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Fantasy
FANTASY is a fiction genre set in an imaginary universe , often but not always without any locations, events, or people from the real world. Its roots are in oral traditions, which then developed into literature and drama . From the twentieth century it has expanded further into various media, including film, television, graphic novels, and video games. Most fantasy uses magic or other supernatural elements as a main plot element, theme , or setting . Magic
Magic
and magical creatures are common in many of these imaginary worlds. Fantasy
Fantasy
is a subgenre of speculative fiction and is distinguished from the genres of science fiction and horror by the absence of scientific or macabre themes respectively, though these genres overlap. In popular culture , the fantasy genre is predominantly of the medievalist form
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Literature
LITERATURE, in its broadest sense, is any single body of written works . More restrictively, literature is writing that is considered to be an art form, or any single writing deemed to have artistic or intellectual value, often due to deploying language in ways that differ from ordinary usage. Its Latin root literatura/litteratura (derived itself from littera: letter or handwriting) was used to refer to all written accounts, though contemporary definitions extend the term to include texts that are spoken or sung (oral literature ). The concept has changed meaning over time: nowadays it can broaden to have non-written verbal art forms, and thus it is difficult to agree on its origin, which can be paired with that of language or writing itself. Developments in print technology have allowed an evergrowing distribution and proliferation of written works, culminating in electronic literature
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Cultural Studies
CULTURAL STUDIES is a field of theoretically, politically, and empirically engaged cultural analysis that concentrates upon the political dynamics of contemporary culture, its historical foundations, defining traits, conflicts, and contingencies. Cultural studies researchers generally investigate how cultural practices relate to wider systems of power associated with or operating through social phenomena, such as ideology , class structures , national formations , ethnicity , sexual orientation , gender , and generation. Cultural studies views cultures not as fixed, bounded, stable, and discrete entities, but rather as constantly interacting and changing sets of practices and processes. The field of cultural studies encompasses a range of theoretical and methodological perspectives and practices. Although distinct from the disciplines of cultural anthropology and ethnic studies , cultural studies draws upon and has contributed to each of these disciplines
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Popular Culture
POPULAR CULTURE or POP CULTURE is the entirety of attitudes , ideas , images , perspectives , and other phenomena within the mainstream of a given culture , especially Western culture of the early to mid-20th century and the emerging global mainstream of the late 20th and early 21st century. Heavily influenced by mass media , this collection of ideas permeates the everyday lives of the society . The most common pop culture categories are: entertainment (movies, music, television, games, memes), sports, news (as in people/places in news), politics, fashion/clothes, technology, and slang. Popular culture has a way of influencing an individual's attitudes towards certain topics. Popular culture is often viewed as being trivial and "dumbed down " in order to find consensual acceptance throughout the mainstream
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Supernatural
The SUPERNATURAL ( Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
: supernātūrālis: supra "above" + naturalis "natural ", first used: 1520–1530 AD) includes all that cannot be explained by the laws of nature, including things characteristic of or relating to ghosts , gods, or other types of spirits and other non-material beings , or to things beyond nature. CONTENTS * 1 Views * 2 Philosophy * 3 Religion
Religion
* 3.1 Christian theology * 3.2 Process theology * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading VIEWS This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Drama
DRAMA is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance . Considered as a genre of poetry in general, the dramatic mode has been contrasted with the epic and the lyrical modes ever since Aristotle
Aristotle
's Poetics (c. 335 BCE)—the earliest work of dramatic theory . The term "drama" comes from a Greek word meaning "action " (Classical Greek : δρᾶμα, drama), which is derived from "I do" (Classical Greek : δράω, drao). The two masks associated with drama represent the traditional generic division between comedy and tragedy . They are symbols of the ancient Greek Muses
Muses
, Thalia , and Melpomene
Melpomene
. Thalia was the Muse of comedy (the laughing face), while Melpomene
Melpomene
was the Muse of tragedy (the weeping face)
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Magic (paranormal)
MAGIC or SORCERY is the use of rituals , symbols , actions, gestures , and language with the aim of utilizing supernatural forces. :6–7 :24 The term magic has a variety of meanings, and there is no widely agreed upon definition of what it is or how it can be used. Religious scholars have defined magic in different ways. One approach, associated with the anthropologists Edward Tylor
Edward Tylor
and James G. Frazer , suggests that magic and science are opposites. An alternative approach, associated with the sociologists Marcel Mauss and Emile Durkheim argues that magic takes place in private, while religion is a communal and organised activity. The term magic comes from the Old Persian magu, a word that applied to a form of religious functionary about which little is known
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Comparative Literature
COMPARATIVE LITERATURE is an academic field dealing with the study of literature and cultural expression across linguistic , national , and disciplinary boundaries. Comparative literature
Comparative literature
"performs a role similar to that of the study of international relations , but works with languages and artistic traditions, so as to understand cultures 'from the inside'". While most frequently practiced with works of different languages, comparative literature may also be performed on works of the same language if the works originate from different nations or cultures among which that language is spoken. The characteristically intercultural and transnational field of comparative literature concerns itself with the relation between literature, broadly defined, and other spheres of human activity, including history , politics , philosophy , art , and science
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English Language
ENGLISH /ˈɪŋɡlɪʃ/ ( listen ) is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England
England
and is now a global lingua franca . Named after the Angles , one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England
England
, it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea . It is closely related to the Frisian languages , but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages
Germanic languages
particularly Norse , as well as by Latin
Latin
and Romance languages
Romance languages
, particularly French . English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain
Great Britain
by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English
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Tzvetan Todorov
TZVETAN TODOROV (French: ; Bulgarian : Цветан Тодоров; March 1, 1939 – February 7, 2017) was a Bulgarian -French historian , philosopher , structuralist literary critic , sociologist and essayist and geologist. He was the author of many books and essays, which have had a significant influence in anthropology , sociology , semiotics , literary theory , thought history and culture theory . CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Career * 3 Personal life and death * 4 Bibliography * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links EARLY LIFE Tzvetan Todorov
Tzvetan Todorov
was born on March 1, 1939, in Sofia, Bulgaria. He earned an M.A. in philology at the University of Sofia
Sofia
in 1963. He enrolled at the University of Paris
Paris
to do his doctorat de troisième cycle (equivalent to the Ph.D.) in 1966 and his doctorat ès lettres in 1970
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Medieval Studies
MEDIEVAL STUDIES is the academic interdisciplinary study of the Middle Ages . CONTENTS * 1 Development * 2 Centres for Medieval studies * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 External links DEVELOPMENTThe term 'medieval studies' began to be adopted by academics in the opening decades of the twentieth century, initially in the titles of books like G. G. Coulton 's Ten Medieval Studies (1906), to emphasize a greater interdisciplinary approach to a historical subject. In American and European universities the term provided a coherent identity to centres composed of academics from a variety of disciplines including archaeology, art history, architecture, history, literature and linguistics
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The Violet Fairy Book
ANDREW LANG\'S FAIRY BOOKS are a series of 25 collections of true and fictional stories for children published between 1889 and 1913 . The best known books of the series are the 12 collections of fairy tales known as ANDREW LANG\'S "COLOURED" FAIRY BOOKS or ANDREW LANG\'S FAIRY BOOKS OF MANY COLORS. In all, the volumes feature 798 stories, besides the 153 poems in The Blue Poetry Book. Andrew Lang
Andrew Lang
(1844–1912) was a Scots poet , novelist , and literary critic . He made most of the selections, while his wife and other translators did a large portion of the translating and retelling of the actual stories, as acknowledged in the prefaces. Four of the volumes from 1908 to 1912 were published by "Mrs. Lang". According to Anita Silvey , "The irony of Lang's life and work is that although he wrote for a profession—literary criticism; fiction; poems; books and articles on anthropology , mythology , history, and travel ..
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History
HISTORY (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past as it is described in written documents. Events occurring before written record are considered prehistory . It is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of information about these events. Scholars who write about history are called historians . History
History
can also refer to the academic discipline which uses a narrative to examine and analyse a sequence of past events, and objectively determine the patterns of cause and effect that determine them. Historians sometimes debate the nature of history and its usefulness by discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present
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Lovecraftian Horror
LOVECRAFTIAN HORROR is a subgenre of horror fiction that emphasizes the cosmic horror of the unknown (and in some cases, unknowable) more than gore or other elements of shock, though these may still be present. It is named after American author H. P. Lovecraft (1890–1937), who is largely credited as the first author to pioneer the genre. CONTENTS* 1 Origin * 1.1 Themes of Lovecraftian horror * 2 Collaborators and followers * 2.1 Literature and art * 3 Comics * 4 Film and television * 4.1 1960s * 4.2 1970s * 4.3 1980s * 4.4 1990s * 4.5 2000s * 4.6 2010s * 5 Games * 5.1 Role-playing * 5.2 Video games * 6 Other media * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 External links ORIGIN Lovecraft refined this style of storytelling into his own mythos that involved a set of supernatural , pre-human, and extraterrestrial elements
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Suspension Of Disbelief
The term SUSPENSION OF DISBELIEF or WILLING SUSPENSION OF DISBELIEF has been defined as a willingness to suspend one's critical faculties and believe the unbelievable; sacrifice of realism and logic for the sake of enjoyment. The term was coined in 1817 by the poet and aesthetic philosopher Samuel Taylor Coleridge , who suggested that if a writer could infuse a "human interest and a semblance of truth" into a fantastic tale, the reader would suspend judgement concerning the implausibility of the narrative. Suspension of disbelief often applies to fictional works of the action, comedy, fantasy, and horror genres. COGNITIVE ESTRANGEMENT in fiction involves using a person's ignorance to promote suspension of disbelief. The phrase "suspension of disbelief" came to be used more loosely in the later 20th century, often used to imply that the burden was on the reader, rather than the writer, to achieve it
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