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Female
FEMALE (♀) is the sex of an organism , or a part of an organism, that produces non-mobile ova (egg cells). Barring rare medical conditions, most female mammals , including female humans , have two X chromosomes . CONTENTS * 1 Defining characteristics * 2 Etymology and usage * 3 Mammalian female * 4 Symbol * 5 Sex
Sex
determination * 5.1 Genetic determination * 5.2 Environmental determination * 6 See also * 7 Sources * 8 References DEFINING CHARACTERISTICSThe ova are defined as the larger gametes in a heterogamous reproduction system , while the smaller, usually motile gamete, the spermatozoon , is produced by the male . A female individual cannot reproduce sexually without access to the gametes of a male, or vice versa (an exception is parthenogenesis ). Some organisms can reproduce both sexually and asexually . There is no single genetic mechanism behind sex differences in different species and the existence of two sexes seems to have evolved multiple times independently in different evolutionary lineages . Patterns of sexual reproduction include * Isogamous species with two or more mating types with gametes of identical form and behavior (but different at the molecular level), * Anisogamous species with gametes of male and female types, * Oogamous species, which include humans in which the female gamete is very much larger than the male and has no ability to move . Oogamy is a form of anisogamy
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Female (other)
FEMALE is the sex of a human woman or girl, or of other ovum-producing organisms. FEMALE may also refer to: * Woman
Woman
* in hardware and electronics, a type of connector, often but not always a "jack." See Gender of connectors and fasteners * in arts and entertainment * Female
Female
(novel) , a 1933 novel by Donald Henderson Clarke * Female
Female
(1933 film) , a 1933 film starring Ruth Chatterton * Female
Female
(2005 film) , a 2005 Japanese film compilation * "Female", a poem by Patti Smith from her 1972 book Seventh Heaven SEE ALSO * Feminine (other) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title FEMALE. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Female_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Talk
TALK may refer to: * Conversation , interactive communication between two or more people * Speech , the production of a spoken language * Interaction , face to face conversations * Compulsive talking , beyond the bounds of what is considered to be a socially acceptable amount of talking * Communication , the encoding and decoding of exchanged messages between peopleCONTENTS * 1 Software * 2 Books * 3 Film and TV * 4 Music * 4.1 Albums * 4.2 Songs SOFTWARE * Google Talk , a Windows- and web-based instant messaging program * talk (software) , a Unix messaging program * AppleTalk , an early networking protocol designed by Apple for their Macintosh computersBOOKS * _Talk_ (play) , a play by Carl Hancock Rux * _Talk_ (magazine) , an American magazineFILM AND TV * _Talk_ (film) , a 1994 Australian film * Talk show , a broadcast program format * Talk radio , a radio formatMUSIC * Talk Talk , a British rock group active from 1981 to 1991ALBUMS * _Talk_ (Yes album) , 1994 * _Talk_ (Paul Kelly album) , 1981SONGS * "Talk" (Coldplay song) * "Talk" (DJ Snake song) * "Talk", by Kreesha Turner on the album _Passion _ * "Talk", by Tracy Bonham on the album _ The Liverpool Sessions _ * "Talk", by M.I.A
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Venus (mythology)
VENUS (/ˈviːnəs/ , Classical Latin: /ˈwɛnʊs/ ) is the Roman goddess whose functions encompassed love, beauty, desire, sex , fertility, prosperity and victory. In Roman mythology , she was the mother of the Roman people through her son, Aeneas
Aeneas
, who survived the fall of Troy and fled to Italy. Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
claimed her as his ancestor. Venus
Venus
was central to many religious festivals , and was revered in Roman religion under numerous cult titles. The Romans adapted the myths and iconography of her Greek counterpart Aphrodite
Aphrodite
for Roman art and Latin literature . In the later classical tradition of the West , Venus
Venus
becomes one of the most widely referenced deities of Greco- Roman mythology as the embodiment of love and sexuality
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Alchemical Symbol
ALCHEMICAL SYMBOLS, originally devised as part of alchemy , were used to denote some elements and some compounds until the 18th century. Note that while notation like this was mostly standardized, style and symbol varied between alchemists, so this page lists the most common. CONTENTS * 1 Three primes * 2 Four basic elements * 3 Seven planetary metals * 4 Mundane elements * 5 Alchemical compounds * 6 Alchemical processes * 7 Unicode * 8 References * 9 External links THREE PRIMESAccording to Paracelsus
Paracelsus
(1493–1541), the three primes or _tria prima_ – of which material substances are immediately composed – are: * Mercury (spirit) * Salt (base matter or body) * Sulfur
Sulfur
(soul) FOUR BASIC ELEMENTS Main article: Classical elements Western alchemy makes use of the Hellenic elements. The symbols used for these are: * Air * Earth * Fire * Water SEVEN PLANETARY METALS Main articles: Classical planets in Western alchemy, Planets in astrology , and Metals of antiquity Seven metals are associated with the seven classical planets, and seven deities, all figuring heavily in alchemical symbolism. Although the metals occasionally have a glyph of their own, the planet's symbol is used most often, and the symbolic and mythological septenary is consistent with Western astrology
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Sex
Organisms of many species are specialized into male and female varieties, each known as a SEX, with some falling in between being intersex . Sexual reproduction involves the combining and mixing of genetic traits: specialized cells known as gametes combine to form offspring that inherit traits from each parent. Gametes can be identical in form and function (known as isogamy ), but in many cases an asymmetry has evolved such that two sex-specific types of gametes (heterogametes) exist (known as anisogamy ). Among humans and other mammals , males typically carry XY chromosomes , whereas females typically carry XX chromosomes, which are a part of the XY sex-determination system . Other animals have a sex-determination system as well, such as the ZW sex-determination system in birds, and the X0 sex-determination system in insects. The gametes produced by an organism are determined by its sex: males produce male gametes (spermatozoa, or sperm , in animals; pollen in plants) while females produce female gametes (ova , or egg cells); individual organisms which produce both male and female gametes are termed hermaphroditic . Frequently, physical differences are associated with the different sexes of an organism; these sexual dimorphisms can reflect the different reproductive pressures the sexes experience. For instance, mate choice and sexual selection can accelerate the evolution of physical differences between the sexes
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Organism
In biology , an ORGANISM (from Greek : οργανισμός, _organismos_) is any individual life form , of an animal , plant , fungus , or single-celled microorganism such as a protist , bacterium , and archaeon . All types of organisms are capable of reproduction , growth and development , maintenance , and some degree of response to stimuli . An organism consists of one or more cells ; when it has one cell it is known as a unicellular organism ; and when it has more than one it is known as a multicellular organism . Humans are multicellular organisms composed of many trillions of cells grouped into specialized tissues and organs . An organism may be either a prokaryote or a eukaryote . Prokaryotes are represented by two separate domains —bacteria and archaea . Eukaryotic organisms are characterized by the presence of a membrane-bound cell nucleus and contain additional membrane-bound compartments called organelles (such as mitochondria in animals and plants and plastids in plants and algae , all generally considered to be derived from endosymbiotic bacteria). Fungi, animals and plants are examples of kingdoms of organisms within the eukaryotes. Estimates on the number of Earth's current species range from 10 million to 14 million, of which only about 1.2 million have been documented. More than 99% of all species, amounting to over five billion species, that ever lived are estimated to be extinct
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Ovum
The EGG CELL, or OVUM, is the female reproductive cell (gamete ) in oogamous organisms. The egg cell is typically not capable of active movement, and it is much larger (visible to the naked eye) than the motile sperm cells . When egg and sperm fuse, a diploid cell (the zygote ) is formed, which rapidly grows into a new organism. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Animals * 2.1 Human and mammal ova * 2.2 Ooplasm * 2.3 Ova development in oviparous animals * 2.4 Ovoviviparity * 3 Plants * 4 Other organisms * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYWhile the non-mammalian animal egg was obvious, the doctrine ex ova omne vivum ("every living an egg"), associated with William Harvey (1578-1657), was a rejection of spontaneous generation and preformationism as well as a bold assumption that mammals also reproduced via eggs. Karl Ernst von Baer discovered the mammalian ovum in 1827, and Edgar Allen
Edgar Allen
discovered the human ovum in 1928. The fusion of spermatozoa with ova (of a starfish) was observed by Oskar Hertwig in 1876. ANIMALSIn animals, egg cells are also known as ova (singular OVUM, from the Latin word ovum meaning egg or egg cell). The term OVULE is used for the young ovum of an animal. In vertebrates, ova are produced by female gonads (sexual glands) called ovaries a number of ova are present at birth in mammals and mature via oogenesis
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Mammal
MAMMALS are any vertebrates within the class MAMMALIA (/məˈmeɪli.ə/ from Latin _mamma_ "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds ) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair , three middle ear bones and mammary glands . Females of all mammal species nurse their young with milk , secreted from the mammary glands. Mammals include the biggest animals on the planet, the great whales . The basic body type is a terrestrial quadruped , but some mammals are adapted for life at sea , in the air , in trees , underground or on two legs . The largest group of mammals, the placentals , have a placenta , which enables the feeding of the fetus during gestation. Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm (1.2–1.6 in) bumblebee bat to the 30-meter (98 ft) blue whale . With the exception of the five species of monotreme (egg-laying mammals), all modern mammals give birth to live young. Most mammals, including the six most species-rich orders , belong to the placental group. The largest orders are the rodents , bats and Soricomorpha
Soricomorpha
(shrews and allies). The next three biggest orders, depending on the biological classification scheme used, are the Primates
Primates
(apes and monkeys ), the Cetartiodactyla (whales and even-toed ungulates ), and the Carnivora
Carnivora
(cats , dogs , seals , and allies)
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Human
† _ Homo sapiens idaltu _ White _et al._, 2003 _ Homo sapiens sapiens _ _ Homo sapiens _ population density SYNONYMS Species synonymy * _aethiopicus_ Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * _americanus_ Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * _arabicus_ Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * _aurignacensis_ Klaatsch & Hauser, 1910 * _australasicus_ Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * _cafer_ Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * _capensis_ Broom, 1917 * _columbicus_ Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * _cro-magnonensis_ Gregory, 1921 * _drennani_ Kleinschmidt, 1931 * _eurafricanus_ (Sergi, 1911) * _grimaldiensis_ Gregory, 1921 * _grimaldii_ Lapouge, 1906 * _hottentotus_ Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * _hyperboreus_ Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * _indicus_ Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * _japeticus_ Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * _melaninus_ Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * _monstrosus_ Linnaeus, 1758 * _neptunianus_ Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 * _palestinus_ McCown high manual dexterity and heavy tool use compared to other animals; and a general trend toward larger, more complex brains and societies . Early hominins—particularly the australopithecines , whose brains and anatomy are in many ways more similar to ancestral non-human apes —are less often referred to as "human" than hominins of the genus _Homo_
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X Chromosome
The X CHROMOSOME is one of the two sex-determining chromosomes (allosomes ) in many organisms, including mammals (the other is the Y chromosome ), and is found in both males and females. It is a part of the XY sex-determination system and X0 sex-determination system . The X chromosome
X chromosome
was named for its unique properties by early researchers, which resulted in the naming of its counterpart Y chromosome, for the next letter in the alphabet, after it was discovered later. CONTENTS * 1 Discovery * 2 Inheritance pattern * 3 Humans * 3.1 Function * 3.2 Genes * 3.3 Structure * 3.4 Role in diseases * 3.4.1 Numerical abnormalities * 3.4.2 Other disorders * 3.4.3 Role in mental abilities and intelligence * 3.5 Cytogenetic band * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links DISCOVERYIt was first noted that the X chromosome
X chromosome
was special in 1890 by Hermann Henking in Leipzig. Henking was studying the testicles of Pyrrhocoris and noticed that one chromosome did not take part in meiosis . Chromosomes are so named because of their ability to take up staining . Although the X chromosome
X chromosome
could be stained just as well as the others, Henking was unsure whether it was a different class of object and consequently named it X element, which later became X chromosome after it was established that it was indeed a chromosome
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Gamete
A GAMETE (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
γαμετή _gamete_ from gamein "to marry" ) is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce . In species that produce two morphologically distinct types of gametes, and in which each individual produces only one type, a female is any individual that produces the larger type of gamete—called an ovum (or egg)—and a male produces the smaller tadpole -like type—called a sperm . This is an example of anisogamy or heterogamy , the condition in which females and males produce gametes of different sizes (this is the case in humans; the human ovum has approximately 100,000 times the volume of a single human sperm cell ). In contrast, isogamy is the state of gametes from both sexes being the same size and shape, and given arbitrary designators for mating type . The name gamete was introduced by the Austrian biologist Gregor Mendel . Gametes carry half the genetic information of an individual, one ploidy of each type, and are created through meiosis . Oogenesis is the process of female gamete formation in animals
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Heterogamous
HETEROGAMY (from Ancient Greek ἕτερος heteros, "other, another" and γάμος gámos, "marriage") has a number of biological definitions. CONTENTS* 1 Science * 1.1 Reproductive biology * 1.2 Reproductive biology * 1.3 Cell biology * 1.4 Botany * 2 Social science * 3 See also * 4 References SCIENCEREPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGYIn reproductive biology, heterogamy is the alternation of differently organized generations, applied to the alternation between parthenogenetic and a sexual generation. This type of heterogamy occurs for example in some aphids . REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY Main article: Heterogametic In reproductive biology, heterogamy or heterogamous is often used as a synonym of heterogametic , meaning the presence of two unlike chromosomes in a sex. For example, XY males and ZW females are called the heterogamous sex. CELL BIOLOGY Main article: Anisogamy
Anisogamy
In cell biology , heterogamy is a synonym of anisogamy , the condition of having differently sized male and female gametes produced by different sexes or mating types in a species. BOTANYIn botany , a plant is heterogamous when it carries at least two different types of flowers in regard to their reproductive structures, for example male and female flowers or bisexual and female flowers. Stamens and carpels are not regularly present in each flower or floret
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Reproduction System
The REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM or GENITAL SYSTEM is a system of sex organs within an organism which work together for the purpose of sexual reproduction . Many non-living substances such as fluids, hormones , and pheromones are also important accessories to the reproductive system. Unlike most organ systems , the sexes of differentiated species often have significant differences. These differences allow for a combination of genetic material between two individuals, which allows for the possibility of greater genetic fitness of the offspring
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Motility
In biology , MOTILITY is the ability to move spontaneously and actively, consuming energy in the process. It is not to be confused with MOBILITY, which describes the ability of an object to be moved. Motility
Motility
is genetically determined (see genetic determinism ) but may be affected by environmental factors. For instance, muscles give animals motility but the consumption of hydrogen cyanide (the environmental factor in this case) would adversely affect muscle physiology causing them to stiffen leading to rigor mortis . Most animals are motile but the term applies to unicellular and simple multicellular organisms , as well as to some mechanisms of fluid flow in multicellular organs, in addition to animal locomotion . Motile marine animals are commonly called FREE-SWIMMING. Motility
Motility
may also refer to an organism's ability to move food through its digestive tract, i.e. peristalsis (gut motility, intestinal motility, etc.). An example of intestinal motility is the contraction of smooth muscles in the gastrointestinal tract. This is referred to as the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and it serves two functions, which are to mix the luminal contents with various secretions and to move contents through the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus
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Spermatozoon
A SPERMATOZOON (pronounced /ˌspɜːrmætəˈzoʊən/ , alternate spelling SPERMATOZOöN; plural SPERMATOZOA; from Ancient Greek : σπέρμα "seed" and Ancient Greek : ζῷον "living being") is a motile sperm cell , or moving form of the haploid cell that is the male gamete . A spermatozoon joins an ovum to form a zygote . (A zygote is a single cell, with a complete set of chromosomes , that normally develops into an embryo .) Sperm cells contribute approximately half of the nuclear genetic information to the diploid offspring (excluding, in most cases, mitochondrial DNA ). In mammals, the sex of the offspring is determined by the sperm cell: a spermatozoon bearing a X chromosome will lead to a female (XX) offspring, while one bearing a Y chromosome will lead to a male (XY) offspring. Sperm cells were first observed by Anton van Leeuwenhoek in 1677
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