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Fallibilism
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism
Agnosticism
* Epistemology
Epistemology
* Presupposition * Probability
Probability
* v * t * e Broadly speaking, FALLIBILISM (from Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
: fallibilis, "liable to err") is the philosophical claim that no belief can have justification which guarantees the truth of the belief. However, not all fallibilists believe that fallibilism extends to all domains of knowledge . CONTENTS * 1 Usage * 2 Proponents * 3 Moral fallibilism * 4 Criticism * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading USAGEThe term "fallibilism" is used in a variety of senses in contemporary epistemology . The term was coined in the late nineteenth century by the American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce
Charles Sanders Peirce

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Mathematics
MATHEMATICS (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, “knowledge, study, learning”) is the study of topics such as quantity (numbers ), structure , space , and change . There is a range of views among mathematicians and philosophers as to the exact scope and definition of mathematics . Mathematicians seek out patterns and use them to formulate new conjectures . Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof . When mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic , mathematics developed from counting , calculation , measurement , and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects. Practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back as written records exist. The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry
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Logic
LOGIC (from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: λογική, logikḗ ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken" (but coming to mean "thought" or "reason"), is generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of arguments . A valid argument is one where there is a specific relation of logical support between the assumptions of the argument and its conclusion. (In ordinary discourse, the conclusion of such an argument may be signified by words like therefore, hence, ergo and so on.) There is no universal agreement as to the exact scope and subject matter of logic (see § Rival conceptions , below), but it has traditionally included the classification of arguments, the systematic exposition of the 'logical form' common to all valid arguments, the study of inference , including fallacies , and the study of semantics , including paradoxes
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Natural Science
NATURAL SCIENCE is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena , based on observational and empirical evidence . Mechanisms such as peer review and repeatability of findings are used to try to ensure the validity of scientific advances. Natural science
Natural science
can be divided into two main branches: life science (or biological science) and physical science . Physical science
Physical science
is subdivided into branches, including physics , space science , chemistry , and Earth science . These branches of natural science may be further divided into more specialized branches (also known as fields)
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Four (Blues Traveler Album)
FOUR (stylized as FOUR) is the breakthrough album by American rock band Blues Traveler
Blues Traveler
, released on September 13, 1994. Four peaked at No. 8 on the Billboard 200
Billboard 200
albums chart and is most known for its hits "Run-Around" and "Hook", which charted at Nos. 8 and 23, respectively, on the Billboard Hot 100
Billboard Hot 100
. Both songs also charted in the top 20 on the Mainstream Rock and Modern Rock charts. According to the RIAA, the album is certified as 6× Platinum (6 million copies sold in the U.S.). "Run-Around" won the 1995 Grammy Award for Best Rock Performance by a duo or group
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Medieval Latin
MEDIEVAL LATIN was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages , primarily: as a medium of scholarly exchange; as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church ; and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. Despite the clerical origin of many of its authors, medieval Latin should not be confused with Ecclesiastical Latin . There is no real consensus on the exact boundary where Late Latin ends and medieval Latin begins. Some scholarly surveys begin with the rise of early Ecclesiastical Latin in the middle of the 4th century, others around 500, and still others with the replacement of written Late Latin by written Romance languages
Romance languages
starting around the year 900
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Philosophy
PHILOSOPHY (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom" ) is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence , knowledge , values , reason , mind , and language . The term was probably coined by Pythagoras
Pythagoras
(c. 570–495 BCE). Philosophical methods include questioning , critical discussion , rational argument and systematic presentation. Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it? What is most real ? However, philosophers might also pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live? Is it better to be just or unjust (if one can get away with it)? Do humans have free will ? Historically, "philosophy" encompassed any body of knowledge. From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle
Aristotle
to the 19th century, "natural philosophy " encompassed astronomy , medicine and physics
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Hans Albert
HANS ALBERT (born 8 February 1921) is a German philosopher . Born in Cologne
Cologne
, he lives in Heidelberg
Heidelberg
. His fields of research are Social Sciences and General Studies of Methods. He is a critical rationalist , paying special attention to rational heuristics . He is a strong critic of the continental hermeneutic tradition coming from Heidegger
Heidegger
and Gadamer
Gadamer

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Susan Haack
SUSAN HAACK (born 1945) is Distinguished Professor in the Humanities, Cooper Senior Scholar in Arts and Sciences, Professor of Philosophy, and Professor of Law at the University of Miami. She has written on logic , the philosophy of language , epistemology , and metaphysics . Her pragmatism follows that of Charles Sanders Peirce . CONTENTS * 1 Career * 2 Ideas * 3 Memberships * 4 Selected writings * 5 References * 6 Sources * 7 External links CAREERHaack is a graduate of the University of Oxford
University of Oxford
and the University of Cambridge (B.A., M.A., B.Phil, Oxford; Ph.D., Cambridge). She was elected into Phi Beta Kappa as an honorary member. At Oxford, she studied at St. Hilda\'s College , where her first philosophy teacher was Jean Austin, the widow of J. L. Austin
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Carneades
CARNEADES (/kɑːrˈniːədiːz/ ; Greek : Καρνεάδης, Karneadēs, "of Carnea "; 214/3–129/8 BC ) was an Academic skeptic born in Cyrene . By the year 159 BC, he had started to refute all previous dogmatic doctrines, especially Stoicism , and even the Epicureans whom previous skeptics had spared. As head of the Academy , he was one of three philosophers sent to Rome
Rome
in 155 BC where his lectures on the uncertainty of justice caused consternation among leading politicians. He left no writings and many of his opinions are known only via his successor Clitomachus . He seems to have doubted the ability, not just of the senses but of reason too, in acquiring truth . His skepticism was, however, moderated by the belief that we can, nevertheless, ascertain probabilities of truth, to enable us to live and act correctly
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Moral Universalism
MORAL UNIVERSALISM (also called MORAL OBJECTIVISM or UNIVERSAL MORALITY) is the meta-ethical position that some system of ethics, or a universal ethic, applies universally , that is, for "all similarly situated individuals", regardless of culture , race , sex , religion , nationality , sexual orientation , or any other distinguishing feature. Moral universalism is opposed to moral nihilism and moral relativism . However, not all forms of moral universalism are absolutist , nor are they necessarily value monist ; many forms of universalism, such as utilitarianism , are non-absolutist, and some forms, such as that of Isaiah Berlin , may be value pluralist . In addition to the theories of moral realism , moral universalism includes other cognitivist moral theories, such as the subjectivist ideal observer theory and divine command theory , and also the non-cognitivist moral theory of universal prescriptivism
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Isaiah Berlin
SIR ISAIAH BERLIN OM CBE FBA (6 June 1909 – 5 November 1997) was a Russian-British social and political theorist, philosopher and historian of ideas . He was an essayist, conversationalist, raconteur , and lecturer. In its obituary of the scholar, the Independent stated that " Isaiah Berlin
Isaiah Berlin
was often described, especially in his old age, by means of superlatives: the world's greatest talker, the century's most inspired reader, one of the finest minds of our time there is no doubt that he showed in more than one direction the unexpectedly large possibilities open to us at the top end of the range of human potential". Born in Riga
Riga
, Latvia
Latvia
, in 1909, he moved to Petrograd
Petrograd
, Russia, at the age of six, where he witnessed the revolutions of 1917
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Moral Subjectivism
ETHICAL SUBJECTIVISM is the meta-ethical view which claims that: * Ethical sentences express propositions . * Some such propositions are true. * The truth or falsity of such propositions is ineliminably dependent on the (actual or hypothetical) attitudes of people. This makes ethical subjectivism a form of cognitivism . Ethical subjectivism stands in opposition to moral realism , which claims that moral propositions refer to objective facts, independent of human opinion; to error theory , which denies that any moral propositions are true in any sense; and to non-cognitivism , which denies that moral sentences express propositions at all. The most common forms of ethical subjectivism are also forms of moral relativism , with moral standards held to be relative to each culture or society (c.f
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Morality
MORALITY (from the Latin
Latin
moralis "manner, character, proper behavior") is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper. Morality
Morality
can be a body of standards or principles derived from a code of conduct from a particular philosophy , religion or culture , or it can derive from a standard that a person believes should be universal. Morality
Morality
may also be specifically synonymous with "goodness" or "rightness". Moral philosophy includes moral ontology , or the origin of morals, as well as moral epistemology , or knowledge of morals. Different systems of expressing morality have been proposed, including deontological ethical systems which adhere to a set of established rules, and normative ethical systems which consider the merits of actions themselves
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Science
SCIENCE (from Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge") :58 is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe . Contemporary science is typically subdivided into the natural sciences , which study the material universe ; the social sciences , which study people and societies; and the formal sciences , which study logic and mathematics . The formal sciences are often excluded as they do not depend on empirical observations. Disciplines which use science, like engineering and medicine , may also be considered to be applied sciences . From classical antiquity through the 19th century, science as a type of knowledge was more closely linked to philosophy than it is now, and in the Western world
Western world
the term "natural philosophy " once encompassed fields of study that are today associated with science, such as astronomy , medicine, and physics
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Probability
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism * Epistemology