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Federal Information Processing Standard
Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) are publicly announced standards developed by the United States federal government
United States federal government
for use in computer systems by non-military government agencies and government contractors.[1] FIPS standards are issued to es
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Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiians
Native Hawaiians
(Hawaiian: kānaka ʻōiwi, kānaka maoli, and Hawaiʻi maoli) are the aboriginal Polynesian people of the Hawaiian Islands or their descendants.[3] Native Hawaiians
Native Hawaiians
trace their ancestry back to the original Polynesian settlers of Hawaii. According to the U.S. Census Bureau report for 2000, there are 401,000 people who identified themselves as being "Native Hawaiian" alone or in combination with one or more other races or Pacific Islander groups
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U.S. State
In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans
Americans
are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside.[3] State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders (such as paroled convicts and children of divorced spouses who are sharing custody). States are divided into counties or county-equivalents, which may be assigned some local governmental authority but are not sovereign. County or county-equivalent structure varies widely by state, and states may also create other local governments
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Portable Document Format
The Portable Document
Document
Format (PDF) (redundantly: PDF
PDF
format) is a file format developed by Adobe in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.[2][3] Based on the PostScript
PostScript
language, each PDF
PDF
file encapsulates a complete description of a fixed-layout flat document, including the text, fonts, vector graphics, raster images and other information needed to display it
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United States Geological Survey
The United States
United States
Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States
United States
government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, and the natural hazards that threaten it. The organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography, geology, and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility. The USGS is a bureau of the United States
United States
Department of the Interior; it is that department's sole scientific agency. The USGS employs approximately 8,670 people[1] and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia
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Hierarchical Administrative Subdivision Codes
Hierarchical administrative subdivision codes (HASC) are codes to represent names of country subdivisions, such as states, province, regions. They are described in the book Administrative Subdivisions of Countries: A Comprehensive World Reference, 1900 Through 1998, written by Gwillim Law.[1] The codes are alphabetic and have constant length for the first level subdivisions. Examples:DE - Germany DE.NW - North Rhine-Westphalia DE.NW.CE - Kreis CoesfeldSee also[edit]ISO 3166-2 GeocodeReferences[edit]^ Gwillim Law. Administrative Subdivisions of Countries: A Comprehensive World Reference, 1900 Through 1998. ISBN 0-7864-0729-8. External links[edit]"Hierarchical administrative subdivision codes". Statoids. This article about geography terminology is a stub
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Cryptographic
Cryptography
Cryptography
or cryptology (from Greek κρυπτός kryptós, "hidden, secret"; and γράφειν graphein, "to write", or -λογία -logia, "study", respectively[1]) is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties called adversaries.[2] More generally, cryptography is about constructing and analyzing protocols that prevent third parties or the public from reading private messages;[3] various aspects in information security such as data confidentiality, data integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation[4] are central to modern cryptography. Modern cryptography exists at the intersection of the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, electrical engineering, communication science, and physics
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ONS Coding System
In the United Kingdom, the Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
maintains a series of codes to represent a wide range of geographical areas of the UK, for use in tabulating census and other statistical data. These codes are referred to as ONS codes or GSS codes referring to the Government Statistical Service of which ONS is part. The previous hierarchical system of codes has been replaced as from January 2011[1] by a nine-character code for all types of geography, in which there is no relation between the code for a lower-tier area and the corresponding parent area
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Federal Information Security Management Act Of 2002
The Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002
Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002
("FISMA", 44 U.S.C. § 3541, et seq.) is a United States federal law enacted in 2002 as Title III of the E-Government Act of 2002
E-Government Act of 2002
(Pub.L. 107–347, 116 Stat. 2899)
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United States Census, 2010
The 2010 United States
United States
Census (commonly referred to as the 2010 Census) is the twenty-third and most recent United States
United States
national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010.[1] The census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired.[2][3] The population of the United States
United States
was counted as 308,745,538,[4] a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census.Contents1 Introduction 2 Major changes 3 Cost 4 Technology 5 Marketing and undercounts 6 Reapportionment 7 Controversies7.1 Clemons v
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Standardization
Standardization
Standardization
or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standards based on the consensus of different parties that include firms, users, interest groups, standards organizations and governments[1] Standardization
Standardization
can help to maximize compatibility, interoperability, safety, repeatability, or quality. It can also facilitate commoditization of formerly custom processes. In social sciences, including economics,[2] the idea of standardization is close to the solution for a coordination problem, a situation in which all parties can realize mutual gains, but only by making mutually consistent decisions
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Alaska Native
Alaska
Alaska
Natives are indigenous peoples of Alaska, United States: Iñupiat, Yupik, Aleut, Eyak, Tlingit, Haida, Tsimshian, and a number of Northern Athabaskan cultures. They are often defined by their language groups. Alaska
Alaska
Natives are enrolled in federally recognized Alaska
Alaska
Native tribal entities, who in turn belong to 13 Alaska
Alaska
Native Regional Corporations, who administer land and financial claims. Ancestors of the Alaska
Alaska
Natives are known to have migrated into the area thousands of years ago, in at least two different waves. Some are descendants of a third wave of migration in which people settled across the northern part of North America. They never migrated to southern areas
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Indigenous Peoples Of The Americas
The indigenous peoples of the Americas
Americas
are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas
Americas
and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas
Americas
were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas.[24] Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering
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U.S. Census Bureau
The United States
United States
Census
Census
Bureau (USCB; officially the Bureau of the Census, as defined in Title 13 U.S.C. § 11) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy. The Census Bureau is part of the U.S. Department of Commerce
Department of Commerce
and its director is appointed by the President of the United States. The Census
Census
Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U.S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U.S
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International Committee For Information Technology Standards
International
International
mostly means something (a company, language, or organization) involving more than a single country. The term international as a word means involvement of, interaction between or encompassing more than one nation, or generally beyond national boundaries. For example, international law, which is applied by more than one country and usually everywhere on Earth, and international language which is a language spoken by residents of more than one country.Contents1 Origin of the word 2 Meaning in particular fields 3 See also 4 References 5 External links 6 SourcesOrigin of the word[edit] The term international was coined by the utilitarian philosopher Jeremy Bentham
Jeremy Bentham
in his Introduction to Principles of Morals and Legislation, which was printed for publication in 1780 and published in 1789
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Federal Register
The Federal Register
Federal Register
(FR or sometimes Fed. Reg.) is the official journal of the federal government of the United States that contains government agency rules, proposed rules, and public notices.[1] It is published daily, except on federal holidays. The final rules promulgated by a federal agency and published in the Federal Register are ultimately reorganized by topic or subject matter and codified in the Code of Federal Regulations
Code of Federal Regulations
(CFR), which is updated annually. The Federal Register
Federal Register
is compiled by the Office of the Federal Register (within the National Archives and Records Administration) and is printed by the Government Publishing Office
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