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Far-right Politics
Far-right politics
Far-right politics
are politics further on the right of the left-right spectrum than the standard political right, particularly in terms of more extreme nationalist,[1][2] and nativist ideologies, as well as authoritarian tendencies.[3] The term is often associated with Nazism,[4] neo-Nazism, fascism, neo-fascism and other ideologies or organizations that feature extreme nationalist, chauvinist, xenophobic, racist or reactionary views.[5] These can lead to oppression and violence against groups of people based on their supposed inferiority, or their perceived threat to the native ethnic group,[6][7]
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State (polity)
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.[1][2] Many human societies have been governed by states for millennia, however for most of pre-history people lived in stateless societies. The first states arose about 5,500 years ago in conjunction with rapid growth of cities, invention of writing, and codification of new forms of religion. Over time, a variety of different forms developed, employing a variety of justifications for their existence (such as divine right, the theory of the social contract, etc.). Today, however, the modern nation-state is the predominant form of state to which people are subject. Some states are sovereign
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Fundamentalism
Fundamentalism usually has a religious connotation that indicates unwavering attachment to a set of irreducible beliefs.[1] However, fundamentalism has come to be applied to a tendency among certain groups—mainly, though not exclusively, in religion—that is characterized by a markedly strict literalism as it is applied to certain specific scriptures, dogmas, or ideologies, and a strong sense of the importance of maintaining ingroup and outgroup distinctions,[2][3][4][5] leading to an emphasis on purity and the desire to return to a previous ideal from which advocates believe members have strayed
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Nation
A nation is a stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, economic life, ethnicity or psychological make-up manifested in a common culture
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Ethnic Group
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, society, culture or nation.[1][2] Ethnicity is usually an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage, ancestry, origin myth, history, homeland, language or dialect, symbolic systems such as religion, mythology and ritual, cuisine, dressing style, art, and physical appearance. Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population, often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool
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Racism
Racism
Racism
is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity. Today, the use of the term "racism" does not easily fall under a single definition.[1] The ideology underlying racist practices often includes the idea that humans can be subdivided into distinct groups that are different due to their social behavior and their innate capacities as well as the idea that they can be ranked as inferior or superior.[2] Historical examples of institutional racism include the Holocaust, the apartheid regime in South Africa, and slavery and segregation in the United States
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Xenophobia
Xenophobia
Xenophobia
is the fear and distrust of that which is perceived to be foreign or strange.[1][2] Xenophobia
Xenophobia
can manifest itself in many ways involving the relations and perceptions of an ingroup towards an outgroup, including a fear of losing identity,
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Chauvinism
Chauvinism is a form of extreme patriotism and a belief in national superiority and glory. Whereas patriotism and nationalism may represent temperate pride, chauvinism is intemperate. It can be also defined as "an irrational belief in the superiority or dominance of one's own group or people".[1] Moreover, the chauvinist's own people are seen as unique and special while the rest of the people are considered weak or inferior.[1] According to legend, French soldier Nicolas Chauvin was badly wounded in the Napoleonic wars. He received a pension for his injuries but it was not enough to live on. After Napoleon abdicated, Chauvin was a fanatical Bonapartist despite the unpopularity of this view in Bourbon Restoration France
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Ideologies
Ideology
Ideology
is a comprehensive set of normative beliefs, conscious and unconscious ideas, that an individual, group or society has. An ideology is narrower in scope than the ideas expressed in concepts such as worldview, imaginary and ontology.[1] Political ideologies can be proposed by the dominant class of society such as the elite to all members of society as suggested in some Marxist
Marxist
and critical-theory accounts
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Ultranationalism
Ultranationalism is an "extreme nationalism that promotes the interest of one state or people above all others," or simply "extreme devotion to one's own nation".[1][2] Ultranationalism combined with the notion of national rebirth is a key foundation of fascism.[3] Roger Griffin asserts that ultranationalism is essentially racist and is known to legitimise itself "through deeply mythicized narratives of past cultural or political periods of historical greatness or of old scores to settle against alleged enemies". It can also draw on "vulgarized forms of physical anthropology, genetics and eugenics to rationalize ideas of national superiority and destiny, of degeneracy and subhumanness."[4] References[edit]^ Ultranationalism. Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 29 June 2017. ^ Ultranationalism. Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved 29 June 2017. ^ Roger Griffin, "Nationalism" in Cyprian Blamires, ed., World Fascism: A Historical Encyclopedia, vol
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Majority Government
A majority government is a government formed by a governing party that has an absolute majority of seats in the legislature or parliament in a parliamentary system. This is as opposed to a minority government, where the largest party in a legislature only has a plurality of seats. A majority government is usually assured of having its legislation passed and rarely, if ever, has to fear being defeated in parliament. In contrast, a minority government must constantly bargain for support from other parties in order to pass legislation and avoid being defeated on motions of no confidence. The term "majority government" may also be used for a stable coalition of two or more parties to form an absolute majority
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National Unity Government
A national unity government, government of national unity, or national union government is a broad coalition government consisting of all parties (or all major parties) in the legislature, usually formed during a time of war or other national emergency.Contents1 Afghanistan 2 Canada2.1 Newfoundland3 Croatia 4 Greece 5 Hungary 6 Israel 7 Italy 8 Kenya 9 Lebanon 10 Luxembourg 11 Nepal 12 Sri Lanka 13 United Kingdom13.1 Quasi-national governments14 United States 15 Zimbabwe 16 National parties 17 See also 18 ReferencesAfghanistan[edit] Following the disputed 2014 presidential elections, a National Unity Government (NUG) between both run-off candidates was formed.[1] Canada[edit] During World War I
World War I
the Conservative government of Sir Robert Borden invited the Liberal opposition to join the government as a means of dealing with the Conscription crisis of 1917
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Minority Government
A minority government, or minority cabinet or minority parliament, is a cabinet formed in a parliamentary system when a political party or coalition of parties does not have a majority of overall seats in the parliament. It is sworn into office, with or without the formal support of other parties, to enable a government to be formed. Under such a government, legislation can only be passed with the support of enough other members of the legislature to provide a majority, encouraging multi-partisanship
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Confidence And Supply
In a parliamentary democracy based on the Westminster system, confidence and supply are required for a minority government to retain power in the lower house. A confidence-and-supply agreement is one whereby a party or independent members of parliament will support the government in motions of confidence and appropriation or budget (supply) votes, by either voting in favour or abstaining. However, parties and independent members normally retain the right to otherwise vote in favour of their own policies or on conscience on legislative bills.[1][2][3] A coalition government is a more formal arrangement than a confidence-and-supply agreement, in that members from junior parties (i.e
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Hung Parliament
A hung parliament is a term used in legislatures under the Westminster system to describe a situation in which no particular political party or pre-existing coalition (also known as an alliance or bloc) has an absolute majority of legislators (commonly known as members or seats) in a parliament or other legislature. This situation is also known, albeit less commonly, as a balanced parliament,[1][2] or as a legislature under no overall control,[3][4][5] and can result in a minority government. The term is not relevant in multi-party systems where it is rare for a single party to hold a majority. In the Westminster System, in the circumstance of a hung parliament, no party or coalition has an automatic mandate to assume control of the executive – a status usually known in parliamentary systems as "forming (a) government"
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Coalition
The term "coalition" is the denotation for a group formed when two or more persons, faction, states, political parties, militaries etc. agree to work together temporarily in a partnership to achieve a common goal
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