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Facial Motor Nucleus
The FACIAL MOTOR NUCLEUS is a collection of neurons in the brainstem that belong to the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII). These lower motor neurons innervate the muscles of facial expression and the stapedius . CONTENTS * 1 Structure * 2 Function * 2.1 Cortical input * 3 Clinical significance * 3.1 Mechanism of Facial Nerve Upper vs Lower Motor Neuron Lesions * 4 Additional images * 5 References STRUCTUREThe nucleus is situated in the caudal portion of the ventrolateral pontine tegmentum . Its axons take an unusual course, traveling dorsally and looping around the abducens nucleus , then traveling ventrally to exit the ventral pons medial to the spinal trigeminal nucleus . These axons form the motor component of the facial nerve , with parasympathetic and sensory components forming the intermediate nerve
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Medulla Oblongata
The MEDULLA OBLONGATA (or medulla) is located in the brainstem , anterior to the cerebellum . It is a cone-shaped neuronal mass responsible for autonomic (involuntary) functions ranging from vomiting to sneezing . The medulla contains the cardiac , respiratory , vomiting and vasomotor centers and therefore deals with the autonomic functions of breathing , heart rate and blood pressure . The BULB is an archaic term for the medulla oblongata and in modern clinical usage the word BULBAR (as in bulbar palsy ) is retained for terms that relate to the medulla oblongata, particularly in reference to medical conditions. The word bulbar can refer to the nerves and tracts connected to the medulla, and also by association to those muscles innervated , such as those of the tongue , pharynx and larynx
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Special Visceral Efferent
SPECIAL VISCERAL EFFERENT FIBERS (SVE) are the efferent nerve fibers that provide motor innervation to the muscles of the pharyngeal arches in humans, and the branchial arches in fish . Some sources prefer the term "branchiomotor", or "branchial efferent". The only nerves containing SVE fibers are cranial nerves : the trigeminal nerve (V), the facial nerve (VII), the glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), the vagus nerve (X) and the accessory nerve (XI). REFERENCES * ^ cranialnerves at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University) * ^ Definition: branchiomotor nuclei from Online Medical Dictionary * ^ "ana.ed.ac.uk". Retrieved 2008-02-17. * ^ Drake et al
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Sensory Fiber
A SENSORY NERVE, also called an AFFERENT NERVE, is a nerve that carries sensory information toward the central nervous system (CNS). It is a cable-like bundle of the afferent nerve fibers coming from sensory receptors in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). A motor nerve carries information from the CNS to the PNS, and both types of nerve are called PERIPHERAL NERVES. Afferent nerve fibers link the sensory neurons throughout the body, in pathways to the relevant processing circuits in the central nervous system. Afferent nerve fibers are often paired with efferent nerve fibers from the motor neurons (that travel from the CNS to the PNS), in mixed nerves . Stimuli cause nerve impulses in the receptors and alter the potentials, which is known as sensory transduction
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Parasympathetic Nervous System
The PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM (usually abbreviated PSNS, not PNS, to avoid confusion with the peripheral nervous system ) is one of the three divisions of the autonomic nervous system , the others being the sympathetic nervous system and enteric nervous system . The autonomic nervous system is responsible for regulating the body's unconscious actions. The parasympathetic system is responsible for stimulation of "rest-and-digest" or "feed and breed" activities that occur when the body is at rest, especially after eating, including sexual arousal , salivation , lacrimation (tears), urination , digestion and defecation . Its action is described as being complementary to that of the sympathetic nervous system , which is responsible for stimulating activities associated with the fight-or-flight response . Nerve fibres of the parasympathetic nervous system arise from the central nervous system
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Muscles Of Facial Expression
The FACIAL MUSCLES are a group of striated skeletal muscles innervated by the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) that, among other things, control facial expression. These muscles are also called mimetic muscles. CONTENTS* 1 Structure * 1.1 Innervation * 1.2 Development * 1.3 List of muscles * 2 Clinical relevance * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links STRUCTUREThe facial muscles are subcutaneous (just under the skin) muscles that control facial expression. They generally originate from the surface of the skull bone (rarely the fascia), and insert on the skin of the face. When they contract, the skin moves. These muscles also cause wrinkles at right angles to the muscles’ action line. Use of these muscles is noted during an extraoral examination, assuring function of the nerve to these muscles. INNERVATIONThe facial muscles are innervated by facial nerve (cranial nerve VII), with each nerve serving one side of the face
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Stapedius
The STAPEDIUS is the smallest skeletal muscle in the human body. At just over one millimeter in length, its purpose is to stabilize the smallest bone in the body, the stapes . CONTENTS* 1 Structure * 1.1 Innervation * 2 Function * 3 Clinical relevance * 4 Evolutionary variation * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links STRUCTUREThe stapedius emerges from a pinpoint foramen in the apex of the pyramidal eminence (a hollow, cone-shaped prominence in the posterior wall of the tympanic cavity ), and inserts into the neck of the stapes. :863 INNERVATIONThe stapedius is innervated by the nerve to stapedius , a branch of the facial nerve . :863 FUNCTIONThe stapedius dampens the vibrations of the stapes by pulling on the neck of that bone
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Frontal Lobe
The FRONTAL LOBE, located at the front of the brain , is the largest of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the mammalian brain . The frontal lobe is located at the front of each cerebral hemisphere and positioned in front of the parietal lobe and above and in front of the temporal lobe . It is separated from the parietal lobe by a groove between tissues called the central sulcus , and from the temporal lobe by a deeper groove called the lateral sulcus (Sylvian fissure). The most anterior rounded part of the frontal lobe (though not well-defined) is known as the frontal pole, one of the three poles of the cerebrum . The precentral gyrus , forming the posterior border of the frontal lobe, contains the primary motor cortex , which controls voluntary movements of specific body parts. The frontal lobe contains most of the dopamine -sensitive neurons in the cerebral cortex
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Brain
The BRAIN is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. The brain is located in the head, usually close to the sensory organs for senses such as vision . The brain is the most complex organ in a vertebrate's body. In a human, the cerebral cortex contains approximately 15–33 billion neurons , each connected by synapses to several thousand other neurons. These neurons communicate with one another by means of long protoplasmic fibers called axons , which carry trains of signal pulses called action potentials to distant parts of the brain or body targeting specific recipient cells. Physiologically , the function of the brain is to exert centralized control over the other organs of the body. The brain acts on the rest of the body both by generating patterns of muscle activity and by driving the secretion of chemicals called hormones
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Bell's Palsy
BELL\'S PALSY is a type of facial paralysis that results in an inability to control the facial muscles on the affected side. Symptoms can vary from mild to severe. They may include muscle twitching, weakness, or total loss of the ability to move one or rarely both sides of the face. Other symptoms include drooping of the eyelid , a change in taste , pain around the ear, and increased sensitivity to sound. Typically symptoms come on over 48 hours. The cause of Bell's palsy is unknown. Risk factors include diabetes and a recent upper respiratory tract infection . It results from a dysfunction of cranial nerve VII (the facial nerve). Many believe that this is due to a viral infection that results in swelling. Diagnosis is based on a person's appearance and ruling out other possible causes. Other conditions that can cause facial weakness include brain tumor , stroke , Ramsay Hunt syndrome , and Lyme disease
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Bell’s Palsy
BELL\'S PALSY is a type of facial paralysis that results in an inability to control the facial muscles on the affected side. Symptoms can vary from mild to severe. They may include muscle twitching, weakness, or total loss of the ability to move one or rarely both sides of the face. Other symptoms include drooping of the eyelid , a change in taste , pain around the ear, and increased sensitivity to sound. Typically symptoms come on over 48 hours. The cause of Bell's palsy is unknown. Risk factors include diabetes and a recent upper respiratory tract infection . It results from a dysfunction of cranial nerve VII (the facial nerve). Many believe that this is due to a viral infection that results in swelling. Diagnosis is based on a person's appearance and ruling out other possible causes. Other conditions that can cause facial weakness include brain tumor , stroke , Ramsay Hunt syndrome , and Lyme disease
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Idiopathic
An IDIOPATHY is any disease with unknown cause or mechanism of apparently spontaneous origin. From Greek ἴδιος idios "one's own" and πάθος pathos "suffering", idiopathy means approximately "a disease of its own kind". For some medical conditions, one or more causes are somewhat understood, but in a certain percentage of people with the condition, the cause may not be readily apparent or characterized. In these cases, the origin of the condition is said to be IDIOPATHIC. With some other medical conditions, the root cause for a large percentage of all cases have not been established—for example, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis or ankylosing spondylitis ; the majority of these cases are deemed idiopathic. With other conditions, idiopathic cases account for only a small percentage (for example, pulmonary fibrosis )
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Acute Facial Nerve Paralysis
FACIAL NERVE PARALYSIS is a common problem that involves the paralysis of any structures innervated by the facial nerve . The pathway of the facial nerve is long and relatively convoluted, and so there are a number of causes that may result in facial nerve paralysis. The most common is Bell\'s palsy , a disease of unknown cause that may only be diagnosed by exclusion. CONTENTS* 1 Classification * 1.1 Supranuclear and nuclear lesions * 1.2 Infranuclear lesions * 2 Signs and symptoms * 3 Causes * 3.1 Bell\'s palsy * 3.2 Infection * 3.3 Trauma * 3.4 Tumors * 3.5 Stroke * 3.6 Other * 4 Investigation and diagnosis * 5 Treatment * 6 References CLASSIFICATION The facial nerve . Facial nerve paralysis may be divided into supranuclear and infranuclear lesions. SUPRANUCLEAR AND NUCLEAR LESIONSCentral facial palsy can be caused by a lacunar infarct affecting fibers in the internal capsule going to the nucleus
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Upper Motor Neuron
UPPER MOTOR NEURONS are motor neurons that originate either in the motor region of the cerebral cortex or in the brain stem and carry motor information down to the lower motor neurons . The main effector or motor neurons (efferent neurons ) for voluntary movement lie within layer V of the primary motor cortex and are a type of giant pyramidal cell called Betz cells . The cell bodies of these neurons are the largest in the brain, approaching nearly 0.1mm in diameter . The primary motor cortex or precentral gyrus , is one of the most important areas in the frontal lobe . The precentral gyrus is the most posterior gyrus of the frontal lobe and it lies anterior to the central sulcus . The pyramidal cells of the precentral gyrus are also called upper motor neurons
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Internal Capsule
The INTERNAL CAPSULE is a white matter structure situated in the inferomedial part of each cerebral hemisphere of the brain . It carries information past the basal ganglia , separating the caudate nucleus and the thalamus from the putamen and the globus pallidus . The internal capsule contains both ascending and descending axons, going to and coming from the cerebral cortex . The corticospinal tract constitutes a large part of the internal capsule, carrying motor information from the primary motor cortex to the lower motor neurons in the spinal cord . Above the basal ganglia the corticospinal tract is a part of the corona radiata , below the basal ganglia the tract is called cerebral crus (a part of the cerebral peduncle ) and below the pons it is referred to as the corticospinal tract
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Lower Motor Neuron
LOWER MOTOR NEURONS (LMNS) are motor neurons located in either the anterior grey column , anterior nerve roots (spinal lower motor neurons) or the cranial nerve nuclei of the brainstem and cranial nerves with motor function (cranial nerve lower motor neurons). All voluntary movement relies on spinal lower motor neurons, which innervate skeletal muscle fibers and act as a link between upper motor neurons and muscles. Cranial nerve
Cranial nerve
lower motor neurons control movements of the eyes, face and tongue, and contribute to chewing, swallowing and vocalization. Damage to the lower motor neurons can lead to flaccid paralysis
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