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Fact
A FACT is something that is postulated to have occurred or to be correct. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability —that is, whether it can be demonstrated to correspond to experience . Standard reference works are often used to check facts. Scientific facts are verified by repeatable careful observation or measurement (by experiments or other means). CONTENTS * 1 Etymology and usage * 2 In philosophy * 2.1 Correspondence and the slingshot argument * 2.2 Compound facts * 2.3 Fact–value distinction * 2.4 Factual–counterfactual distinction * 3 In science * 3.1 The scientific method * 4 In history * 5 In law * 5.1 Legal pleadings * 5.2 Submissions by _Amicus Curiae_ * 6 See also * 7 Reference ETYMOLOGY AND USAGEThe word FACT derives from the Latin _factum_, and was first used in English with the same meaning: _a thing done or performed_, a meaning now obsolete. The common usage of "something that has really occurred or is the case" dates from the middle of the sixteenth century. Fact
Fact
is sometimes used synonymously with _truth _, as distinct from opinions, falsehoods, or matters of taste. This use is found in such phrases as, "_It is a fact that the cup is blue"_ or "_Matter of fact"_, and "..
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FACT (other)
A FACT is an idea which is considered to be wholly and absolutely true. FACT or FACTS may also refer to: MUSIC * _Fact_ (UK magazine) , an online music magazine * Fact
Fact
(band) , a Japanese post-hardcore band * _Fact_ (album) , the self-titled album of Japanese post-hardcore band Fact * "Facts" (song) , a 2015 song from hip-hop artist Kanye WestOTHER USES * Fact
Fact
(law) , a statement which is found to be true after hearing evidence * Fact
Fact
(data warehouse) , a value or measurement, which represents a fact about the managed entity or system * Fact, a verifiable and objective observation in science * Fact, a true proposition or something that makes a proposition true in philosophy; see truthmaker * _Fact_ (U.S. magazine) , a former American publication that commented on controversial topics * _Fact_, a left-wing British magazine edited by Raymond Postgate * "Facts", a poem by Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
* _FACT Kochi_ , a fertiliser and chemical manufacturing company in Kochi, Kerala, India * _FACTS _ or _F.A.C.T.S._ is a Belgian science fiction, fantasy, comics and anime conventionSEE ALSO * FACT (other) (including FACTS) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title FACT. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article
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Verificationism
VERIFICATIONISM, also known as the VERIFICATION PRINCIPLE or the VERIFIABILITY CRITERION OF MEANING, is the philosophical doctrine that only statements that are empirically verifiable (i.e. verifiable through the senses ) are cognitively meaningful, or else they are truths of logic (tautologies ). Verificationism thus rejects as cognitively "meaningless" statements specific to entire fields such as metaphysics , theology , ethics and aesthetics . Such statements may be meaningful in influencing emotions or behavior, but not in terms of truth value , information or factual content. Verificationism was a central thesis of logical positivism , a movement in analytic philosophy that emerged in the 1920s by the efforts of a group of philosophers who sought to unify philosophy and science under a common naturalistic theory of knowledge . The verifiability criterion underwent various revisions throughout the 1920s to 1950s, but, by the 1960s, was deemed to be irreparably untenable. Its abandonment signaled the end of the entire movement launched by logical positivism. CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 Revisions * 3 Decline * 4 Legacy * 5 See also * 6 Notes ORIGINSAlthough verificationist principles of a general sort—grounding scientific theory in some verifiable experience —are found retrospectively even with the American pragmatist C.S
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Experience
EXPERIENCE is the mastery of an event or subject gained through involvement in or exposure to it. Terms in philosophy such as "empirical knowledge " or "_a posteriori_ knowledge" are used to refer to knowledge based on experience. A person with considerable experience in a specific field can gain a reputation as an expert . The concept of experience generally refers to know-how or procedural knowledge , rather than propositional knowledge : on-the-job training rather than book-learning. The interrogation of experience has a long term tradition in continental philosophy. Experience plays an important role in the philosophy of Søren Kierkegaard . The German term _Erfahrung_, often translated into English as "experience", has a slightly different implication, connoting the coherency of life 's experiences. Certain religious traditions (such as Buddhism , Surat Shabd Yoga , mysticism and Pentecostalism ) and educational paradigms with, for example, the conditioning of military recruit-training (also known as "boot camps"), stress the experiential nature of human epistemology . This stands in contrast to alternatives: traditions of dogma , logic or reasoning . Participants in activities such as tourism , extreme sports and recreational drug-use also tend to stress the importance of experience. The history of the word _experience_ aligns it closely with the concept of experiment
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Science
SCIENCE (from Latin _scientia_, meaning "knowledge") :58 is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe . Contemporary science is typically subdivided into the natural sciences , which study the material universe ; the social sciences , which study people and societies; and the formal sciences , which study logic and mathematics . The formal sciences are often excluded as they do not depend on empirical observations. Disciplines which use science, like engineering and medicine , may also be considered to be applied sciences . From classical antiquity through the 19th century, science as a type of knowledge was more closely linked to philosophy than it is now, and in the Western world the term "natural philosophy " once encompassed fields of study that are today associated with science, such as astronomy , medicine, and physics . However, during the Islamic Golden Age foundations for the scientific method were laid by Ibn al-Haytham in his _ Book of Optics _. While the classification of the material world by the ancient Indians and Greeks into air, earth, fire and water was more philosophical, medieval Middle Easterns used practical and experimental observation to classify materials. In the 17th and 18th centuries, scientists increasingly sought to formulate knowledge in terms of physical laws
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Experiment
An EXPERIMENT is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis . Experiments provide insight into cause-and-effect by demonstrating what outcome occurs when a particular factor is manipulated. Experiments vary greatly in goal and scale, but always rely on repeatable procedure and logical analysis of the results. There also exists natural experimental studies . A child may carry out basic experiments to understand gravity, while teams of scientists may take years of systematic investigation to advance their understanding of a phenomenon. Experiments and other types of hands-on activities are very important to student learning in the science classroom. Experiments can raise test scores and help a student become more engaged and interested in the material they are learning, especially when used over time. Experiments can vary from personal and informal natural comparisons (e.g. tasting a range of chocolates to find a favorite), to highly controlled (e.g. tests requiring complex apparatus overseen by many scientists that hope to discover information about subatomic particles). Uses of experiments vary considerably between the natural and human sciences. Experiments typically include controls , which are designed to minimize the effects of variables other than the single independent variable . This increases the reliability of the results, often through a comparison between control measurements and the other measurements
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Truth
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism
Agnosticism
* Epistemology
Epistemology
* Presupposition * Probability
Probability
* v * t * e _ Time
Time
Saving Truth
Truth
from Falsehood and Envy
Envy
_, François Lemoyne , 1737 _ Truth, holding a mirror and a serpent _ (1896). Olin Levi Warner , Library of Congress Thomas Jefferson Building , Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
TRUTH is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality , or fidelity to an original or standard. Truth
Truth
may also often be used in modern contexts to refer to an idea of "truth to self," or authenticity . The commonly understood opposite of truth is falsehood , which, correspondingly, can also take on a logical, factual, or ethical meaning. The concept of truth is discussed and debated in several contexts, including philosophy, art, and religion. Many human activities depend upon the concept, where its nature as a concept is assumed rather than being a subject of discussion; these include most (but not all) of the sciences , law , journalism , and everyday life. Some philosophers view the concept of truth as basic, and unable to be explained in any terms that are more easily understood than the concept of truth itself
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Werner Herzog
WERNER HERZOG (German: ; born 5 September 1942) is a German screenwriter, film director, author, actor, and opera director. Herzog is considered one of the greatest figures of the New German Cinema , along with Rainer Werner Fassbinder , Margarethe von Trotta , Volker Schlöndorff , Werner Schröter , and Wim Wenders . Herzog's films often feature heroes with impossible dreams, people with unique talents in obscure fields, or individuals who are in conflict with nature. French filmmaker François Truffaut once called Herzog "the most important film director alive." American film critic Roger Ebert said that Herzog "has never created a single film that is compromised, shameful, made for pragmatic reasons, or uninteresting. Even his failures are spectacular." He was named one of the 100 most influential people on the planet by _Time_ magazine in 2009
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Fact-finding
FACT-FINDING is the job of a person or group of persons in a judicial or administrative proceeding that has or have the responsibility of determining the facts relevant to decide a controversy. The term TRIER OF FACT generally denotes the same function. The process is an extremely important part of the communication process. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Declaration on Fact-finding by the United Nations * 2 Triers of fact * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORY Fact-finding was first established during the Hague Convention of 1907 which dealt with international commissions of inquiry. DECLARATION ON FACT-FINDING BY THE UNITED NATIONSOn 9 December 1991, the General Assembly of the United Nations approved the _Declaration on Fact-finding by the United Nations in the Field of the Maintenance of International Peace and Security _. The resolution emphasized ...that the ability of the United Nations to maintain international peace and security depends to a large extent on its acquiring detailed knowledge about the factual circumstances of any dispute or situation. and to encourage States to bear in mind the role that competent organs of the United Nations can play in ascertaining the facts in relation to disputes or situations
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Roger Bacon
ROGER BACON OFM ( Latin : _Rogerus_ or _Rogerius Bacon_, also _Frater Rogerus_; c. 1219/20 – c. 1292), also known by the scholastic accolade _DOCTOR MIRABILIS _, was an English philosopher and Franciscan friar who placed considerable emphasis on the study of nature through empirical methods . In the early modern era , he was regarded as a wizard and particularly famed for the story of his mechanical or necromantic brazen head . He is sometimes credited (mainly since the 19th century) as one of the earliest European advocates of the modern scientific method inspired by Aristotle and by later scholars such as the Arab scientist Alhazen . His linguistic work has been heralded for its early exposition of a universal grammar . However, more recent re-evaluations emphasise that Bacon was essentially a medieval thinker, with much of his "experimental" knowledge obtained from books in the scholastic tradition . He was, however, partially responsible for a revision of the medieval university curriculum, which saw the addition of optics to the traditional _quadrivium _. A survey of how Bacon's work was received over the centuries found that it often reflected the concerns and controversies that were central to his readers. Bacon's major work, the _ Opus Majus _, was sent to Pope Clement IV in Rome in 1267 upon the pope's request
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Philosophy
PHILOSOPHY (from Greek φιλοσοφία, _philosophia_, literally "love of wisdom" ) is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence , knowledge , values , reason , mind , and language . The term was probably coined by Pythagoras (c. 570–495 BCE). Philosophical methods include questioning , critical discussion , rational argument and systematic presentation. Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it? What is most real ? However, philosophers might also pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live? Is it better to be just or unjust (if one can get away with it)? Do humans have free will ? Historically, "philosophy" encompassed any body of knowledge. From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, "natural philosophy " encompassed astronomy , medicine and physics . For example, Newton 's 1687 _Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy _ later became classified as a book of physics. In the 19th century, the growth of modern research universities led academic philosophy and other disciplines to professionalize and specialize. In the modern era, some investigations that were traditionally part of philosophy became separate academic disciplines, including psychology , sociology , linguistics and economics
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Epistemology
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism * Epistemology * Presupposition * Probability
Probability
* v * t * e EPISTEMOLOGY (/ᵻˌpɪstᵻˈmɒlədʒi/ (_ listen ); from Greek ἐπιστήμη, epistēmē_, meaning 'knowledge', and λόγος_, logos _, meaning 'logical discourse') is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge . Epistemology
Epistemology
studies the nature of knowledge, justification, and the rationality of belief. Much of the debate in epistemology centers on four areas: (1) the philosophical analysis of the nature of knowledge and how it relates to such concepts as truth , belief , and justification , (2) various problems of skepticism , (3) the sources and scope of knowledge and justified belief, and (4) the criteria for knowledge and justification. The term 'Epistemology' was first used by Scottish philosopher James Frederick Ferrier in 1854. However, according to Brett Warren, King James VI of Scotland had previously personified this philosophical concept as the character EPISTEMON in 1591
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Ontology
ONTOLOGY is the philosophical study of the nature of being , becoming , existence and/or reality , as well as the basic categories of being and their relations. Traditionally listed as a part of the major branch of philosophy known as metaphysics , ontology often deals with questions concerning what entities exist or may be said to exist and how such entities may be grouped, related within a hierarchy , and subdivided according to similarities and differences. Although ontology as a philosophical enterprise is highly hypothetical, it also has practical application in information science and technology , such as ontology engineering
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Objectivity (philosophy)
OBJECTIVITY is a central philosophical concept, related to reality and truth , which has been variously defined by sources. Generally, objectivity means the state or quality of being true even outside of a subject 's individual biases, interpretations, feelings, and imaginings. A proposition is generally considered objectively true (to have OBJECTIVE TRUTH) when its truth conditions are met without biases caused by feelings, ideas, opinions, etc., of a sentient subject. A second, broader meaning of the term refers to the ability in any context to judge fairly, without partiality or external influence. This second meaning of objectivity is sometimes used synonymously with neutrality . CONTENTS * 1 Objectivism * 2 Objectivity in ethics * 2.1 Ethical subjectivism * 2.2 Ethical objectivism * 3 See also * 4 Further reading * 5 External links OBJECTIVISM This section POSSIBLY CONTAINS ORIGINAL RESEARCH . Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations . Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (November 2008) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )"Objectivism" is a branch of philosophy that originated in the early nineteenth century. Gottlob Frege was the first to apply it, when he expounded an epistemological and metaphysical theory contrary to that of Immanuel Kant . Kant's rationalism attempted to reconcile the failures he perceived in philosophical realism
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State Of Affairs (philosophy)
In philosophy , a STATE OF AFFAIRS (German : Sachverhalt), also known as a SITUATION, is a way the actual world must be in order to make some given proposition about the actual world true; in other words, a state of affairs (situation) is a truth-maker, whereas a proposition is a truth-bearer. Whereas states of affairs (situations) either obtain or fail-to-obtain, propositions are either true or false. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 See also * 3 Notes * 4 References OVERVIEWIn a sense of "state of affairs" favored by Ernest Sosa , states of affairs are situational conditions . In fact, in the Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, Sosa defines a condition to be a state of affairs, "way things are" or situation—most commonly referred to by a nominalization of a sentence . The expression "Snow's being white", which refers to the condition snow's being white, is a nominalization of the sentence "Snow is white". "The truth of the proposition that "snow is white" is a nominalization of the sentence "the proposition that snow is white is true". Snow's being white is a necessary and sufficient condition for the truth of the proposition that snow is white. Conditions in this sense may be called situational. Usually, necessity and sufficiency relate conditions of the same kind. Being an animal is a necessary attributive condition for being a dog. Fido's being an animal is a necessary situational condition for Fido's being a dog
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Correspondence Theory Of Truth
The CORRESPONDENCE THEORY OF TRUTH states that the truth or falsity of a statement is determined only by how it relates to the world and whether it accurately describes (i.e., corresponds with) that world. Correspondence theories claim that true beliefs and true statements correspond to the actual state of affairs. This type of theory attempts to posit a relationship between thoughts or statements on one hand, and things or facts on the other. It is a traditional model which goes back at least to some of the classical Greek philosophers such as Socrates , Plato , and Aristotle . This class of theories holds that the truth or the falsity of a representation is determined solely by how it relates to a reality; that is, by whether it accurately describes that reality. As Aristotle claims in his _Metaphysics_: "To say that that which is, is not, and that which is not, is, is a falsehood; therefore, to say that which is, is, and that which is not, is not, is true"
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