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Female Reproductive System
The female reproductive system (or female genital system) is made up of the internal and external sex organs that function in reproduction of new offspring. In the human the female reproductive system is immature at birth and develops to maturity at puberty to be able to produce gametes, and to carry a fetus to full term. The internal sex organs are the uterus and Fallopian tubes, and the ovaries. The uterus or womb accommodates the embryo which develops into the fetus. The uterus also produces vaginal and uterine secretions which help the transit of sperm to the Fallopian tubes. The ovaries produce the ova (egg cells). The external sex organs are also known as the genitals and these are the organs of the vulva including the labia, clitoris and vaginal opening. The vagina is connected to the uterus at the cervix.[1] At certain intervals, the ovaries release an ovum, which passes through the Fallopian tube
Fallopian tube
into the uterus
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Cilia
A cilium (from Latin, meaning 'eyelash';[1] the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Cilia are slender protuberances that project from the much larger cell body.[2] There are two types of cilia: motile cilia and nonmotile, or primary, cilia, which typically serve as sensory organelles
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Zygote
A zygote (from Greek zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke")[1] is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes. The zygote's genome is a combination of the DNA in each gamete, and contains all of the genetic information necessary to form a new individual. In multicellular organisms, the zygote is the earliest developmental stage. In single-celled organisms, the zygote can divide asexually by mitosis to produce identical offspring. Oscar Hertwig
Oscar Hertwig
and Richard Hertwig
Richard Hertwig
made some of the first discoveries on animal zygote formation.Contents1 Fungi 2 Plants 3 Humans 4 In other species 5 In protozoa 6 See also 7 ReferencesFungi[edit] In fungi, the sexual fusion of haploid cells is called karyogamy. The result of karyogamy is the formation of a diploid cell called zygote or zygospore
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Spermatozoon
A spermatozoon (pronounced /ˌspɜːrmætəˈzoʊən/, alternate spelling spermatozoön; plural spermatozoa; from Ancient Greek: σπέρμα "seed" and Ancient Greek: ζῷον "living being") is a motile sperm cell, or moving form of the haploid cell that is the male gamete. A spermatozoon joins an ovum to form a zygote. (A zygote is a single cell, with a complete set of chromosomes, that normally develops into an embryo.) Sperm
Sperm
cells contribute approximately half of the nuclear genetic information to the diploid offspring (excluding, in most cases, mitochondrial DNA). In mammals, the sex of the offspring is determined by the sperm cell: a spermatozoon bearing a X chromosome
X chromosome
will lead to a female (XX) offspring, while one bearing a Y chromosome
Y chromosome
will lead to a male (XY) offspring
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Semen
Semen, also known as seminal fluid, is an organic fluid that may contain spermatozoa. It is secreted by the gonads (sexual glands) and other sexual organs of male or hermaphroditic animals and can fertilize female ova. In humans, seminal fluid contains several components besides spermatozoa: proteolytic and other enzymes as well as fructose are elements of seminal fluid which promote the survival of spermatozoa, and provide a medium through which they can move or "swim". Semen
Semen
is produced and originates from the seminal vesicle, which is located in the pelvis. The process that results in the discharge of semen is called ejaculation. Semen
Semen
is also a form of genetic material. In animals, semen has been collected for cryoconservation
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Fertilisation
Fertilisation
Fertilisation
or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation,[1] is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.[2] The cycle of fertilisation and development of new individuals is called sexual reproduction. During double fertilisation in angiosperms the haploid male gamete combines with two haploid polar nuclei to form a triploid primary endosperm nucleus by the process of vegetative fertilisation.Contents1 History 2 Fertilisation
Fertilisation
in plants2.1 Bryophytes 2.2 Ferns 2.3 Gymnosperms 2.4 Flowering plants 2.5 Self-Pollination3 Fertilisation
Fertilisation
in animals3.1 Internal vs
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Fertilization
Fertilisation
Fertilisation
or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, insemination, pollination,[1] fecundation, syngamy and impregnation,[2] is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism or offspring.[3] This cycle of fertilisation and development of new individuals is called sexual reproduction. During double fertilisation in angiosperms the haploid male gamete combines with two haploid polar nuclei to form a triploid primary endosperm nucleus by the process of vegetative fertilisation.Contents1 History 2 Evolution 3 Fertilisation
Fertilisation
in plants3.1 Bryophytes 3.2 Ferns 3.3 Gymnosperms 3.4 Flowering plants 3.5 Self-pollination4 Fertilisation
Fertilisation
in animals4.1 Internal vs
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Human Embryogenesis
Human embryogenesis
Human embryogenesis
is the process of cell division and cellular differentiation of the embryo that occurs during the early stages of development. In biological terms, human development entails growth from a one-celled zygote to an adult human being. Fertilisation
Fertilisation
occurs when the sperm cell successfully enters and fuses with an egg cell (ovum). The genetic material of the sperm and egg then combine to form a single cell called a zygote and the germinal stage of prenatal development commences.[1] Embryogenesis
Embryogenesis
covers the first eight weeks of development; at the beginning of the ninth week the embryo is termed a fetus. Human embryology is the study of this development during the first eight weeks after fertilisation
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Mitosis
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei. In general, mitosis (division of the nucleus) is preceded by the S stage of interphase (during which the DNA
DNA
is replicated) and is often accompanied or followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm, organelles and cell membrane into two new cells containing roughly equal shares of these cellular components.[1] Mitosis
Mitosis
and cytokinesis together define the mitotic (M) phase of an animal cell cycle—the division of the mother cell into two daughter cells genetically identical to each other. The process of mitosis is divided into stages corresponding to the completion of one set of activities and the start of the next
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Orgasm
Orgasm
Orgasm
(from Greek ὀργασμός orgasmos "excitement, swelling"; also sexual climax) is the sudden discharge of accumulated sexual excitement during the sexual response cycle, resulting in rhythmic muscular contractions in the pelvic region characterized by sexual pleasure.[1][2][3] Experienced by males and females, orgasms are controlled by the involuntary or autonomic nervous system
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Blastocyst
The blastocyst is a structure formed in the early development of mammals. It possesses an inner cell mass (ICM) which subsequently forms the embryo. The outer layer of the blastocyst consists of cells collectively called the trophoblast. This layer surrounds the inner cell mass and a fluid-filled cavity known as the blastocoele. The trophoblast gives rise to the placenta. The name "blastocyst" arises from the Greek βλαστός blastos ("a sprout") and κύστις kystis ("bladder, capsule"). In humans, blastocyst formation begins about 5 days after fertilization, when a fluid-filled cavity opens up in the morula, a ball consisting of sixteen cells. The blastocyst has a diameter of about 0.1-0.2 mm and comprises 200-300 cells following rapid cleavage (cell division)
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Implantation (embryo)
In humans, implantation is the stage of pregnancy at which the already fertilized egg adheres to the wall of the uterus. At this stage of prenatal development, the conceptus is called a blastocyst
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Gestation
Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside female viviparous animals. It is typical for mammals, but also occurs for some non-mammals. Mammals during pregnancy can have one or more gestations at the same time (multiple gestations). The time interval of a gestation is called the gestation period. In human obstetrics, gestational age refers to the embryonic or fetal age plus two weeks
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Prenatal Development
Prenatal development
Prenatal development
is the process in which an embryo and later fetus develops during gestation. Prenatal development
Prenatal development
starts with fertilization the first stage in embryogenesis which continues in fetal development until birth. In human pregnancy, prenatal development, also known as antenatal development, is the development of the embryo following fertilization, and continued as fetal development. By the end of the tenth week of gestational age the embryo has acquired its basic form and is referred to as a fetus. The next period is that of fetal development where many organs become fully developed. This fetal period is described both topically (by organ) and chronologically (by time) with major occurrences being listed by gestational age. In other animals the very early stages of embryogenesis are the same as those in humans
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Sagittal Plane
A sagittal plane [ˈsæ.dʒɪ.tl̩] is an anatomical plane which divides the body into right and left parts.[1] The plane may be in the center of the body and split it into two halves (mid-sagittal) or away from the midline and split it into unequal parts (para-sagittal). Most elements of Irish dancing
Irish dancing
occur in the sagittal plane.[2]Contents1 Variations in terminology 2 Additional images 3 See also 4 ReferencesVariations in terminology[edit] Examples include:The terms median plane or mid-sagittal plane are sometimes used to describe the sagittal plane running through the midline. This plane cuts the body into halves (assuming bilateral symmetry),[3] passing through midline structures such as the navel and spine. It is one of the planes which, combined with the Umbilical plane, defines the four quadrants of the human abdomen.[4] The term parasagittal is used to describe any plane parallel to the sagittal plane
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