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Fairy Tale
A FAIRY TALE is a type of short story that typically features folkloric fantasy characters, such as dwarfs , dragons , elves , fairies , giants , gnomes , goblins , griffins , mermaids , talking animals , trolls , unicorns , or witches , and usually magic or enchantments . Fairy
Fairy
tales may be distinguished from other folk narratives such as legends (which generally involve belief in the veracity of the events described) and explicitly moral tales, including beast fables . The term is mainly used for stories with origins in European tradition and, at least in recent centuries, mostly relates to children\'s literature . In less technical contexts, the term is also used to describe something blessed with unusual happiness, as in "fairy tale ending" (a happy ending ) or "fairy tale romance ", though not all fairy tales end happily
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Epic Poems
An EPIC POEM, EPIC, EPOS, or EPOPEE is a lengthy narrative poem , ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation. Milman Parry and Albert Lord have argued that the Homeric epics, the earliest works of Western literature, were fundamentally an oral poetic form. These works form the basis of the epic genre in Western literature. Nearly all of Western epic (including Virgil's Aeneid
Aeneid
and Dante's Divine Comedy
Comedy
) self-consciously presents itself as a continuation of the tradition begun by these poems. Classical epic poetry employs a meter called dactylic hexameter and recounts a journey, either physical (as typified by Odysseus in the Odyssey
Odyssey
) or mental (as typified by Achilles in the Iliad
Iliad
) or both
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GNOME
GNOME
GNOME
(pronounced /ɡnoʊm/ or /ˈnoʊm/ ) is a desktop environment composed of free and open-source software that runs on Linux
Linux
and most BSD derivatives . GNOME
GNOME
was originally an acronym for GNU
GNU
Network Object Model Environment but the acronym was dropped because it no longer reflected the vision of the GNOME
GNOME
project. GNOME
GNOME
is developed by The GNOME Project , which is composed of both volunteers and paid contributors, the largest corporate contributor being Red Hat
Red Hat
. It is an international project that aims to develop software frameworks for the development of software, to program end-user applications based on these frameworks, and to coordinate efforts for internationalization and localization and accessibility of that software
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German Language
No official regulation ( German orthography regulated by the Council for German Orthography )
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Griffins
The GRIFFIN, GRIFFON, or GRYPHON (Greek : γρύφων, grýphōn, or γρύπων, grýpōn, early form γρύψ, grýps; Latin : gryphus) is a legendary creature with the body, tail, and back legs of a lion ; the head and wings of an eagle ; and an eagle's talons as its front feet. Because the lion was traditionally considered the king of the beasts and the eagle the king of birds, the griffin was thought to be an especially powerful and majestic creature. The griffin was also thought of as king of all creatures. Griffins are known for guarding treasure and priceless possessions. In Greek and Roman texts, griffins and Arimaspians were associated with gold. Indeed, in later accounts, "griffins were said to lay eggs in burrows on the grounds and these nests contained gold nuggets"
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Universidade Nova De Lisboa
NOVA UNIVERSITY OF LISBON ( Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Universidade Nova de Lisboa
- pronounced ) or NOVA is a Portuguese university whose Rectorate is located in Campolide, Lisbon
Lisbon
. Founded in 1973, it is the youngest of the public universities in the Portuguese capital city, earning its name as the "New" (NOVA) University of Lisbon. This Institution has more than 19,000 students, 1,491 Professors and 804 staff members distributed through five faculties, three institutes and one school, providing a variety of courses in several fields of knowledge
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Aarne-Thompson Classification System
The AARNE–THOMPSON CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS are indices used to classify folktales : the Aarne–Thompson Motif-Index (catalogued by alphabetical letters followed by numerals), the Aarne–Thompson Tale Type Index (cataloged by AT or AaTh numbers), and the AARNE–THOMPSON–UTHER CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM (developed in 2004 and cataloged by ATU numbers). The indices are used in folkloristics to organize, classify, and analyze folklore narratives and are essential tools for folklorists because, as Alan Dundes
Alan Dundes
explained in 1997 about the first two indices, "the identification of folk narratives through motif and/or tale type numbers has become an international sine qua non among bona fide folklorists"
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Unicorn
The UNICORN is a legendary creature that has been described since antiquity as a beast with a single large, pointed, spiraling horn projecting from its forehead. The unicorn was depicted in ancient seals of the Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
and was mentioned by the ancient Greeks in accounts of natural history by various writers, including Ctesias , Strabo
Strabo
, Pliny the Younger
Pliny the Younger
, and Aelian . The Bible
Bible
also describes an animal, the re\'em , which some versions translate as unicorn. In European folklore, the unicorn is often depicted as a white horse -like or goat -like animal with a long horn and cloven hooves (sometimes a goat's beard)
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Troll
A TROLL is a class of being in Norse mythology
Norse mythology
and Scandinavian folklore . In Old Norse
Old Norse
sources, beings described as trolls dwell in isolated rocks, mountains, or caves, live together in small family units, and are rarely helpful to human beings. Later, in Scandinavian folklore, trolls became beings in their own right, where they live far from human habitation, are not Christianized , and are considered dangerous to human beings. Depending on the source, their appearance varies greatly; trolls may be ugly and slow-witted, or look and behave exactly like human beings, with no particularly grotesque characteristic about them. Trolls are sometimes associated with particular landmarks, which at times may be explained as formed from a troll exposed to sunlight. Trolls are depicted in a variety of media in modern popular culture
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Durham University
DURHAM UNIVERSITY (legally the UNIVERSITY OF DURHAM) is a collegiate public research university in Durham , North East England
England
, with a second campus in Stockton-on-Tees
Stockton-on-Tees
. It was founded by an Act of Parliament in 1832 and granted a Royal Charter
Royal Charter
in 1837. It was one of the first universities to commence tuition in England
England
for more than 600 years and is one of a number of institutions that has been described as the third-oldest university in England
England
. The Durham University estate includes 63 listed buildings , ranging from the 11th-century Durham Castle
Durham Castle
to a 1930s Art Deco Chapel. The university also owns and manages the Durham World Heritage Site in partnership with Durham Cathedral
Durham Cathedral

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Elf
An ELF (plural: elves) is a type of supernatural being in Germanic mythology and folklore . Reconstructing the early concept of an elf depends almost entirely on texts in Old English or relating to Norse mythology . Later evidence for elves appears in diverse sources such as medical texts, prayers, ballads, and folktales. Recent scholars have emphasised, in the words of Ármann Jakobsson, that: the time has come to resist reviewing information about álfar en masse and trying to impose generalizations on a tradition of a thousand years. Legends of álfar may have been constantly changing and were perhaps always heterogeneous so it might be argued that any particular source will only reflect the state of affairs at one given time. However, some generalisations are possible
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Beast Fable
The BEAST FABLE or ANIMAL FABLE, usually a short story or poem in which animals talk, is a traditional form of allegorical writing. It is a type of fable in which human behaviour and weaknesses are subject to scrutiny by reflection into the animal kingdom. Important traditions in beast fables are represented by the Panchatantra
Panchatantra
and Kalila and Dimna (Sanskrit and Arabic originals), Aesop
Aesop
(Greek original), One Thousand and One Nights
One Thousand and One Nights
(Arabian Nights) and separate trickster traditions (West African and Native American). The medieval French cycle of allegories, Roman de Reynart is called a BEAST-EPIC, with the recurring figure Reynard the fox
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Russian Folklore
FOLKLORE OF RUSSIA is folklore of Russians
Russians
and other ethnic groups of Russia
Russia
. Russian folklore takes its roots in the pagan beliefs of ancient Slavs
Slavs
and now is represented in the Russian fairy tales . Epic Russian bylinas are also an important part of Slavic mythology
Slavic mythology
. The oldest bylinas of Kievan cycle were actually recorded mostly in the Russian North , especially in Karelia
Karelia
, where most of the Finnish national epic Kalevala was recorded as well
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Antti Aarne
ANTTI AMATUS AARNE (December 5, 1867 Pori
Pori
– February 2, 1925 Helsinki
Helsinki
) was a Finnish folklorist . BACKGROUNDAntti was a student of Kaarle Krohn
Kaarle Krohn
, the son of the folklorist Julius Krohn . He further developed their historic-geographic method of comparative folkloristics, and developed the initial version of what became the Aarne–Thompson classification system of classifying folktales , first published in 1910 and extended by Stith Thompson first in 1927 and again in 1961. Early in 1925, Aarne died in Helsinki
Helsinki
( Finland
Finland
) where he had been a lecturer at the University since 1911 and where he had held a position as Professor extraordinarius since 1922
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