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Fasted
Fasting
Fasting
is the willing abstinence or reduction from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time. An absolute fast or dry fasting is normally defined as abstinence from all food and liquid for a defined period, usually 24 hours, or a number of days. Water fasting allows the drinking of water, but nothing else, although black coffee and tea may be consumed. Other fasts may be partially restrictive, limiting only particular foods or substances, or be intermittent. In a physiological context, fasting may refer to the metabolic status of a person who has not eaten overnight, or to the metabolic state achieved after complete digestion and absorption of a meal. Several metabolic adjustments occur during fasting. Some diagnostic tests are used to determine a fasting state
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Abstinence
Abstinence
Abstinence
is a self-enforced restraint from indulging in bodily activities that are widely experienced as giving pleasure. Most frequently, the term refers to sexual abstinence, or abstinence from alcohol or food. The practice can arise from religious prohibitions and practical considerations. Abstinence
Abstinence
may also refer to drugs. For example, one can abstain from smoking. Abstinence
Abstinence
has diverse forms. Commonly it refers to a temporary or partial abstinence from food, as in fasting. In the twelve-step program of Overeaters Anonymous abstinence is the term for refraining from compulsive eating, akin in meaning to sobriety for alcoholics. Because the regimen is intended to be a conscious act, freely chosen to enhance life, abstinence is sometimes distinguished from the psychological mechanism of repression. The latter is an unconscious state, having unhealthy consequences
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César Chávez
Cesar Chavez
Cesar Chavez
(born César Estrada Chávez,[1] locally [ˈsesaɾ esˈtɾaða ˈtʃaβes]; March 31, 1927 – April 23, 1993) was an American labor leader and civil rights activist who, with Dolores Huerta, co-founded the National Farm Workers Association
National Farm Workers Association
(later the United Farm Workers
United Farm Workers
union, UFW) in 1962.[2] Originally a Mexican American farm worker, Chavez became the best known Latino American civil rights activist, and was strongly promoted by the American labor movement, which was eager to enroll Hispanic
Hispanic
members. His public-relations approach to unionism and aggressive but nonviolent tactics made the farm workers' struggle a moral cause with nationwide support
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Weight Loss
Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue. Weight loss
Weight loss
can either occur unintentionally due to malnourishment or an underlying disease or arise from a conscious effort to improve an actual or perceived overweight or obese state
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Refeeding Syndrome
Refeeding syndrome is a syndrome consisting of metabolic disturbances that occur as a result of reinstitution of nutrition to patients who are starved, severely malnourished or metabolically stressed due to severe illness. When too much food and/or liquid nutrition supplement is consumed during the initial four to seven days of refeeding this triggers synthesis of glycogen, fat and protein in cells, to the detriment of serum concentrations of potassium, magnesium and phosphorus.[1][2] Cardiac, pulmonary and neurological symptoms can be signs of refeeding syndrome. The low serum minerals, if severe enough, can be fatal.Contents1 Cause 2 Diagnosis 3 Treatment 4 History 5 See also 6 References 7 BibliographyCause[edit] Any individual who has had negligible nutrient intake for many consecutive days and/or is metabolically stressed from a critical illness or major surgery is at risk of refeeding syndrome
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Protest
A protest (also called a remonstrance, remonstration or demonstration) is an expression of bearing witness on behalf of an express cause by words or actions with regard to particular events, policies or situations. Protests can take many different forms, from individual statements to mass demonstrations
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Hunger Strike
A hunger strike is a method of non-violent resistance or pressure in which participants fast as an act of political protest, or to provoke feelings of guilt in others, usually with the objective to achieve a specific goal, such as a policy change
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Non-violent Resistance
Nonviolent
Nonviolent
resistance (NVR or nonviolent action) is the practice of achieving goals such as social change through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, satyagraha, or other methods, while being nonviolent. This type of action highlights the desires of an individual or group that feels that something needs to change to improve the current condition of the resisting person or group. It is largely but wrongly taken as synonymous with civil resistance. Each of these terms—nonviolent resistance and civil resistance—has its distinct merits and also quite different connotations and commitments. Major nonviolent resistance advocates include Mahatma Gandhi, Henry David Thoreau, Te Whiti o Rongomai, Tohu Kākahi, Leo Tolstoy, Alice Paul, Martin Luther King, Jr, James Bevel, Václav Havel, Andrei Sakharov, Lech Wałęsa, Gene Sharp, and many others
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Mohandas K. Gandhi
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (/ˈɡɑːndi, ˈɡæn-/;[3] Hindustani: [ˈmoːɦənd̪aːs ˈkərəmtʃənd̪ ˈɡaːnd̪ʱi] ( listen); 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule. Employing nonviolent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. The honorific Mahātmā (Sanskrit: "high-souled", "venerable")[4]—applied to him first in 1914 in South Africa[5]—is now used worldwide
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British Raj
Indian languagesGovernment ColonyMonarch of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Emperor/Empressa •  1858–1901 Victoria •  1901–1910 Edward VII •  1910–1936 George V •  1936 Edward VIII •  1936–1947 George VI Viceroy
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Indian Subcontinent
The Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
or the subcontinent is a southern region of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate
Indian Plate
and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
from the Himalayas
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Bobby Sands
Robert Gerard Sands (Irish: Roibeárd Gearóid Ó Seachnasaigh;[2] 9 March 1954 – 5 May 1981) was a member of the Provisional Irish Republican
Irish Republican
Army who died on hunger strike while imprisoned at HM Prison Maze after being sentenced for firearms possession. He was the leader of the 1981 hunger strike in which Irish republican prisoners protested against the removal of Special
Special
Category Status. During Sands's strike, he was elected to the British Parliament as an Anti H-Block candidate.[3][4] His death and those of nine other hunger strikers was followed by a new surge of Provisional IRA
Provisional IRA
recruitment and activity
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1981 Irish Hunger Strike
Ireland 1960sBattle of the Bogside/August 1969 riots1970sBattle of St Matthew's Falls Curfew 1970 Crossmaglen
Crossmaglen
bombing Scottish soldiers' killings Operation Demetrius Ballymurphy massacre Newry killings McGurk's bombing Balmoral showroom bombing Bloody Sunday Abercorn bombing Donegall St bombing Battle at Springmartin Battle of Lenadoon Springhill massacre Bloody Friday Operation Motorman Claudy bombing Benny's bombing Belturbet bombing Dublin bombings New Lodge Six shooting "Captain Black" killings Coleraine bombings Rose & Crown Bar bombing Dublin-Monaghan bombings Conway's Bar Mountainview Tavern Strand Bar Bombi
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Nineteen Day Fast
The Nineteen-Day Fast is a nineteen-day period of the year, during which members of the Bahá'í Faith adhere to a sunrise-to-sunset fast. Along with obligatory prayer, it is one of the greatest obligations of a Bahá'í, and its chief purpose is spiritual; to reinvigorate the soul and bring the person closer to God. The fast was instituted by the Báb, and accepted by Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, who stated its rules in his book of laws, the Kitáb-i-Aqdas
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Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy
(often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a category of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen. Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy
may be given with a curative intent (which almost always involves combinations of drugs), or it may aim to prolong life or to reduce symptoms (palliative chemotherapy). Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy
is one of the major categories of the medical discipline specifically devoted to pharmacotherapy for cancer, which is called medical oncology. The term chemotherapy has come to connote non-specific usage of intracellular poisons to inhibit mitosis, or cell division. The connotation excludes more selective agents that block extracellular signals (signal transduction)
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Bahá'í Faith
The Bahá'í Faith
Faith
(/bəˈhɑːiː, -ˈhaɪ/; Persian: بهائی‎ Bahā'i) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.[1] Established by Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
in 1863, it initially grew in Iran
Iran
(Persia) and parts of the Middle East, where it has faced ongoing persecution since its inception.[2] Currently it has between 5 and 7 million adherents, known as Bahá'ís, spread out into most of the world's countries and territories.[3][note 1] It grew from the mid-19th-century Bábí religion, whose founder taught that God
God
would soon send a prophet in the manner of Jesus
Jesus
or Muhammad.[4] In 1863, after being banished from his native Iran, Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
announced that he was this prophet
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