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False Bay
False Bay
False Bay
( Afrikaans
Afrikaans
Valsbaai) is a body of water defined by Cape Hangklip (Dutch/ Afrikaans
Afrikaans
for "Hang(ing)-rock") and the Cape Peninsula in the extreme south-west of South Africa.Contents1 Description and location 2 History 3 Climate 4 Marine life and recreational pursuits 5 Naval base at Simon's Town 6 Development and human impact 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksDescription and location[edit] The eastern and western shores of the bay are very rocky and even mountainous; in places large cliffs plunge into deep water. Notable peaks associated with the bay include Koeëlberg (1289m / 4229 feet), which rises from the water itself forming the highest point of the Kogelberg, as well as Somerset Sneeukop (1590m / 5217 feet) and Wemmershoek Peak (1788m / 5866 feet) which are clearly visible across the bay
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Dutch East Indies
The Dutch East Indies
East Indies
(or Netherlands
Netherlands
East-Indies; Dutch: Nederlands(ch)-Indië; Indonesian: Hindia Belanda) was a Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia. It was formed from the nationalised colonies of the Dutch East India Company, which came under the administration of the Dutch government in 1800. During the 19th century, the Dutch possessions and hegemony were expanded, reaching their greatest territorial extent in the early 20th century. This colony was one of the most valuable European colonies under the Dutch Empire's rule,[4] and contributed to Dutch global prominence in spice and cash crop trade in the 19th to early 20th century.[5] The colonial social order was based on rigid racial and social structures with a Dutch elite living separate from but linked to their native subjects.[6] The term Indonesia
Indonesia
came into use for the geographical location after 1880
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Paarl
Paarl
Paarl
(/ˈpɑːrl/; Afrikaans: [ˈpɑːrəl] or more commonly [ˈpæːrəl] ; derived from Parel, meaning Pearl in Dutch[2]) is a city with 191,013 inhabitants in the Western Cape
Western Cape
province of South Africa. It is the third oldest town and European settlement in the Republic of South Africa
South Africa
(after Cape Town
Cape Town
and Stellenbosch) and the largest town in the Cape Winelands. Due to the growth of the Mbekweni township, it is now a de facto urban unit with Wellington
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Angling
Angling
Angling
is a method of fishing by means of an "angle" (fish hook). The hook is usually attached to a fishing line and the line is often attached to a fishing rod. Fishing
Fishing
rods are usually fitted with a fishing reel that functions as a mechanism for storing, retrieving and paying out the line. Tenkara fishing
Tenkara fishing
and cane pole fishing are two techniques that do not use a reel. The hook itself can be dressed with bait, but sometimes a lure, with hooks attached to it, is used in place of a hook and bait. A bite indicator such as a float, and a weight or sinker are sometimes used. Angling
Angling
is the principal method of sport fishing, but commercial fisheries also use angling methods such as longlining or trolling. Catch and release
Catch and release
fishing is increasingly practiced by recreational fishermen
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Barracuda
The barracuda is a ray-finned fish known for its large size, fearsome appearance and ferocious behaviour
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Agulhas Current
The Agulhas Current
Agulhas Current
/əˈɡʌləs/ is the western boundary current of the southwest Indian Ocean. It flows down the east coast of Africa from 27°S to 40°S. It is narrow, swift and strong
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Mediterranean Climate
A Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
/ˌmɛdɪtəˈreɪniən/ or dry summer climate, is the climate typical of areas in the Mediterranean Basin. The Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
is usually characterized by rainy winters and dry, warm to hot summers. While the climate receives its name from the Mediterranean Sea, an area where this climate is commonplace, it is also present in other areas of the planet, although with variations in the distribution of temperatures
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Bartolomeu Dias
Bartolomeu Dias
Bartolomeu Dias
(Portuguese pronunciation: [baɾtuluˈmew ˈdi.ɐʃ]; Anglicized: Bartholomew Diaz; c. 1450 – 29 May 1500[2]), a nobleman of the Portuguese royal household, was a Portuguese explorer. He sailed around the southernmost tip of Africa in 1488, reaching the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
from the Atlantic, the first European known to have done so.Contents1 Historical setting and purposes of the Dias expedition 2 The expedition 3 Follow-up voyages 4 Personal life 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistorical setting and purposes of the Dias expedition[edit] Bartolomeu Dias
Bartolomeu Dias
was a squire of the royal court, superintendent of the royal warehouses, and sailing-master of the man-of-war, São Cristóvão (Saint Christopher). Very little is known of his early life
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Signal Hill (Cape Town)
Signal Hill (Afrikaans: Seinheuwel),[1] or Lion's Rump, is a landmark flat-topped hill located in Cape Town, next to Lion's Head and Table Mountain. The hill was also known as "The Lion's Flank", a term now obsolete. Together with Lion's Head, Signal Hill looks like a lion sphinx.[2]Contents1 Signals 2 Structures 3 Ecology 4 See also 5 ReferencesSignals[edit] Signal flags were used to communicate weather warnings as well as anchoring instructions to visiting ships in order to ensure that they prepared adequately for stormy weather while in the bay. Similarly, ships could use flags to signal for assistance if, for example, an anchor line parted during a storm.[3] It is known for the Noon Gun that is operated there by the South African Navy and South African Astronomical Observatory
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Lion's Head (Cape Town)
Lion's Head (Afrikaans: Leeukop) is a mountain in Cape Town, South Africa, between Table Mountain and Signal Hill. Lion's Head peaks at 669 metres (2,195 ft) above sea level. The peak forms part of a dramatic backdrop to the city of Cape Town and is part of the Table Mountain National Park.Contents1 Surrounding 2 History 3 Activities 4 Geology, flora and fauna 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksSurrounding[edit]Lion's Head viewed from Signal HillLion's Head and Signal Hill from the Summit of Table Mountain, with Robben Island in Table BayThe suburbs of the city surround the peak and Signal Hill on almost all sides, but strict management by city authorities has kept development of housing off the higher ground
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SCUBA Diving
Scuba diving
Scuba diving
is a mode of underwater diving where the diver uses a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba) which is completely independent of surface supply, to breathe underwater.[1] Scuba divers carry their own source of breathing gas, usually compressed air,[2] allowing them greater independence and freedom of movement than surface-supplied divers, and longer underwater endurance than breath-hold divers.[1] Open circuit scuba
Open circuit scuba
systems discharge the breathing gas into the environment as it is exhaled, and consist of one or more diving cylinders containing breathing gas at high pressure which is supplied to the diver through a regulator. They may include additional cylinders for range extension, decompression gas or emergency breathing gas.[3] Closed-circuit or semi-closed circuit rebreather scuba systems allow recycling of exhaled gases
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Devil's Peak (Cape Town)
Devil's Peak (Afrikaans: Duiwelspiek) is part of the mountainous backdrop to Cape Town, South Africa. When looking at Table Mountain from the Victoria & Alfred Waterfront, or when looking at the standard picture postcard view of the mountain, the skyline is from left to right: the spire of Devil's Peak, the flat mesa of Table Mountain, the dome of Lion's Head and Signal Hill. The central districts of Cape Town are nestled within this natural amphitheatre. The city grew out of a settlement founded on the shore below the mountains in 1652 by Jan van Riebeeck, for the Dutch East India Company. Some of the first farms in the Cape were established on the slopes of Devil's Peak, along the Liesbeek River. Devil's Peak stands 1,000 metres (3,281 ft) high, less than Table Mountain's 1,087 metres (3,566 ft)
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RML 9 Inch 12 Ton Gun
The RML 9 inch guns Mark I – Mark VI[note 1] were large rifled muzzle-loading guns of the 1860s used as primary armament on smaller British ironclad battleships and secondary armament on larger battleships, and also ashore for coast defence.Contents1 Design 2 Mk VI high-angle gun 3 Ammunition 4 See also 5 Surviving examples 6 Notes 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External linksDesign[edit]Diagrams showing the progressive changes in the gun's constructionThe rifling was the Woolwich pattern of a relatively small number of broad, rounded shallow grooves : there were 6 grooves, increasing from 0 to 1 turn in 45 calibres (i.e. 405 inches).[3] Mark I, introduced in 1865, incorporated the strong but expensive Armstrong method of a steel A tube surrounded by multiple thin wrought-iron coils which maintained the central A tube under compression,[7] and a forged steel breech-piece. 190 were made.[8] Mark II in 1866 incorporated the modified Fraser design
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Mooring (watercraft)
A mooring refers to any permanent structure to which a vessel may be secured. Examples include quays, wharfs, jetties, piers, anchor buoys, and mooring buoys. A ship is secured to a mooring to forestall free movement of the ship on the water. An anchor mooring fixes a vessel's position relative to a point on the bottom of a waterway without connecting the vessel to shore
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British Empire
The British Empire
Empire
comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England
England
between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power.[1] By 1913, the British Empire
Empire
held sway over 412 million people, 7001230000000000000♠23% of the world population at the time,[2] and by 1920, it covered 35,500,000 km2 (13,700,000 sq mi),[3] 7001240000000000000♠24% of the Earth's total land area.[4] As a result, its political, legal, linguistic and cultural legacy is widespread
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