregular menstruation.[1] Untreated PID can result in long term complications including infertility, ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, and cance
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Urinary Tract Infection
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract.[1] When it affects the lower urinary tract it is known as a bladder infection (cystitis) and when it affects the upper urinary tract it is known as kidney infection (pyelonephritis).[9] Symptoms from a lower urinary tract include pain with urination, frequent urination, and feeling the need to urinate despite having an empty bladder.[1] Symptoms of a kidney infection include fever and flank pain usually in addition to the symptoms of a lower UTI.[9] Rarely the urine may appear bloody.[6] In the very old and the very young, symptoms may be vague or non-specific.[1][10] The most common cause of infection is Escherichia coli, though other bacteria or fungi may rarely be the cause.[2] Risk factors include female anatomy, sexual intercourse, diabetes, obesity, and family history.[2] Although sexual intercourse is a risk factor, UTIs are not classified as sexually transmitted infections (STIs).[11] Kidney
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Acute Prostatitis
Acute prostatitis
Acute prostatitis
is a serious bacterial infection of the prostate gland. This infection is a medical emergency. It should be distinguished from other forms of prostatitis such as chronic bacterial prostatitis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS).Contents1 Signs and symptoms 2 Diagnosis 3 Treatment 4 Prognosis 5 References 6 External linksSigns and symptoms[edit] Men with acute prostatitis often have chills, fever, pain in the lower back, perineum, or genital area, urinary frequency and urgency often at night, burning or painful urination, body aches, and a demonstrable infection of the urinary tract, as evidenced by white blood cells and bacteria in the urine
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Malakoplakia
Malakoplakia or malacoplakia (from Greek Malako "soft" + Plako "plaque") is a rare inflammatory condition which makes its presence known as a papule, plaque or ulceration that usually affects the genitourinary tract.[1]:274 However, it may also be associated with other bodily organs. It was initially described in the early 20th century as soft yellowish plaques found on the mucosa of the urinary bladder. Microscopically it is characterized by the presence of foamy histiocytes with basophilic inclusions called Michaelis–Gutmann bodies. It usually involves gram-negative bacteria.[2]Contents1 Causes 2 Diagnosis 3 Treatment 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksCauses[edit] Malakoplakia is thought to result from the insufficient killing of bacteria by macrophages. Therefore, the partially digested bacteria accumulate in macrophages and leads to a deposition of iron and calcium
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Sinusitis
Sinusitis, also known as a sinus infection or rhinosinusitis, is inflammation of the sinuses resulting in symptoms.[1] Common symptoms include thick nasal mucus, a plugged nose, and pain in the face.[1] Other signs and symptoms may include fever, headaches, poor sense of smell, sore throat, and cough.[2][3] The cough is often worse at night.[3] Serious complications are rare.[3] It is defined as acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) if it lasts less than 4 weeks, and as chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) if it lasts for more than 12 weeks.[1] Sinusitis
Sinusitis
can be caused by infection, allergies, air pollution, or structural problems in the nose.[2]
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Subphrenic Abscess
Subphrenic abscess is a disease characterized by an accumulation of infected fluid between the diaphragm, liver, and spleen.[1] This abscess develops after surgical operations like splenectomy. Presents with cough, increased respiratory rate with shallow respiration, diminished or absent breath sounds, hiccups, dullness in percussion, tenderness over the 8th–11th ribs, fever, chills, anorexia and shoulder tip pain on the affected side. Lack of treatment or misdiagnosis could quickly lead to sepsis, septic shock, and death.[2] It is also associated with peritonitis.[3] References[edit]^ Banerjee, Arpan K. (2006). Radiology Made Easy (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 92. ISBN 0-521-67635-5. Retrieved 3 February 2011.  ^ R.F. Dondelinger; P. Rossi; J.C. Kurdziel; S. Wallace, eds. (1990). Interventional Radiology. Thieme Publishing Group. p. 110. ISBN 3-13-728901-7. Retrieved 3 February 2011.  ^ "Subphrenic Abscess"
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Thrombophlebitis
Thrombophlebitis
Thrombophlebitis
is a phlebitis (inflammation of a vein) related to a thrombus (blood clot).[2] When it occurs repeatedly in different locations, it is known as thrombophlebitis migrans, (migrating thrombophlebitis)[citation needed]Contents1 Signs and symptoms1.1 Complications2 Causes 3 Diagnosis 4 Prevention 5 Treatment5.1 Epidemiology6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksSigns and symptoms[edit] The following symptoms or signs are often associated with thrombophlebitis, although thrombophlebitis is not restrict
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Tubo-ovarian Abscess
Tubo-ovarian abscesses (TOA) are one of the late complications of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and can be life-threatening if the abscess ruptures and results in sepsis. It consists of an encapsulated or confined 'pocket of pus' with defined boundaries that forms during an infection of a fallopian tube and ovary. These abscesses are found most commonly in reproductive age women and typically result from upper genital tract infection.[1][2] It is an inflammatory mass involving the fallopian tube, ovary and, occasionally, other adjacent pelvic organs. A TOA can also develop as a complication of a hysterectomy.[3]:103 Patients typically present with fever, elevated white blood cell count, lower abdominal-pelvic pain, and/or vaginal discharge. Fever and leukocytosis may be absent. TOAs are often polymicrobial with a high percentage of anaerobic bacteria
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Aortitis
Aortitis is the inflammation of the aortic wall. The disorder is potentially life-threatening and rare
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Bacterial Endocarditis
Infective endocarditis
Infective endocarditis
is an infection of the inner surface of the heart, usually the valves.[1] Symptoms may include fever, small areas of bleeding into the skin, heart murmur, feeling tired, and low red blood cell count.[1] Complications may include valvular insufficiency, heart failure, stroke, and kidney failure.[2][1] The cause is typically a bacterial infection and less commonly a fungal infection.[1] Risk factors include valvular heart disease including rheumatic disease, congenital hear
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Brucellosis
Brucellosis[2][3] is a highly contagious zoonosis caused by ingestion of unpasteurized milk or undercooked meat from infected animals, or close contact with their secretions.[4] It is also known as undulant fever, Malta
Malta
fever and Mediterranean fever.[5] Brucella
Brucella
species are small, gram-negative, nonmotile, nonspore-forming, rod-shaped (coccobacilli) bacteria. They function as facultative intracellular parasites, causing chronic disease, which usually persists for life. Four species infect humans: B. abortus, B. canis, B. melitensis, and B. suis. B. abortus is less virulent than B. melitensis and is primarily a disease of cattle. B. canis affects dogs. B. melitensis is the most virulent and invasive species; it usually infects goats and occasionally sheep. B. suis is of intermediate virulence and chiefly infects pigs. Symptoms include profuse sweating and joint and muscle pain
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Osteomyelitis
Osteomyelitis
Osteomyelitis
(OM) is an infection of bone.[1] Symptoms may include pain in a specific bone with overlying redness, fever, and weakness.[1] The long bones of the arms and legs are most commonly involved in children while the feet, spine, and hips are most commonly involved in adults.[2] The cause is usually a bacterial infection and rarely a fungal infection.[1][2] It may occur via spread from the blood or from surrounding tissue.[4] Risks for developing osteomyelitis include diabetes, intravenous drug use, prior removal of the spleen, and trauma to the area.[1] Diagnosis is typically suspected based on symptoms.[2]
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Campylobacter Infection
Campylobacteriosis is an infection by the Campylobacter bacterium,[1] most commonly C. jejuni. It is among the most common bacterial infections of humans, often a foodborne illness. It produces an inflammatory, sometimes bloody, diarrhea or dysentery syndrome, mostly including cramps, fever and pain.Contents1 Symptoms1.1 Complications 1.2 Other factors2 Cause 3 Transmission 4 Diagnosis 5 Prevention 6 Treatment6.1 Antibiotics 6.2 In animals7 Prognosis 8 Epidemiology 9 Outbreak 10 See also 11 References 12 External linksSymptoms[edit] The prodromal symptoms are fever, headache, and myalgia, which can be severe, lasting as long as 24 hours. After 1–5 days, typically, these are followed by diarrhea (as many as 10 watery, frequently bloody, bowel movements per day) or dysentery, cramps, abdominal pain, and fever as high as 40 °C (104 °F). In most people, the illness lasts for 2–10 days
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