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Ferdinand IV Of Castile
FERDINAND IV OF CASTILE (6 December 1285 – 7 September 1312) called THE SUMMONED (el Emplazado), was a King of Castile and León from 1295 until his death. During his minority, his upbringing and the custody of his person were entrusted to his mother, Queen María de Molina
María de Molina
, while his tutorship was entrusted to the Infante Henry of Castile the Senator , son of King Fernando III of Castile . At that time, and also for the rest of his reign, his mother tried to placate the nobility, confronted her son's enemies, and repeatedly prevented Ferdinand IV from being dethroned
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Alcaudete
ALCAUDETE is a city located in the province of Jaén , southern Spain . It is home to a 12th-14th century Moorish castle, located on the top of the hill commanding the town. Other sights include the Santa María la Mayor (15th century)
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Seville Cathedral
The CATHEDRAL OF SAINT MARY OF THE SEE (Spanish : Catedral de Santa María de la Sede), better known as SEVILLE CATHEDRAL, is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Seville
Seville
( Andalusia
Andalusia
, Spain
Spain
). It was registered in 1987 by UNESCO
UNESCO
as a World Heritage Site , along with the Alcázar palace complex and the General Archive of the Indies . "See" refers to the episcopal see , i.e., the bishop's ecclesiastical jurisdiction. After its completion in the early 16th century, Seville
Seville
Cathedral supplanted Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
as the largest cathedral in the world, a title the Byzantine church had held for nearly a thousand years. It is the third-largest church in the world as well as the largest Gothic church. Since the world's two largest churches, the Basilica of the National Shrine of Our Lady of Aparecida and St
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Biblioteca Nacional De España
The BIBLIOTECA NACIONAL DE ESPAñA (National Library of Spain) is a major public library , the largest in Spain, and one of the largest in the world. It is located in Madrid
Madrid
, on the Paseo de Recoletos . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 The library today * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links * 6 Images HISTORYThe library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library (Biblioteca Pública de Palacio). The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain
Spain
to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance (Ministerio de la Gobernación). At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional
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Gibraltar
GIBRALTAR (/dʒɪˈbrɔːltər/ _ji-BRAWL-tər_ , /dʒᵻˈbrɒltər/ _jə-BROL-tər_ or other permutations; Spanish pronunciation: ) is a British Overseas Territory located on the southern end of the Iberian Peninsula . It has an area of 6.7 km2 (2.6 sq mi) and shares its northern border with Spain. The Rock of Gibraltar
Gibraltar
is the major landmark of the region. At its foot is a densely populated city area, home to over 30,000 Gibraltarians
Gibraltarians
and other nationalities. An Anglo-Dutch force captured Gibraltar
Gibraltar
from Spain
Spain
in 1704 during the War of the Spanish Succession on behalf of the Habsburg
Habsburg
claim to the Spanish throne. The territory was subsequently ceded to Great Britain "in perpetuity" under the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713
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Kingdom Of France
The KINGDOM OF FRANCE (French : Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe
Western Europe
. It was one of the most powerful states in Europe and a great power since the Late Middle Ages and the Hundred Years\' War . It was also an early colonial power , with possessions around the world. France
France
originated as West Francia
West Francia
( Francia
Francia
Occidentalis), the western half of the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
, with the Treaty of Verdun (843). A branch of the Carolingian dynasty
Carolingian dynasty
continued to rule until 987, when Hugh Capet
Hugh Capet
was elected king and founded the Capetian dynasty
Capetian dynasty

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Ferdinand De La Cerda
FERDINAND DE LA CERDA (1255–1275) was the heir apparent to the Crown of Castile
Crown of Castile
as the eldest son of Alfonso X
Alfonso X
and Violant of Aragon . His nickname, de la Cerda, means "of the bristle" in Spanish, a reference to being born with a full head of hair. Arm of the HOUSE DE LA CERDA to the 13th century, a combination of Castile and León, from infante Fernando, and the arms of France, for Blanche of France. In November 1268 he married Blanche , the daughter of King Louis IX of France . They had two sons: * Alfonso de la Cerda (1270-1333) , who was believed to have married Matilde of Narbonne, daughter of Viscount Aimery VI of Narbonne. Recent research showed that Alfonso de la Cerda married Matilde of Brienne, daughter of John I of Brienne
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Lord Of Biscay
The LORDSHIP OF BISCAY (Spanish : Señorío de Vizcaya, Basque : Bizkaiko jaurerria) was a region under feudal rule in the region of Biscay
Biscay
in the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
between c.1040 and 1876, ruled by a political figure known as the Lord of Biscay. One of the Basque señoríos , it was a territory with its own political organization, with its own naval ensign , consulate in Bruges
Bruges
and customs offices in Balmaseda
Balmaseda
and Urduña , from the 11th Century until 1876, when the Juntas Generales were abolished. Since 1379, when John I of Castile became the Lord of Biscay, the lordship got integrated into the Crown of Castile , and eventually the Kingdom of Spain
Spain

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Zamora, Spain
ZAMORA (Spanish pronunciation: ) is a city in Castile and León
Castile and León
, Spain, the capital of the province of Zamora . It lies on a rocky hill in the northwest, near the frontier with Portugal
Portugal
and crossed by the Duero
Duero
river, which is some 50 kilometres (31 mi) downstream as it reaches the Portuguese border. With its 24 characteristic Romanesque style churches of the 12th and 13th centuries it has been called a "museum of Romanesque art". Zamora is the city with the most Romanesque churches in all of Europe. The most important celebration in Zamora is the Holy Week
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Treasurer
A TREASURER is the person responsible for running the treasury of an organization. The adjective for a treasurer is normally "tresorial." The adjective "treasurial" normally means pertaining to a treasury, rather than the treasurer. CONTENTS * 1 Government * 2 Corporate treasurers * 3 In the Inns of Court * 4 Volunteer organizations * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links GOVERNMENTThe Treasury
Treasury
of a country is the department responsible for the country's economy , finance and revenue . The TREASURER is generally the head of the Treasury, although, in some countries (such as the U.K. or the U.S. ) the treasurer reports to a Secretary of the Treasury
Treasury
, or Chancellor of the Exchequer
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Alcázar Of Toledo
The ALCáZAR OF TOLEDO (Spanish : Alcázar de Toledo, IPA: ) is a stone fortification located in the highest part of Toledo, Spain
Toledo, Spain
. Once used as a Roman palace in the 3rd century, it was restored under Charles I (Holy Roman Emperor Charles V) and his son Philip II of Spain in the 1540s. In 1521, Hernán Cortés
Hernán Cortés
was received by Charles I at the Alcázar, following Cortes' conquest of the Aztecs . CONTENTS * 1 Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
* 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Sources * 5 External links SPANISH CIVIL WARDuring the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
, Colonel José Moscardó Ituarte
José Moscardó Ituarte
held the building against overwhelming Spanish Republican forces in the Siege of the Alcázar
Siege of the Alcázar

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Ferdinand De La Cerda, Lord Of Lara
FERNANDO DE LA CERDA (1275–1322) was the younger son of Ferdinand de la Cerda, Infante of Castile and his wife Blanche of France . His paternal grandparents were Alfonso X of Castile
Alfonso X of Castile
and Violant of Aragon . His maternal grandparents were Louis IX of France
Louis IX of France
and Marguerite of Provence . His elder brother was Alfonso de la Cerda . CONTENTS * 1 The fight for the throne * 2 Marriage and issue * 3 Ancestry * 4 External links THE FIGHT FOR THE THRONEFernando's father died before inheriting Castile , his elder brother should have ascended the throne on his grandfather's death. In 1282 their uncle, Sancho assembled a coalition of nobles to declare for him against Fernando's elder brother, then took control of the kingdom when Alfonso X of Castile
Alfonso X of Castile
died in 1284
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Toledo Cathedral
The PRIMATE CATHEDRAL OF SAINT MARY OF TOLEDO (Spanish : Catedral Primada Santa María de Toledo) is a Roman Catholic church in Toledo, Spain
Spain
. It is the seat of the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Toledo . The cathedral of Toledo is one of the three 13th-century High Gothic cathedrals in Spain
Spain
and is considered, in the opinion of some authorities, to be the magnum opus of the Gothic style in Spain. It was begun in 1226 under the rule of Ferdinand III and the last Gothic contributions were made in the 15th century when, in 1493, the vaults of the central nave were finished during the time of the Catholic Monarchs . It was modeled after the Bourges Cathedral
Cathedral
, although its five naves plan is a consequence of the constructors' intention to cover all of the sacred space of the former city mosque with the cathedral, and of the former sahn with the cloister
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Toledo, Spain
TOLEDO (Spanish: ) is a city and municipality located in central Spain; it is the capital of the province of Toledo and the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha
Castile–La Mancha
. Toledo was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO
UNESCO
in 1986 for its extensive monumental and cultural heritage. Toledo is known as the "Imperial City" for having been the main venue of the court of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
, and as the "City of the Three Cultures" for the cultural influences of Christians, Muslims and Jews reflected in its history. It was also the capital of the ancient Visigothic kingdom of Hispania, which followed the fall of the Roman Empire, and the location of historic events such as the Visigothic Councils of Toledo
Councils of Toledo
. Toledo has a long history in the production of bladed weapons , which are now popular souvenirs of the city
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Kingdom Of Portugal
The KINGDOM OF PORTUGAL ( Latin : _Regnum Portugalliae_, Portuguese : _Reino de Portugal_) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal . It was in existence from 1139 until 1910. After 1248, it was also known as the KINGDOM OF PORTUGAL AND THE ALGARVES , and between 1815 and 1822, it was known as the UNITED KINGDOM OF PORTUGAL, BRAZIL AND THE ALGARVES . The name is also often applied to the PORTUGUESE EMPIRE , the realm's extensive overseas colonies. The nucleus of the Portuguese state was the County of Portugal , established in the 9th century as part of the _ Reconquista _, by Vímara Peres , a vassal of the King of Asturias . The county became part of the Kingdom of León in 1097, and the Counts of Portugal established themselves as rulers of an independent kingdom in the 12th century, following the battle of São Mamede
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