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Fertilization
Fertilisation
Fertilisation
or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation,[1] is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.[2] The cycle of fertilisation and development of new individuals is called sexual reproduction. During double fertilisation in angiosperms the haploid male gamete combines with two haploid polar nuclei to form a triploid primary endosperm nucleus by the process of vegetative fertilisation.Contents1 History 2 Fertilisation
Fertilisation
in plants2.1 Bryophytes 2.2 Ferns 2.3 Gymnosperms 2.4 Flowering plants 2.5 Self-Pollination3 Fertilisation
Fertilisation
in animals3.1 Internal vs
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Capsella Rubella
Capsella rubella, the pink shepherd's-purse,[1] is a plant species in the genus Capsella, a very close relative of Arabidopsis thaliana
Arabidopsis thaliana
and a member of the mustard family, Brassicaceae. It has a very similar appearance to Capsella bursa-pastoris, but C. rubella has a diploid genome, whereas C. bursa-pastoris is tetraploid.[2] Capsella rubella is used as a model plant to study the evolution of self-incompatibility into self-compatibility in plant reproduction. The species is found mostly in Mediterranean region. Separation of this species from its closest ancestor is predicted to have happened around 30,000 to 50,000 years ago.[3] References[edit]^ "BSBI List 2007". Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-01-25. Retrieved 2014-10-17.  ^ Kawano, Shoichi, ed. (1990). Biological approaches and evolutionary trends in plants
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Mitosis
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei. In general, mitosis (division of the nucleus) is preceded by the S stage of interphase (during which the DNA
DNA
is replicated) and is often accompanied or followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm, organelles and cell membrane into two new cells containing roughly equal shares of these cellular components.[1] Mitosis
Mitosis
and cytokinesis together define the mitotic (M) phase of an animal cell cycle—the division of the mother cell into two daughter cells genetically identical to each other. The process of mitosis is divided into stages corresponding to the completion of one set of activities and the start of the next
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Pollen Germination
Germination
Germination
is the process by which an organism grows from a seed or similar structure. The most common example of germination is the sprouting of a seedling from a seed of an angiosperm or gymnosperm. In addition, the growth of a sporeling from a spore, such as the spores of hyphae from fungal spores, is also germination
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Ginkgo
Salisburia Sm. Ginkgo
Ginkgo
is a genus of highly unusual non-flowering plants. The scientific name is also used as the English name. The order to which it belongs, Ginkgoales, first appeared in the Permian,[4] 270 million years ago, possibly derived from "seed ferns" of the order Peltaspermales, and now only contains this single genus and species. The rate of evolution within the genus has been slow, and almost all its species had become extinct by the end of the Pliocene; the exception is the sole living species, Ginkgo
Ginkgo
biloba, which is only found in the wild in China, but is cultivated across the world. The relationships between ginkgos and other groups of plants are not fully resolved.Contents1 Prehistory 2 Phylogeny 3 References3.1 Sources4 External linksPrehistory[edit] The ginkgo (Ginkgoales) is a living fossil, with fossils recognisably related to modern ginkgo from the Permian, dating back 270 million years
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Carpel
Gynoecium
Gynoecium
(from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
γυνή, gyne, meaning woman, and οἶκος, oikos, meaning house) is most commonly used as a collective term for the parts of a flower that produce ovules and ultimately develop into the fruit and seeds. The gynoecium is the innermost whorl of (one or more) pistils in a flower and is typically surrounded by the pollen-producing reproductive organs, the stamens, collectively called the androecium. The gynoecium is often referred to as the "female" portion of the flower, although rather than directly producing female gametes (i.e. egg cells), the gynoecium produces megaspores, each of which develops into a female gametophyte which then produces egg cells. The term gynoecium is also used by botanists to refer to a cluster of archegonia and any associated modified leaves or stems present on a gametophyte shoot in mosses, liverworts and hornworts
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Enzymes
Enzymes /ˈɛnzaɪmz/ are macromolecular biological catalysts. Enzymes accelerate chemical reactions. The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called substrates and the enzyme converts the substrates into different molecules known as products. Almost all metabolic processes in the cell need enzyme catalysis in order to occur at rates fast enough to sustain life.[1]:8.1 Metabolic pathways depend upon enzymes to catalyze individual steps. The study of enzymes is called enzymology and a new field of pseudoenzyme analysis has recently grown up, recognising that during evolution, some enzymes have lost the ability to carry out biological catalysis, which is often reflected in their amino acid sequences and unusual 'pseudocatalytic' properties.[2][3] Enzymes are known to catalyze more than 5,000 biochemical reaction types.[4] Most enzymes are proteins, although a few are catalytic RNA molecules. The latter are called ribozymes
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Cell (biology)
The cell (from Latin
Latin
cella, meaning "small room"[1]) is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life. Cells are often called the "building blocks of life"
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Diploid
Ploidy
Ploidy
is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes. Somatic cells, tissues and individuals can be described according to the number of sets present (the ploidy level): monoploid (1 set), diploid (2 sets), triploid (3 sets), tetraploid (4 sets), pentaploid (5 sets), hexaploid (6 sets), heptaploid[1] or septaploid[2] (7 sets), etc. The generic term polyploid is used to describe cells with three or more chromosome sets.[3][4] Humans are diploid organisms, carrying two complete sets of chromosomes: one set of 23 chromosomes from their father and one set of 23 chromosomes from their mother. The two sets combined provide a full complement of 46 chromosomes. This total number of chromosomes is called the chromosome number. The zygotic number is defined as the number of chromosomes in zygotic cells
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Endosperm
The endosperm is the tissue produced inside the seeds of most of the flowering plants following fertilization. It surrounds the embryo and provides nutrition in the form of starch, though it can also contain oils and protein. This can make endosperm a source of nutrition in the human diet. For example, wheat endosperm is ground into flour for bread (the rest of the grain is included as well in whole wheat flour), while barley endosperm is the main source of sugars for beer production
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Pollination
Pollination
Pollination
is an agent’s transferring pollen from a gymnosperm’s sporophyll to an ovule’s micropyle or an agent’s transferring pollen from an angiosperm’s anther to a carpel’s stigma [2]. Pollinating agents are animals, water, and wind and even plants themselves when self-pollination occurs within a closed flower. Pollination
Pollination
often occurs within a species. When pollination occurs between species it can produce hybrid offspring in nature and in plant-breeding work. Pollination
Pollination
is a major obligate process in seed production. In angiosperms, after the pollen grain has landed on the stigma, it develops a pollen tube which grows down the style until it reaches an ovary
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Nutrient
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce. The requirement for dietary nutrient intake applies to animals, plants, fungi, and protists. Nutrients can be incorporated into cells for metabolic purposes or excreted by cells to create non-cellular structures, such as hair, scales, feathers, or exoskeletons. Some nutrients can be metabolically converted to smaller molecules in the process of releasing energy, such as for carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and fermentation products (ethanol or vinegar), leading to end-products of water and carbon dioxide. All organisms require water. Essential nutrients for animals are the energy sources, some of the amino acids that are combined to create proteins, a subset of fatty acids, vitamins and certain minerals. Plants require more diverse minerals absorbed through roots, plus carbon dioxide and oxygen absorbed through leaves
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Tissue (biology)
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ. A tissue is an ensemble of similar cells and their extracellular matrix from the same origin that together carry out a specific function. Organs are then formed by the functional grouping together of multiple tissues. The English word is derived from the French tissu, meaning something that is woven, from the verb tisser, "to weave". The study of human and animal tissues is known as histology or, in connection with disease, histopathology. For plants, the discipline is called plant anatomy. The classical tools for studying tissues are the paraffin block in which tissue is embedded and then sectioned, the histological stain, and the optical microscope. In the last couple of decades,[clarification needed] developments in electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and the use of frozen tissue sections have enhanced the detail that can be observed in tissues
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Nuphar
Nuphar
Nuphar
is genus of aquatic plants in the family Nymphaeaceae, with a temperate to subarctic Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
distribution. Common names include water-lily (Eurasian species; shared with many other genera in the same family), pond-lily, alligator-bonnet or bonnet lily, and spatterdock (North American species).[1]Contents1 Etymology 2 Taxonomy 3 Species 4 Ecology 5 Use as medicine, food, and otherwise 6 Gallery 7 ReferencesEtymology[edit] The etymology of the word is: medieval Latin nuphar, from medieval Latin nenuphar, thence from Arabic nīnūfar, thence from Persian nīlūfar, thence from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
nīlōtpala = blue lotus flower.[2] For botanical gender, the name is treated as feminine.[3][4] Taxonomy[edit]Flower of Nuphar
Nuphar
subintegerrima Makino attended by hover fly
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Watermelon
Citrullus
Citrullus
lanatus is a plant species in the family Cucurbitaceae, a vine-like (scrambler and trailer) flowering plant originally from sub-Saharan Africa. It is cultivated for its fruit. The subdivision of this species into two varieties, watermelons ( Citrullus
Citrullus
lanatus (Thunb.) var. lanatus) and citron melons ( Citrullus
Citrullus
lanatus var. citroides (L. H. Bailey) Mansf.), originated with the erroneous synonymization of Citrullus
Citrullus
lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai and Citrullus
Citrullus
vulgaris Schrad. by L.H. Bailey in 1930.[2] Molecular data including sequences from the original collection of Thunberg and other relevant type material, show that the sweet watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) and the bitter wooly melon Citrullus
Citrullus
lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum
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Self-pollination
Self-pollination
Self-pollination
is when pollen from the same plant arrives at the stigma of a flower (in flowering plants) or at the ovule (in gymnosperms). There are two types of self-pollination: in autogamy, pollen is transferred to the stigma of the same flower; in geitonogamy, pollen is transferred from the anther of one flower to the stigma of another flower on the same flowering plant, or from microsporangium to ovule within a single (monoecious) gymnosperm. Some plants have mechanisms that ensure autogamy, such as flowers that do not open (cleistogamy), or stamens that move to come into contact with the stigma
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