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False Bay
FALSE BAY ( Afrikaans
Afrikaans
Valsbaai) is a body of water defined by Cape Hangklip (Dutch / Afrikaans
Afrikaans
for "Hang(ing)-rock") and the Cape Peninsula in the extreme south-west of South Africa
South Africa
. CONTENTS * 1 Description and location * 2 History * 3 Climate * 4 Marine life and recreational pursuits * 5 Naval base at Simon\'s Town * 6 Development and human impact * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links DESCRIPTION AND LOCATIONThe eastern and western shores of the bay are very rocky and even mountainous; in places large cliffs plunge into deep water. Notable peaks associated with the bay include Koeëlberg (1289m / 4229 feet), which rises from the water itself forming the highest point of the Kogelberg , as well as Somerset Sneeukop (1590m / 5217 feet) and Wemmershoek Peak (1788m / 5866 feet) which are clearly visible across the bay
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Agulhas Current
The AGULHAS CURRENT /əˈɡʌləs/ is the western boundary current of the southwest Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
. It flows down the east coast of Africa from 27°S to 40°S. It is narrow, swift and strong. It is even suggested that the Agulhas is the largest western boundary current in the world ocean , with an estimated net transport of 70 Sverdrups (Sv, millions m3/s), as western boundary currents at comparable latitudes transport less — Brazil Current (16.2 Sv), Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
(34 Sv), Kuroshio
Kuroshio
(42 Sv)
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Barracuda
The BARRACUDA is a ray-finned fish known for its large size, fearsome appearance and ferocious behaviour. The barracuda is a saltwater fish of the genus SPHYRAENA, the only genus in the family Sphyraenidae which was named by Constantine Samuel Rafinesque
Constantine Samuel Rafinesque
in 1815. and is found in tropical and subtropical oceans worldwide ranging from the Eastern border of the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the Red Sea
Red Sea
and Caribbean Sea . They are found near the top of the water and near coral reefs and sea grasses
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Angling
ANGLING is a method of fishing by means of an "angle" (fish hook ). The hook is usually attached to a fishing line and the line is often attached to a fishing rod . Fishing
Fishing
rods are usually fitted with a fishing reel that functions as a mechanism for storing, retrieving and paying out the line. The hook itself can be dressed with lures or bait . A bite indicator such as a float , and a weight or sinker are sometimes used. Angling
Angling
is the principal method of sport fishing , but commercial fisheries also use angling methods such as longlining or trolling . Catch and release
Catch and release
fishing is increasingly practiced by recreational fishermen . In many parts of the world, size limits apply to certain species, meaning fish below and/or above a certain size must, by law, be released
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Mediterranean Climate
A MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATE /ˌmɛdɪtəˈreɪniən/ or DRY SUMMER CLIMATE, is the climate typical of areas in the Mediterranean Basin . The Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
is usually characterized by rainy winters and dry, warm to hot summers. While the climate receives its name from the Mediterranean Sea, an area where this climate is commonplace, it is also present in other areas of the planet, although with variations in the distribution of temperatures. In addition to the Mediterranean Basin, the climate is also found in most of California
California
in the United States , in parts of Western and South Australia
South Australia
, in southwestern South Africa
South Africa
, sections of Western and Central Asia
Central Asia
, and in Central Chile
Chile

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Bartolomeu Dias
BARTOLOMEU DIAS (Portuguese pronunciation: ; Anglicized: BARTHOLOMEW DIAZ; c. 1450 – 29 May 1500 ), a nobleman of the Portuguese royal household , was a Portuguese explorer . He sailed around the southernmost tip of Africa in 1488, reaching the Indian Ocean from the Atlantic , the first European known to have done so. CONTENTS * 1 Purposes of the Dias expedition * 2 The expedition * 3 Follow-up voyages * 4 Personal life * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links PURPOSES OF THE DIAS EXPEDITION Bartolomeu Dias
Bartolomeu Dias
was a Knight
Knight
of the royal court, superintendent of the royal warehouses, and sailing-master of the man-of-war , São Cristóvão ( Saint Christopher
Saint Christopher
)
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Lion's Head (Cape Town)
LION\'S HEAD is a mountain in Cape Town
Cape Town
, South Africa
South Africa
, between Table Mountain
Table Mountain
and Signal Hill . Lion's Head peaks at 669 metres (2,195 ft) above sea level . The peak forms part of a dramatic backdrop to the city of Cape Town
Cape Town
and is part of the Table Mountain National Park . CONTENTS * 1 Surrounding * 2 History * 3 Activities * 4 Geology, flora and fauna * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links SURROUNDING Lion's Head viewed from Signal Hill Lion's Head and Signal Hill from the Summit
Summit
of Table Mountain
Table Mountain
, with Robben Island in Table Bay The suburbs of the city surround the peak and Signal Hill on almost all sides, but strict management by city authorities has kept development of housing off the higher ground
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Signal Hill (Cape Town)
SIGNAL HILL (Afrikaans : SEINHEUWEL), or LION\'S RUMP, is a landmark flat-topped hill located in Cape Town
Cape Town
, next to Lion\'s Head and Table Mountain . The hill was also known as "The Lion's Flank", a term now obsolete. Together with Lion's Head, Signal Hill looks like a lion sphinx. A view of the kramat (tomb for a Muslim) towards Lion's Head from the Signal Hill hiking trail CONTENTS * 1 Signals * 2 Structures * 3 Ecology * 4 Panorama * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links SIGNALSSignal flags were used to communicate weather warnings as well as anchoring instructions to visiting ships in order to ensure that they prepared adequately for stormy weather while in the bay. Similarly, ships could use flags to signal for assistance if, for example, an anchor line parted during a storm
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Sailing
SAILING employs the wind —acting on sails , wingsails or kites —to propel a craft on the surface of the _water_ (sailing ship , sailboat , windsurfer , or kitesurfer ), on _ice_ (iceboat ) or on _land_ (land yacht ) over a chosen course , which is often part of a larger plan of navigation . A course defined with respect to the true wind direction is called a point of sail . Conventional sailing craft cannot derive power from sails on a point of sail that is too close into the wind. On a given point of sail, the sailor adjusts the alignment of each sail with respect to the apparent wind direction (as perceived on the craft) to mobilize the power of the wind . The forces transmitted via the sails are resisted by forces from the hull , keel , and rudder of a sailing craft, by forces from skate runners of an iceboat, or by forces from wheels of a land sailing craft to allow steering the course
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Mooring (watercraft)
A MOORING refers to any permanent structure to which a vessel may be secured. Examples include quays , wharfs , jetties , piers , anchor buoys , and mooring buoys. A ship is secured to a mooring to forestall free movement of the ship on the water. An anchor mooring fixes a vessel's position relative to a point on the bottom of a waterway without connecting the vessel to shore. As a verb, mooring refers to the act of attaching a vessel to a mooring. The term likely stems from the Dutch verb meren (to moor), used in English since the end of the 15th century. CONTENTS* 1 Permanent anchor mooring * 1.1 Swing moorings * 1.2 Pile moorings * 2 Mooring to a shore fixture * 2.1 Other types * 2.2 Mediterranean mooring * 2.3 Travelling mooring * 2.4 Canal mooring * 3 Mooring line materials * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links PERMANENT ANCHOR MOORING Mooring line of Polish ship Fryderyk Chopin
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Second World War
Allied victory * Collapse of Nazi Germany * Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires * Dissolution of the League of Nations * Creation of the United Nations * Emergence of the United States and the Soviet Union as superpowers * Beginning of the Cold War (more... ) PARTICIPANTS ALLIES AXIS COMMANDERS AND LEADERS MAIN ALLIED LEADERS Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Dynamite
DYNAMITE is an explosive made of nitroglycerin , sorbents (such as powdered shells or clay) and stabilizers. It was invented by the Swedish chemist and engineer Alfred Nobel in Geesthacht , and patented in 1867. It rapidly gained wide-scale use as a safer alternative to gun powder and nitroglycerin . CONTENTS * 1 Invention, purpose, and use * 2 Manufacture * 2.1 Composition * 2.2 Form * 2.3 Storage considerations * 2.4 Major manufacturers * 2.4.1 South Africa * 2.4.2 United States * 3 Non-dynamite explosives * 3.1 TNT * 3.2 "Extra" dynamite * 3.3 "Military dynamite" * 4 Regulation * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links INVENTION, PURPOSE, AND USE "Nobels ExtraDynamit" manufactured by Nobel's old company, Nitroglycerin Aktiebolaget
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Nitroglycerine
Trigonal planar at N7, N8, and N9 Molecular shape Tetrahedral at C1, C2, and C3Dihedral at N7, N8, and N9 EXPLOSIVE DATA Shock sensitivity High Friction sensitivity High Detonation velocity 7700 m s−1 RE factor
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Naval Base Simon's Town
NAVAL BASE SIMON\'S TOWN is the South African Navy
South African Navy
's largest naval base , situated at Simon\'s Town , near Cape Town
Cape Town
. The base provides support functions to Fleet Command . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Current status * 3 Gallery * 4 References HISTORYA small dockyard facility was first established in Simon's Town
Simon's Town
by the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
in 1743; 274 years ago (1743). This was taken over by the British Royal Navy
Royal Navy
(RN) in the 1790s, under whom the facility was further developed over the following century and a half. A pair of handsome stone storehouses dating from the 1740s stand on the seafront where they were built by the Dutch East India Company, marking the initial location of the Yard
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British Empire
The BRITISH EMPIRE comprised the dominions , colonies , protectorates , mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power . By 1913, the British Empire held sway over 412 million people, 7001230000000000000♠23% of the world population at the time, and by 1920, it covered 35,500,000 km2 (13,700,000 sq mi), 7001240000000000000♠24% of the Earth's total land area. As a result, its political, legal , linguistic and cultural legacy is widespread
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Scuba Diving
SCUBA DIVING is a mode of underwater diving in which the SCUBA DIVER uses a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba) which is completely independent of surface supply, to breathe underwater . Unlike other modes of diving, which rely either on breath-hold or on breathing supplied under pressure from the surface , scuba divers carry their own source of breathing gas , usually compressed air , allowing them greater freedom of movement than with an air line or diver\'s umbilical and longer underwater endurance than breath-hold. Open circuit scuba systems discharge the breathing gas into the environment as it is exhaled, and consist of one or more diving cylinders containing breathing gas at high pressure which is supplied to the diver through a diving regulator . They may include additional cylinders for decompression gas or emergency breathing gas. Closed-circuit or semi-closed circuit rebreather scuba systems allow recycling of exhaled gases
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