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Fermi 1
The ENRICO FERMI NUCLEAR GENERATING STATION is a nuclear power plant on the shore of Lake Erie
Lake Erie
near Monroe , in Frenchtown Charter Township, Michigan on approximately 1,000 acres. All units of the plant are operated by the DTE Energy Electric Company and owned (100 percent) by parent company DTE Energy . It is approximately halfway between Detroit, Michigan , and Toledo, Ohio . It is also visible from parts of Amherstburg and Colchester, Ontario as well as on the shore of Lake Erie
Lake Erie
in Ottawa County, Ohio . Two units have been constructed on this site. The first unit's construction started on August 4, 1956 and reached initial criticality on August 23, 1963, and the second unit received its construction permit on September 26, 1972. It reached criticality (head on) in June 21, 1985 and was declared commercial on November 18, 1988. The plant is connected to two single-circuit 345 kV Transmission Lines and 3 120 kV lines. They are operated and maintained by ITC Transmission . The plant is named after the Italian nuclear physicist Enrico Fermi
Enrico Fermi
, most noted for his work on the development of the first nuclear reactor as well as many other major contributions to nuclear physics. Fermi won the 1938 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on induced radioactivity
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Enrico Fermi Nuclear Power Plant (Italy)
ENRICO FERMI NUCLEAR POWER PLANT was a nuclear power plant at Trino (often referred to as ‘Trino Vercellese’, meaning ‘Trino in the Province of Vercelli ’), in north-west Italy . Consisting of one 260 megawatt pressurized water reactor (PWR), it operated from 1964 until 1990. It was closed down following the Italian nuclear power referendum, 1987
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Newport, Michigan
BERLIN CHARTER TOWNSHIP is a charter township of Monroe County in the U.S. state of Michigan . At the 2000 census , the township population was 6,924. Berlin Charter Township was organized from the northern portion of previously established Frenchtown Charter Township , and the township boundaries has been in place since 1867. As part of the Monroe Metropolitan Area , the township is also classified as part of the much larger Metro Detroit region. The Pointe Mouillee State Game Area is located within Berlin Charter Township. The township contains two listings on the National Register of Historic Places . The Detroit River Light is within the township's water boundaries, although the station is under the jurisdiction of the United States Coast Guard . The Jefferson Avenue-Huron River Bridge spans the Huron River , connecting Berlin to Brownstown Charter Township in Wayne County . The eastern portion of the township along Lake Erie is served by Jefferson Schools , while the rest of the township is served by Airport Community Schools . CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 Demographics * 3 Communities * 4 References GEOGRAPHYAccording to the United States Census Bureau , the township has a total area of 37.1 square miles (96 km2), of which 32.1 square miles (83 km2) is land and 5.1 square miles (13 km2) (13.60%) is water. The township is bordered on the south by Frenchtown Charter Township and by Ash Township on the west
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Project Commissioning
PROJECT COMMISSIONING is the process of assuring that all systems and components of a building or industrial plant are designed, installed, tested, operated, and maintained according to the operational requirements of the owner or final client. A commissioning process may be applied not only to new projects but also to existing units and systems subject to expansion, renovation or revamping . In practice, the commissioning process comprises the integrated application of a set of engineering techniques and procedures to check, inspect and test every operational component of the project, from individual functions, such as instruments and equipment, up to complex amalgamations such as modules , subsystems and systems . Commissioning activities, in the broader sense, are applicable to all phases of the project, from the basic and detailed design , procurement , construction and assembly , until the final handover of the unit to the owner, including sometimes an assisted operation phase. CONTENTS * 1 Independent discipline * 2 Objective and impact * 3 Commissioning management systems * 4 See also * 5 References INDEPENDENT DISCIPLINECommissioning of large civil and industrial projects is a complex and sophisticated technical specialty which may be considered as a specific and independent engineering discipline . As such, it can be as important as the more traditional ones, i.e
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DTE Energy
DTE ENERGY CO. is an American Detroit , Michigan -based utility incorporated in 1995 involved in the development and management of energy-related businesses and services nationwide. DTE Energy's largest operating subsidiaries are DTE Electric Company (formerly Detroit Edison), an investor-owned electric utility serving 2.1 million customers in Southeastern Michigan; and DTE Gas Company (formerly Michigan Consolidated Gas Company (MichCon)), a natural gas utility serving 1.2 million customers in Michigan. The two companies merged in 2001. The name "DTE" is taken from the stock symbol for the former Detroit Edison, DTE. CONTENTS * 1 Existing coal-fired power plants * 2 Renewable Energy * 2.1 Solar * 2.2 Landfill-based gas-to-energy operations * 3 Criticism * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links EXISTING COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS DTE Electric's Monroe Power Plant . DTE Electric's St. Clair Power Plant . As of 2005 DTE Energy has 22 coal-fired generating stations with 7,998 MW of capacity. Here is a list of DTE Energy's coal power plants with capacity over 100 MW: PLANT NAME COUNTY YEAR(S) BUILT CAPACITY Monroe Monroe 1971–1974 3300 MW St. Clair St. Clair 1953–1954, 1961–1969 1928 MW Belle River St
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Boiling Water Reactor
The BOILING WATER REACTOR (BWR) is a type of light water nuclear reactor used for the generation of electrical power. It is the second most common type of electricity-generating nuclear reactor after the pressurized water reactor (PWR) , also a type of light water nuclear reactor. The main difference between a BWR and PWR is that in a BWR, the reactor core heats water, which turns to steam and then drives a steam turbine. In a PWR, the reactor core heats water, which does not boil. This hot water then exchanges heat with a lower pressure water system, which turns to steam and drives the turbine. The BWR was developed by the Idaho National Laboratory and General Electric (GE) in the mid-1950s. The main present manufacturer is GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy , which specializes in the design and construction of this type of reactor
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General Electric
GENERAL ELECTRIC (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate corporation incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
. As of 2016, the company operates through the following segments: Aviation , Current , Digital, Energy
Energy
Connections, Global Research , Healthcare , Lighting
Lighting
, Oil
Oil
and Gas , Power , Renewable Energy, Transportation , and Capital which cater to the needs of Financial services
Financial services
, Medical devices , Life Sciences , Pharmaceutical , Automotive
Automotive
, Software
Software
Development and Engineering industries. As of 2017, General Electric
General Electric
has the most patent assignments of all US-based corporations . In 2017, GE ranked among the Fortune 500 as the thirteenth-largest firm in the U.S. by gross revenue , . In 2011, GE ranked as the 14th most profitable. As of 2012 , the company was listed the fourth-largest in the world among the Forbes Global 2000 , further metrics being taken into account. The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
has twice been awarded to employees of General Electric: Irving Langmuir
Irving Langmuir
in 1932 and Ivar Giaever in 1973
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Lake Erie
LAKE ERIE (/ˈɪəri/ ; French : _Lac Érié_) is the fourth-largest lake (by surface area) of the five Great Lakes
Great Lakes
in North America
North America
, and the thirteenth-largest globally if measured in terms of surface area. It is the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volume of the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
and therefore also has the shortest average water residence time . At its deepest point Lake
Lake
Erie is 210 feet (64 metres) deep. Lake
Lake
Erie's northern shore is bounded by the Canadian province of Ontario
Ontario
, with the U.S. states of Ohio
Ohio
, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
, and New York on its southern and easternmost shores and the Lower Peninsula
Peninsula
of Michigan
Michigan
on the west. These jurisdictions divide the surface area of the lake by water boundaries. The lake was named by the Erie people , a Native Americans people who lived along its southern shore. That Iroquoian tribe called it _"Erige"_ _("cat")_ because of its unpredictable and sometimes violently dangerous nature. It is a matter of conjecture whether the lake was named after the tribe, or if the tribe was called _"Erie"_ because of its proximity to the lake. Situated below Lake
Lake
Huron , Erie's primary inlet is the Detroit River
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Cooling Tower
A COOLING TOWER is a heat rejection device that rejects waste heat to the atmosphere through the cooling of a water stream to a lower temperature. Cooling towers may either use the evaporation of water to remove process heat and cool the working fluid to near the wet-bulb air temperature or, in the case of closed circuit dry cooling towers, rely solely on air to cool the working fluid to near the dry-bulb air temperature . Common applications include cooling the circulating water used in oil refineries , petrochemical and other chemical plants , thermal power stations and HVAC systems for cooling buildings. The classification is based on the type of air induction into the tower: the main types of cooling towers are natural draft and induced draft cooling towers. Cooling towers vary in size from small roof-top units to very large hyperboloid structures (as in the adjacent image) that can be up to 200 metres (660 ft) tall and 100 metres (330 ft) in diameter, or rectangular structures that can be over 40 metres (130 ft) tall and 80 metres (260 ft) long. The hyperboloid cooling towers are often associated with nuclear power plants , although they are also used in some coal-fired plants and to some extent in some large chemical and other industrial plants. Although these large towers are very prominent, the vast majority of cooling towers are much smaller, including many units installed on or near buildings to discharge heat from air conditioning
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Megawatt
The WATT (symbol: W) is a derived unit of power in the International System of Units (SI) defined as 1 joule per second and can be used to quantify the rate of energy transfer . Power has dimensions of M L 2 T 3 {displaystyle {mathsf {ML}}^{2}{mathsf {T}}^{-3}} . CONTENTS * 1 Examples * 2 Origin and adoption as an SI unit * 3 Multiples * 3.1 Femtowatt * 3.2 Picowatt * 3.3 Nanowatt * 3.4 Microwatt * 3.5 Milliwatt * 3.6 Kilowatt * 3.7 Megawatt * 3.8 Gigawatt * 3.9 Terawatt * 3.10 Petawatt * 4 Conventions in the electric power industry * 5 Radio transmission * 6 Difference between watts, watt-hours and watts per hour * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 External links EXAMPLESWhen an object's velocity is held constant at one meter per second against constant opposing force of one newton the rate at which work is done is 1 watt. 1 W = 1 J s = 1 N m s = 1 k g m 2 s 3 {displaystyle mathrm {1~W=1~{frac {J}{s}}=1~{frac {Ncdot m}{s}}=1~{frac {kgcdot m^{2}}{s^{3}}}} } In terms of electromagnetism , one watt is the rate at which work is done when one ampere (A) of current flows through an electrical potential difference of one volt (V). 1 W = 1 V A {displaystyle mathrm {1~W=1~Vcdot A} } Two additional unit conversions for watt can be found using the above equation and Ohm\'s Law
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Net Generation
NET GENERATION is the amount of electricity generated by a power plant that is transmitted and distributed for consumer use. Net generation is less than the total gross power generation as some power produced is consumed within the plant itself to power auxiliary equipment such as pumps , motors and pollution control devices
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Nuclear Power Plant
A NUCLEAR POWER PLANT or NUCLEAR POWER STATION is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor . As is typical in all conventional thermal power stations the heat is used to generate steam which drives a steam turbine connected to an electric generator which produces electricity . As of 23 April 2014 , the IAEA report there are 449 nuclear power reactors in operation operating in 31 countries. Nuclear power
Nuclear power
stations are usually considered to be base load stations, since fuel is a small part of the cost of production. Their operations and maintenance (O">_ The control room at an American nuclear power station For more history, see nuclear reactor , nuclear power and nuclear fission ._ Electricity
Electricity
was generated by a nuclear reactor for the first time ever on September 3, 1948 at the X-10 Graphite Reactor in Oak Ridge, Tennessee in the United States, which was the first nuclear power station to power a light bulb. The second, larger experiment occurred on December 20, 1951 at the EBR-I experimental station near Arco, Idaho in the United States. On June 27, 1954, the world's first nuclear power station to generate electricity for a power grid started operations at the Soviet city of Obninsk . The world's first full scale power station, Calder Hall in England, opened on October 17, 1956
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Monroe, Michigan
MONROE is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan located on Lake Erie . The population was 20,733 at the 2010 census . It is the largest city and county seat of Monroe County . The city is bordered on the south by Monroe Charter Township , but both are politically independent. The city is located approximately 14 mi (23 km) north of Toledo , Ohio and 25 mi (40 km) south of Detroit . The United States Census Bureau lists Monroe as the core city in the Monroe Metropolitan Area , which had a population of 152,021 in 2010. Monroe is officially part of the Detroit-Ann Arbor-Flint CSA . The city is sometimes unofficially included as a northerly extension of the Toledo Metropolitan Area . Settled by European Americans in 1784 shortly after the American Revolutionary War, Monroe was platted in 1817. It was named after President James Monroe . Today, the city is committed to historic preservation of resources; it is remembered for the Battle of Frenchtown during the War of 1812 , as well as being the childhood residence of George Armstrong Custer and other members of his family, including his brother Boston Custer and wife Elizabeth Bacon . The city has numerous historic museums and landmarks. Monroe is the home of the La-Z-Boy world headquarters. The population has declined slightly since its peak in 1970
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Frenchtown Charter Township, Michigan
FRENCHTOWN CHARTER TOWNSHIP is a charter township of Monroe County in the southeastern corner of the U.S. state of Michigan . The population was 20,428 at the 2010 census . Frenchtown is the second most-populated township in Monroe County after Bedford Township . The township has no incorporated cities or villages but numerous unincorporated areas ; it  is bordered by the city of Monroe to the south, and the two jurisdictions are politically independent. Sterling State Park and the Enrico Fermi Nuclear Generating Station are located within the township. CONTENTS * 1 Communities * 2 History * 3 Geography * 4 Demographics * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links COMMUNITIES * BAYCREST BEACH is a lakefront unincorporated community along Lake Erie at 41°56′41″N 83°18′28″W / 41.94472°N 83.30778°W / 41.94472; -83.30778 (Baycrest Beach) . * Detroit Beach is the most populated of the township's communities at 41°55′53″N 83°19′50″W / 41.93139°N 83.33056°W / 41.93139; -83.33056 (Detroit Beach) . Although an unincorporated community, it is a census-designated place with a population of 2,289 at the 2000 Census . * GOLFCREST is an unincorporated community located just west of Interstate 75 at 41°56′33″N 83°22′17″W / 41.94250°N 83.37139°W / 41.94250; -83.37139 (Golfcrest)
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DTE Energy Electric Company
DTE ELECTRIC COMPANY (formerly THE DETROIT EDISON COMPANY), founded in 1903, is an investor-owned electric utility which serves most of Southeast Michigan . Its parent company, DTE Energy (NYSE : DTE), provides energy services to a variety of clients beyond the DTE Electric Company's service area. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Power generation * 3 Energy transmission * 4 Energy distribution * 5 DTE Rail Service Inc. * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYDetroit Edison was part of a large holding company called North American Edison Company . North American's stock had once been one of the twelve component stocks of the May 1896 original Dow Jones Industrial Average . North American Company was broken up by the Securities and Exchange Commission , following the United States Supreme Court decision of April 1, 1946. After that Detroit Edison operated independently, and publicly traded on the New York Stock Exchange, under the ticker symbol DTE through the mid-1990s. In early 1996, it became an operating subsidiary of the new holding company, DTE Energy Company , which replaced Detroit Edison Company on the stock exchange, and took over the trading ticker symbol. POWER GENERATION Main article: DTE Energy § Existing coal-fired power plants The St. Clair Power Plant . The Monroe Power Plant . The utility operates eleven fossil-fuel generating plants, as well as the Enrico Fermi Nuclear Generating Station
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