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Fallibilism
Related concepts and fundamentals:Agnosticism Epistemology Presupposition Probabilityv t eBroadly speaking, fallibilism (from Medieval Latin: fallibilis, "liable to err") is the philosophical claim that no belief can have justification which guarantees the truth of the belief.[1] However, not all fallibilists believe that fallibilism extends to all domains of knowledge.Contents1 Usage 2 Proponents 3 Moral fallibilism 4 Criticism 5 See also 6 References 7 Further readingUsage[edit] The term "fallibilism" is used in a variety of senses in contemporary epistemology. The term was coined in the late nineteenth century by the American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce. By "fallibilism", Peirce meant the view that "people cannot attain absolute certainty concerning questions of fact."[2] Other theorists of knowledge have used the term differently
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Four (Blues Traveler Album)
Four (stylized as four) is the breakthrough album by American rock band Blues Traveler, released on September 13, 1994. Four peaked at No. 8 on the Billboard 200
Billboard 200
albums chart and is most known for its hits "Run-Around" and "Hook", which charted at No. 8 and 23, respectively, on the Billboard Hot 100. Both songs also charted in the top 20 on the Mainstream Rock and Modern Rock charts. According to the RIAA, the album is certified as 6× Platinum (6 million copies sold in the U.S.)
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Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
Latin
was the form of Latin
Latin
used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity[dubious – discuss] and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. Despite the clerical origin of many of its authors, medieval Latin
Latin
should not be confused with Ecclesiastical Latin. There is no real consensus on the exact boundary where Late Latin
Latin
ends and medieval Latin
Latin
begins
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Moral Universalism
Moral universalism (also called moral objectivism or universal morality) is the meta-ethical position that some system of ethics, or a universal ethic, applies universally, that is, for "all similarly situated individuals",[1] regardless of culture, race, sex, religion, nationality, sexual orientation, or any other distinguishing feature.[2] Moral universalism is opposed to moral nihilism and moral relativism
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Moral Subjectivism
Ethical subjectivism is the meta-ethical view which claims that:Ethical sentences express propositions. Some such propositions are true. The truth or falsity of such propositions is ineliminably dependent on the (actual or hypothetical) attitudes of people.[1]This makes ethical subjectivism a form of cognitivism. Ethical subjectivism stands in opposition to moral realism, which claims that moral propositions refer to objective facts, independent of human opinion; to error theory, which denies that any moral propositions are true in any sense; and to non-cognitivism, which denies that moral sentences express propositions at all. The most common forms of ethical subjectivism are also forms of moral relativism, with moral standards held to be relative to each culture or society (c.f
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Carneades
Carneades
Carneades
(/kɑːrˈniːədiːz/; Greek: Καρνεάδης, Karneadēs, "of Carnea"; 214/3–129/8 BC[1]) was an Academic skeptic born in Cyrene. By the year 159 BC, he had started to refute all previous dogmatic doctrines, especially Stoicism, and even the Epicureans whom previous skeptics had spared. As head of the Academy, he was one of three philosophers sent to Rome
Rome
in 155 BC where his lectures on the uncertainty of justice caused consternation among leading politicians. He left no writings and many of his opinions are known only via his successor Clitomachus
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Hans Albert
Hans Albert
Hans Albert
(born 8 February 1921) is a German philosopher. Born in Cologne, he lives in Heidelberg. His fields of research are Social Sciences and General Studies of Methods. He is a critical rationalist, paying special attention to rational heuristics. He is a strong critic of the continental hermeneutic tradition coming from Heidegger
Heidegger
and Gadamer.Contents1 Albert's critical rationalism 2 Albert's style of writing and criticizing 3 The intellectual life of Hans Albert 4 Publications4.1 English books 4.2 English papers 4.3 German books5 Biographical literature 6 Further information 7 Decorations and awards 8 See also 9 FootnotesAlbert's critical rationalism[edit] Albert held the chair of 'Social Sciences and General Studies of Methods' at the University of Mannheim. He is also a much-cited philosopher
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Susan Haack
Susan Haack
Susan Haack
(born 1945) is Distinguished Professor in the Humanities, Cooper Senior Scholar in Arts and Sciences, Professor of Philosophy, and Professor of Law at the University of Miami. She has written on logic, the philosophy of language, epistemology, and metaphysics. Her pragmatism follows that of Charles Sanders Peirce.Contents1 Career 2 Ideas 3 Memberships 4 Selected writings 5 References 6 Sources 7 External linksCareer[edit] Haack is a graduate of the University of Oxford
University of Oxford
and the University of Cambridge (B.A., M.A., B.Phil, Oxford; Ph.D., Cambridge). She was elected into Phi Beta Kappa
Phi Beta Kappa
as an honorary member. At Oxford, she studied at St. Hilda's College, where her first philosophy teacher was Jean Austin, the widow of J. L. Austin
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Logic
Logic
Logic
(from the Ancient Greek: λογική, translit. logikḗ[1]), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth,[2] and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference. A valid inference is one where there is a specific relation of logical support between the assumptions of the inference and its conclusion. (In ordinary discourse, inferences may be signified by words like therefore, hence, ergo, and so on.) There is no universal agreement as to the exact scope and subject matter of logic (see § Rival conceptions, below), but it has traditionally included the classification of arguments, the systematic exposition of the 'logical form' common to all valid arguments, the study of inference, including fallacies, and the study of semantics, including paradoxes
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Mathematics
Mathematics
Mathematics
(from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity,[1] structure,[2] space,[1] and change.[3][4][5] It has no generally accepted definition.[6][7] Mathematicians seek out patterns[8][9] and use them to formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof. When mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects. Practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back as written records exist
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Natural Science
Natural science
Natural science
is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation. Mechanisms such as peer review and repeatability of findings are used to try to ensure the validity of scientific advances. Natural science
Natural science
can be divided into two main branches: life science (or biological science) and physical science. Physical science is subdivided into branches, including physics, space science, chemistry, and Earth science
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Philosophy
Philosophy
Philosophy
(from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom"[1][2][3][4]) is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.[5][6] The term was probably coined by Pythagoras
Pythagoras
(c. 570–495 BCE)
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Isaiah Berlin
Sir Isaiah Berlin
Isaiah Berlin
OM CBE FBA (6 June 1909 – 5 November 1997) was a Russian-British social and political theorist, philosopher and historian of ideas.[1] Although adverse to writing, his improvised lectures and talks were recorded and transcribed, with his spoken word being converted by his secretaries into his published essays and books. Born in Riga, Latvia, in 1909, he moved to Petrograd, Russia, at the age of six, where he witnessed the revolutions of 1917. In 1921 his family moved to the UK, and he was educated at St Paul's School, London, and Corpus Christi College, Oxford.[2] In 1932, at the age of 23, Berlin was elected to a prize fellowship at All Souls College, Oxford. He translated works by Ivan Turgenev
Ivan Turgenev
from Russian into English and, during the war, worked for the British Diplomatic Service. From 1957 to 1967 he was Chichele Professor of Social and Political Theory at the University of Oxford
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Morality
Morality
Morality
(from Latin: mōrālis, lit. 'manner, character, proper behavior') is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.[1] Morality
Morality
can be a body of standards or principles derived from a code of conduct from a particular philosophy, religion or culture, or it can derive from a standard that a person believes should be universal.[2] Morality
Morality
may also be specifically synonymous with "goodness" or "rightness". Moral philosophy includes moral ontology, which is the origin of morals; and moral epistemology, which is the knowledge of morals. Different systems of expressing morality have been proposed, including deontological ethical systems which adhere to a set of established rules, and normative ethical systems which consider the merits of actions themselves
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Science
Science
Science
(from Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge")[2][3]:58 is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.[a] Contemporary science is typically subdivided into the natural sciences which study the material world, the social sciences which study people and societies, and the formal sciences like mathematics
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Empirical Evidence
Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.[1] The term comes from the Greek word for experience, ἐμπειρία (empeiría). After Immanuel Kant, in philosophy, it is common to call the knowledge gained a posteriori knowledge (in contrast to a priori knowledge).Contents1 Meaning 2 See also 3 Footnotes 4 References 5 External linksMeaning[edit] Empirical evidence is information that verifies the truth ( which accurately corresponds to reality) or falsity (inaccuracy) of a claim. In the empiricist view, one can claim to have knowledge only when based on empirical evidence (although some empiricists believe that there are other ways of gaining knowledge)
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