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Family (biology)
In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus. A family may be divided into subfamilies, which are intermediate ranks above the rank of genus. In vernacular usage, a family may be named after one of its common members; for example, walnuts and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae, commonly known as the walnut family. What does or does not belong to a family—or whether a described family should be recognized at all—are proposed and determined by practicing taxonomists. There are no hard rules for describing or recognizing a family, or any taxa. Taxonomists often take different positions about descriptions of taxa, and there may be no broad consensus across the scientific community for some time
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Gene Family
A gene family is a set of several similar genes, formed by duplication of a single original gene, and generally with similar biochemical functions. One such family are the genes for human hemoglobin subunits; the ten genes are in two clusters on different chromosomes, called the α-globin and β-globin loci. These two gene clusters are thought to have arisen as a result of a precursor gene being duplicated approximately 500 million years ago.[1] Genes are categorized into families based on shared nucleotide or protein sequences. Phylogenetic techniques can be used as a more rigorous test. The positions of exons within the coding sequence can be used to infer common ancestry
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Joseph Dalton Hooker
Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker
Joseph Dalton Hooker
OM GCSI CB PRS (30 June 1817 – 10 December 1911) was a British botanist and explorer in the 19th century
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Tree
In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only woody plants with secondary growth, plants that are usable as lumber or plants above a specified height. Trees are not a taxonomic group but include a variety of plant species that have independently evolved a woody trunk and branches as a way to tower above other plants to compete for sunlight. Trees tend to be long-lived, some reaching several thousand years old. In looser definitions, the taller palms, tree ferns, bananas and bamboos are also trees. Trees have been in existence for 370 million years. It is estimated that there are just over 3 trillion mature trees in the world.[1] A tree typically has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground by the trunk
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Fern
A fern is a member of a group of vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers. They differ from mosses by being vascular, i.e., having specialized tissues that conduct water and nutrients, in having branched stems and in having life cycles in which the sporophyte is the dominant phase. Like other vascular plants, ferns have complex leaves called megaphylls, that are more complex than the microphylls of clubmosses. Most ferns are leptosporangiate ferns, sometimes referred to as true ferns
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Michel Adanson
Michel Adanson
Michel Adanson
(7 April 1727 – 3 August 1806) was an 18th-century French botanist and naturalist, of Scottish descent.Contents1 Personal history 2 Familles naturelles des plantes 3 Evolution 4 Later life 5 Death and legacy 6 In literature 7 Taxa named by Adanson 8 See also 9 References 10 BibliographyPersonal history[edit] Adanson was born at Aix-en-Provence. His family moved to Paris on 1730. After leaving the Collège Sainte-Barbe
Collège Sainte-Barbe
he was employed in the cabinets of R. A. F. Réaumur and Bernard de Jussieu, as well as in the Jardin des Plantes, Paris.[1] He attended lectures at the Jardin du Roi and the Collège Royal in Paris from 1741 to 1746. At the end of 1748, funded by a director of the Compagnie des Indes, he left France on an exploring expedition to Senegal. He remained there for five years, collecting and describing numerous animals and plants
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Augustin Pyramus De Candolle
Augustin Pyramus de Candolle
Augustin Pyramus de Candolle
also spelled Augustin Pyrame de Candolle (4 February 1778 – 9 September 1841) was a Swiss botanist. René Louiche Desfontaines
René Louiche Desfontaines
launched de Candolle's botanical career by recommending him at an herbarium
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Bentham & Hooker System
A taxonomic system, the Bentham & Hooker system for seed plants, was published in Bentham and Hooker's Genera plantarum ad exemplaria imprimis in herbariis kewensibus servata definita in three volumes between 1862 and 1883.[1][2] George Bentham
George Bentham
(1800-1884) and Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817-1911) were British botanists who were closely affiliated to the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, in England. Their system of botanical taxonomy was based on the principle of natural affinities and is considered as pre- Darwinian
Darwinian
as it does not take evolution into account. The Genera plantarum classified an estimated 97,205 species into 202 families and 7,569 genera.[1]Contents1 Summary 2 Families and orders in the Bentham & Hooker system2.1 Dicotyledonae 2.2 Monocotyledons2.2.1 Series I. Microspermæ p. 448 2.2.2 Series II Epigynæ p. 636 2.2.3 Series III Coronarieæ p. 746 2.2.4 Series VI Calycineæ p
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George Bentham
George Bentham
George Bentham
CMG FRS (22 September 1800 – 10 September 1884) was an English botanist, described by the weed botanist Duane Isely as "the premier systematic botanist of the nineteenth century".[1]Contents1 Life 2 Career2.1 Views on evolution 2.2 Honours and awards3 Works3.1 Selected publications4 Legacy4.1 Genera 4.2 Species5 See also 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External linksLife[edit] Bentham was born in Stoke, Plymouth, on 22 September 1800.[2] His father, Sir Samuel Bentham, a naval architect, was the only brother of Jeremy Bentham
Jeremy Bentham
to survive into adulthood. George Bentham
George Bentham
had no formal education, but had a remarkable linguistic aptitude. By the age of seven he could speak French, German and Russian, and he learned Swedish during a short residence in Sweden while still a child
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Pierre André Latreille
Pierre André Latreille
Pierre André Latreille
(29 November 1762 – 6 February 1833) was a French zoologist, specialising in arthropods. Having trained as a Roman Catholic priest before the French Revolution, Latreille was imprisoned, and only regained his freedom after recognising a rare beetle species he found in the prison, Necrobia ruficollis. He published his first important work in 1796 (Précis des caractères génériques des insectes), and was eventually employed by the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle
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Botanical Nomenclature
Botanical nomenclature
Botanical nomenclature
is the formal, scientific naming of plants. It is related to, but distinct from taxonomy. Plant
Plant
taxonomy is concerned with grouping and classifying plants; botanical nomenclature then provides names for the results of this process. The starting point for modern botanical nomenclature is Linnaeus' Species Plantarum
Species Plantarum
of 1753. Botanical nomenclature
Botanical nomenclature
is governed by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), which replaces the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN)
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Arthropod
Condylipoda Latreille, 1802An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages. Arthropods form the phylum Euarthropoda,[1][3] which includes insects, arachnids, myriapods, and crustaceans. The term Arthropoda as originally proposed refers to a proposed grouping of Euarthropods and the phylum Onychophora. Arthropods are characterized by their jointed limbs and cuticle made of chitin, often mineralised with calcium carbonate. The arthropod body plan consists of segments, each with a pair of appendages. The rigid cuticle inhibits growth, so arthropods replace it periodically by moulting. Their versatility has enabled them to become the most species-rich members of all ecological guilds in most environments
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Systematics
Biological systematics is the study of the diversification of living forms, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time. Relationships are visualized as evolutionary trees (synonyms: cladograms, phylogenetic trees, phylogenies). Phylogenies have two components: branching order (showing group relationships) and branch length (showing amount of evolution). Phylogenetic trees of species and higher taxa are used to study the evolution of traits (e.g., anatomical or molecular characteristics) and the distribution of organisms (biogeography)
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Cladistics
Cladistics
Cladistics
(from Greek κλάδος, klados, i.e., "branch")[1] is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on the most recent common ancestor. Hypothesized relationships are typically based on shared derived characteristics (synapomorphies) that can be traced to the most recent common ancestor and are not present in more distant groups and ancestors. A key feature of a clade is that all descendants stay in their overarching ancestral clade. Radiation results in the generation of new subclades by bifurcation.[2][3][4][5] The techniques and nomenclature of cladistics have been applied to other disciplines
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Phylogenetics
In biology, phylogenetics /ˌfaɪloʊdʒəˈnɛtɪks, -lə-/[1][2] (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον - phylé, phylon = tribe, clan, race + γενετικός - genetikós = origin, source, birth)[3] is the study of the evolutionary history and relationships among individuals or groups of organisms (e.g. species, or populations). These relationships are discovered through phylogenetic inference methods that evaluate observed heritable traits, such as DNA
DNA
sequences or morphology under a model of evolution of these traits. The result of these analyses is a phylogeny (also known as a phylogenetic tree) – a diagrammatic hypothesis about the history of the evolutionary relationships of a group of organisms.[4] The tips of a phylogenetic tree can be living organisms or fossils, and represent the "end", or the present, in an evolutionary lineage
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List Of Families Of Spiders
Spider
Spider
taxonomy is the taxonomy of the spiders, members of the Araneae order of the arthropod class Arachnida
Arachnida
with about 46,000 described species. However, there are likely many species that have escaped the human eye to this day, and many specimens stored in collections waiting to be described and classified. It is estimated that only one third to one half of the total number of existing species have been described.[1] Arachnologists currently divide spiders into two suborders with about 114 families. Due to constant research, with new species being discovered every month and others being recognized as synonyms, the number of species in the families is bound to change and can never reflect the present status with total accuracy
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