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Farrukhzad Khosrow V
FARRUKHZAD KHOSRAU V was briefly king of the Sasanian Empire from March 631 to April 631. He was the son of Khosrau II . BIOGRAPHYFarrukhzad Khosrau V was the son of Khosrau II . Since his father was said to have had a shabestan with over 3,000 concubines , it is not known if one of these concubines was his mother or Khosrau's favorite wife Shirin was. Farrukhzad Khosrau also had many other siblings and half-siblings named Mardanshah , Juvansher , Borandukht , Kavadh II , Shahriyar, and Azarmidokht . In 628, his father was deposed by the Sasanian nobles in favor of his brother Kavadh II, who executed all of their brothers and half-brothers. However, Farrukhzad Khosrau managed to flee to a fortress near Nisibis where he took refuge. In 631 he was brought to Ctesiphon by a Sasanian noble named Zadhuyih, where he was crowned as king of the Sasanian Empire. One month later, however, he faced a rebellion where he was overthrown and killed. REFERENCES * ^ Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari , History of the Prophets and Kings , vol. 2 * ^ __, p. 407, at Google Books SOURCES * Mīr-Khvānd, Moḥammad ibn Khvāndshāh ibn Maḥmūd (1433–1498), _Reign of Farrukhzad ibn Khosrau_, 1892, Royal Asiatic Society, translated from the original work in Persian by E
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Shahanshah
SHAH (/ˈʃɑː/ ; Persian : شاه‎, translit. _Šāh_‎, pronounced , "king") is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran (historically also known as Persia). It was also adopted by the kings of Shirvan (a historical Iranian region in Transcaucasia ) namely the Shirvanshahs , the rulers and offspring of the Ottoman Empire (in that context spelled as _Şah_ and _Şeh_), Mughal emperors of the Indian Subcontinent , the Bengal Sultanate , as well as in Afghanistan. In Iran (Persia and Greater Persia ) the title was continuously used; rather than King in the European sense, each Persian ruler regarded himself as the _Šāhanšāh_ ( King of Kings) or Emperor of the Persian Empire. The word descends from Old Persian _xšāyaθiya_ "king", which (for reasons of historical phonology) must be a borrowing from Median , and is derived from the same root as Avestan _xšaϑra-_, "power" and "command", corresponding to Sanskrit (Old Indic) _kṣatra-_ (same meaning), from which _kṣatriya- _, "warrior", is derived. The full, Old Persian title of the Achaemenid rulers of the First Persian Empire was _Xšāyathiya Xšāyathiyānām_ or _Šāhe Šāhān_, " King of Kings" or "Emperor"
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Sasanian Empire
The SASANIAN EMPIRE (/səˈsɑːniən/ or /səˈseɪniən/ ), also known as SASSANIAN, SASANID, SASSANID or NEO-PERSIAN EMPIRE), known to its inhabitants as _ĒRāNSHAHR _ in Middle Persian , was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam , named after the House of Sasan who ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire , was recognized as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighboring arch-rival the Roman - Byzantine Empire , for a period of more than 400 years
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Azarmidokht
AZARMIDOKHT ( Middle Persian : Āzarmīgdukht, Persian : آزرمی‌دخت‎‎) was Sasanian queen of Persia
Persia
from to 630 to 631, and daughter of Khosrow II . She ruled Persia
Persia
after her cousin Shapur-i Shahrvaraz . CONTENTS * 1 Family and background * 2 Reign * 3 References * 4 Sources * 5 Further reading FAMILY AND BACKGROUND Azarmidokht
Azarmidokht
was the daughter of Khosrow II . Since her father was said to have had a shabestan with over 3,000 concubines , it is not known if one of these concubines was her mother or Khosrow's favorite wife Shirin
Shirin
was. Azarmidokht
Azarmidokht
also had many other siblings and half-siblings named Mardanshah , Juvansher , Farrukhzad Khosrau V , Kavadh II , Shahriyar, and Borandukht
Borandukht
. In 628, her father was deposed by the Sasanian nobles in favor of her brother Kavadh II, who executed all of their brothers except Juvansher and Farrukhzad Khosrow V who managed to hide. Some months later, Kavadh died of plague, and was succeeded by his 7-year-old son Ardashir III , who himself one year later was killed by the Sasanian general Shahrbaraz
Shahrbaraz
, who usurped the Sasanian throne
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Borandukht
BORAN ( Middle Persian : ; Persian : پوراندخت (Purandokht) 590–628 or 631) was empress regnant of the Sasanian Empire . Boran was the daughter of emperor Khosrow II . She was the first and one of only two women to rule the Sasanian Empire; the other was her sister and successor, Azarmidokht . Various authors place her reign between one year and four months to two years. Her name appears as BōRāN (or BURāN) on her coinage. The Persian poet Ferdowsi refers to her as PURANDOKHT in his epic poem, the Shahnameh
Shahnameh
. She was committed to revive the memory and prestige of her father, during whose reign the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
had grown to its largest territorial extent. CONTENTS * 1 Family and early life * 2 First reign * 3 Second reign * 4 References * 5 Sources FAMILY AND EARLY LIFE Boran was the daughter of Khosrow II . Since her father was said to have had a shabestan with over 3000 concubines , it is not known if her mother was one of these concubines or the king's favorite wife Shirin
Shirin
. Boran also had many other siblings and half-siblings named Mardanshah , Juvansher , Farrukhzad Khosrow V , Kavadh II , Shahriyar, and Azarmidokht
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Dynasty
A DYNASTY (UK : /ˈdɪnəsti/ , US : /ˈdaɪnəsti/ ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system but sometimes also appearing in elective republics . The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house "; which may be styled "royal ", "princely ", "comital ", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states , such as Ancient Egypt , the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China , using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase"). The word "dynasty" itself is often dropped from such adjectival references ("a Ming vase "). Until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to increase the territory , wealth, and power of his family members. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan , the Yamato dynasty , whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. Dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally , such as under the Frankish Salic law . Succession through a daughter when permitted was considered to establish a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house
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House Of Sasan
The HOUSE OF SASAN ruled the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
from 224 to 651. It began with Ardashir I , who named the dynasty as Sasanian (also known as Sassanid) in honour of his grandfather, Sasan . The Shahanshah was the sole regent, head of state and head of government of the empire. At times, power shifted de facto to other officials, namely the spahbed . SEE ALSO * List of shahanshahs of the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
* Sasanian family tree * Sasanian architecture SOURCES * Pourshariati, Parvaneh (2008). Decline and Fall of the Sasanian Empire: The Sasanian-Parthian Confederacy and the Arab Conquest of Iran. London and New York: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-645-3 . * Shapur Shahbazi, A. (2005). "SASANIAN DYNASTY". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition. Retrieved 4 January 2014. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=House_of_ Sasan additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Khosrau II
KHOSROW II (CHOSROES II in classical sources; Middle Persian : Husrō(y) ), entitled "APARVēZ " ("The Victorious"), also KHUSRAW PARVēZ (New Persian : خسرو پرویز), was the last great king of the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
, reigning from 590 to 628. He was the son of Hormizd IV (reigned 579–590) and the grandson of Khosrow I (reigned 531–579). He was the last king of Persia
Persia
to have a lengthy reign before the Muslim conquest of Iran
Iran
, which began five years after his death by execution. He lost his throne, then recovered it with Roman help, and, a decade later, went on to emulate the feats of the Achaemenids , conquering the rich Roman provinces of the Middle East ; much of his reign was spent in wars with the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire and struggling against usurpers such as Bahram Chobin and Vistahm . During the climactic Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628
Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628
, Khosrow expanded deep into western Asia Minor
Asia Minor
, eventually besieging the Byzantine
Byzantine
capital of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 626 alongside Avar and Slavic allies
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Zoroastrianism
ZOROASTRIANISM, or more natively MAZDAYASNA, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, "combining a cosmogonic dualism and eschatological monotheism in a manner unique among the major religions of the world". Ascribed to the teachings of the Iranian prophet Zoroaster (or Zarathustra) , it exalts a deity of wisdom, Ahura Mazda (_Wise Lord_), as its Supreme Being . Major features of Zoroastrianism, such as messianism , heaven and hell , and free will have, some believe, influenced other religious systems, including Second Temple Judaism , Gnosticism , Christianity , and Islam . With possible roots dating back to the second millennium BCE , Zoroastrianism enters recorded history in the 5th-century BCE , and along with a Mithraic Median prototype and a Zurvanist Sassanid successor it served as the state religion of the pre-Islamic Iranian empires from around 600 BCE to 650 CE. Zoroastrianism was suppressed from the 7th century onwards following the Muslim conquest of Persia of 633-654. Recent estimates place the current number of Zoroastrians at around 2.6 million, with most living in India and in Iran . Besides the Zoroastrian diaspora, the older Mithraic faith Yazdânism is still practised amongst Kurds
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Shabestan
A SHABESTAN or SHABISTAN is an underground space that can be usually found in traditional architecture of mosques, houses, and schools in ancient Iran
Iran
. These spaces were usually used during summers and could be ventilated by windcatchers and qanats . During the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
and the subsequent Islamic periods, "shabestan" also referred to inner sanctums of the shahs where their concubines resided. Later these structures came to be called zanāneh (feminine residence), andarouni (inner private zone) and haram (from Arabic harem ). COOLING Wind tower and qanat used for cooling A shabestan can be cooled using a qanat in conjunction with a windcatcher . A windcatcher is a chimney-like structure positioned above the house; the one of its four openings opposite the wind direction is opened to move air out of the house. Incoming air is pulled from a qanat below the house. The air flow across the vertical shaft opening creates a lower pressure (see Bernoulli effect ) and pulls cool air up from the qanat tunnel below the house. The air from the qanat was drawn into the tunnel at some distance away and is cooled both by contact with the cool tunnel walls/water and by the giving up of latent heat of evaporation as water evaporates into the air stream
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Concubines
CONCUBINAGE is an interpersonal relationship in which a person engages in an ongoing sexual relationship with another person to whom he/she is not or cannot be married to in the full extent of the local meaning of marriage. The inability to marry may be due to multiple factors such as differences in social rank status, an existing marriage, religious prohibitions, professional ones (for example Roman soldiers) or a lack of recognition by appropriate authorities. The woman in such a relationship is referred to as a CONCUBINE. The prevalence of concubinage and the status of rights and expectations of a concubine have varied between cultures as well as the rights of children of a concubine. Whatever the status and rights of the concubine, they were always inferior to those of the wife, and typically neither she nor her children had rights of inheritance. Historically, concubinage was frequently entered into voluntarily (by the woman or her family) as it provided a measure of economic security for the woman involved. Involuntary or servile concubinage sometimes involved sexual slavery of one member of the relationship, usually the woman. Nevertheless, sexual relations outside marriage were not uncommon, especially among royalty and nobility, and the woman in such relationships was commonly described as a mistress
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Shirin
SHIRIN (? – 628 AD) (Persian : شيرين‎‎) was a wife of the Sassanid
Sassanid
Persian Shahanshah (king of kings), Khosrow Parviz . In the revolution after the death of Khosrow's father Hormizd IV , the General Bahram Chobin
Bahram Chobin
took power over the Persian empire. Shirin
Shirin
fled with Khosrow to Syria
Syria
, where they lived under the protection of Byzantine emperor Maurice . In 591, Khosrow returned to Persia
Persia
to take control of the empire and Shirin
Shirin
was made queen. She used her new influence to support the Christian
Christian
minority in Iran
Iran
, but the political situation demanded that she do so discreetly. Initially she belonged to the Church of the East , the so-called Nestorians, but later she joined the miaphysite church of Antioch , now known as the Syriac Orthodox Church . After conquering Jerusalem in 614, amidst the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628
Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628
, the Persians captured the True Cross
Cross
of Jesus
Jesus
and brought it to their capital Ctesiphon
Ctesiphon
, where Shirin
Shirin
took the cross in her palace
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Mardanshah (Sasanian Prince)
MARDANSHAH was a 7th-century Sasanian
Sasanian
prince. He was the son of the Sasanian
Sasanian
shah Khosrau II
Khosrau II
and Shirin
Shirin
, and was the preferred successor of the Sasanian
Sasanian
Empire. He was later killed along with his brothers and half-brothers by his half-brother Kavadh II in 628. REFERENCES * ^ A B Howard-Johnston (2010), ḴOSROW IISOURCES * Pourshariati, Parvaneh (2008). Decline and Fall of the Sasanian Empire: The Sasanian-Parthian Confederacy and the Arab Conquest of Iran. London and New York: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-645-3 . * Howard-Johnston, James (2010). "ḴOSROW II". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition. Retrieved 3 April 2014. This biography of an Iranian ruler or member of a royal family is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e This Sasanian
Sasanian
biographical article is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mardanshah_(Sasanian_prince) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Juvansher
JAVANSHIR, also known by his Middle Persian name JUVANSHER (meaning young lion) was the son of Khosrau II , and Gordiya, the sister of Bahram Chobin . REFERENCES This biography of an Iranian ruler or member of a royal family is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e This Sasanian biographical article is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Juvansher additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Kavadh II
SHēRōē (also spelled SHīRūYA, شیرویه in New Persian ), better known by his dynastic name of KAVADH II (Middle Persian : kwʾt' _Kawād_; New Persian : قباد‎‎ _Qobād_ or _Qabād_), was king of the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
briefly in 628. He was the son of Khosrau II (590–628). He became king after orchestrating a coup d\'état against his father. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Marriage * 3 In popular culture * 4 References * 5 Sources BIOGRAPHY Kavadh II
Kavadh II
was the son of Khosrau II , the king of the Sasanian Empire, and Maria , daughter of Maurice , the emperor of the Byzantine Empire . Kavadh was later imprisoned by his father who wanted to ensure the succession of his favorite son Mardanshah , the son of his favorite wife, Shirin
Shirin
. His father's reputation had been ruined during the last phase of the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 . In 627, the Sasanian general Rhahzadh was slain and Dastgerd , the king's favorite residence, had been sacked by Heraclius , who was advancing towards Ctesiphon
Ctesiphon

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Nisibis
NUSAYBIN (pronounced ; Akkadian : Naṣibina; Classical Greek : Νίσιβις, NISIBIS; Arabic : نصيبين‎‎, Kurdish : Nisêbîn; Syriac : ܢܨܝܒܝܢ‎, Nṣībīn; Armenian : Մծբին, Mtsbin) is a city and multiple titular see in Mardin Province , Turkey . The population of the city is 83,832 as of 2009. The population is predominantly Sunni Kurdish , a small Assyrian community can also be found. With a history going back nearly 3,000 years, Nusaybin was ruled and settled by various groups. First mentioned as an Aramean settlement Naşibīna in 901 BC and was captured by Assyria in 896 BC, in the 4th and 5th centuries AD it was one of the great centers of Syriac scholarship, along with nearby Edessa . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Ancient Period * 1.2 Classical Period * 1.3 Islamic period * 1.4 Modern history * 2 Economy * 3 Geography * 3.1 Climate * 4 Demographics * 4.1 Religion * 4.1.1 Christianity * 5 Transportation * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Sources and external links HISTORYANCIENT PERIODFirst mentioned in 901 BC, NAşIBīNA was an Aramaean kingdom captured by the Assyrian king Adad-Nirari II in 896. By 852 BC, NAṣIBINA had been fully annexed to the Neo-Assyrian Empire and appeared in the Assyrian Eponym List as the seat of an Assyrian provincial governor named Shamash-Abua