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Facial Motor Nucleus
The facial motor nucleus is a collection of neurons in the brainstem that belong to the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII). These lower motor neurons innervate the muscles of facial expression and the stapedius.Contents1 Structure 2 Function2.1 Cortical input3 Clinical significance3.1 Mechanism of Facial Nerve Upper vs Lower Motor Neuron Lesions4 Additional images 5 ReferencesStructure[edit] The nucleus is situated in the caudal portion of the ventrolateral pontine tegmentum. Its axons take an unusual course, traveling dorsally and looping around the abducens nucleus, then traveling ventrally to exit the ventral pons medial to the spinal trigeminal nucleus
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Medulla Oblongata
The medulla oblongata (or medulla) is located in the brainstem, anterior and partially inferior to the cerebellum. It is a cone-shaped neuronal mass responsible for autonomic (involuntary) functions ranging from vomiting to sneezing. The medulla contains the cardiac, respiratory, vomiting and vasomotor centers and therefore deals with the autonomic functions of breathing, heart rate and blood pressure. The bulb is an archaic term for the medulla oblongata and in modern clinical usage the word bulbar (as in bulbar palsy) is retained for terms that relate to the medulla oblongata, particularly in reference to medical conditions
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Bell’s Palsy
Bell's palsy
Bell's palsy
is a type of facial paralysis that results in an inability to control the facial muscles on the affected side.[1] Symptoms can vary from mild to severe.[1] They may include muscle twitching, weakness, or total loss of the ability to move one or rarely both sides of the face.[1] Other symptoms include drooping of the eyelid, a change in taste, pain around the ear, and increased sensitivity to sound.[1] Typically symptoms come on over 48 hours.[1] The cause of Bell's palsy
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Bell's Palsy
Bell's palsy
Bell's palsy
is a type of facial paralysis that results in an inability to control the facial muscles on the affected side.[1] Symptoms can vary from mild to severe.[1] They may include muscle twitching, weakness, or total loss of the ability to move one or rarely both sides of the face.[1] Other symptoms include drooping of the eyelid, a change in taste, pain around the ear, and increased sensitivity to sound.[1] Typically symptoms come on over 48 hours.[1] The cause of
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Idiopathic
An idiopathic disease is any disease with an unknown cause or mechanism of apparently spontaneous origin.[1] From Greek ἴδιος idios "one's own" and πάθος pathos "suffering", idiopathy means approximately "a disease of its own kind". For some medical conditions, one or more causes are somewhat understood, but in a certain percentage of people with the condition, the cause may not be readily apparent or characterized. In these cases, the origin of the condition is said to be idiopathic
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Acute Facial Nerve Paralysis
Facial nerve paralysis is a common problem that involves the paralysis of any structures innervated by the facial nerve. The pathway of the facial nerve is long and relatively convoluted, and so there are a number of causes that may result in facial nerve paralysis.[2] The most common is Bell's palsy, a disease of unknown cause that may only be diagnosed by exclusion.Contents1 Signs and symptoms 2 Causes2.1 Bell's palsy 2.2 Infection 2.3 Trauma 2.4 Tumors 2.5 Stroke 2.6 Other3 Diagnosis3.1 Classification3.1.1 Supranuclear and nuclear lesions 3.1.2 Infranuclear lesions4 Treatment 5 References 6 External linksSigns and symptoms[edit] Facial nerve paralysis is characterised by unilateral facial weakness, with other symptoms including loss of taste, hyperacusis, and decreased salivation and tear secretion. Other signs may be linked to the cause of the paralysis, such as vesicles in the ear, which may occur if the facial palsy is due to shingles
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Internal Capsule
The internal capsule is a white matter structure situated in the inferomedial part of each cerebral hemisphere of the brain. It carries information past the basal ganglia, separating the caudate nucleus and the thalamus from the putamen and the globus pallidus. The internal capsule contains both ascending and descending axons, going to and coming from the cerebral cortex. The corticospinal tract constitutes a large part of the internal capsule, carrying motor information from the primary motor cortex to the lower motor neurons in the spinal cord
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Upper Motor Neuron
Upper motor neurons (UMNs) are motor neurons that originate either in the motor region of the cerebral cortex or in the brain stem and carry motor information down to the lower motor neurons. The main effector of motor neurons (efferent neurons) for voluntary movement lie within layer V of the primary motor cortex, and are a type of giant pyramidal cell called Betz cells. The cell bodies of these neurons are the largest in the brain, approaching nearly 0.1mm in diameter. The primary motor cortex or precentral gyrus, is one of the most important areas in the frontal lobe. The precentral gyrus is the most posterior gyrus of the frontal lobe and it lies anterior to the central sulcus. The pyramidal cells of the precentral gyrus are also called upper motor neurons
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Brain
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. The brain is located in the head, usually close to the sensory organs for senses such as vision. The brain is the most complex organ in a vertebrate's body. In a human, the cerebral cortex contains approximately 15–33 billion neurons,[1] each connected by synapses to several thousand other neurons. These neurons communicate with one another by means of long protoplasmic fibers called axons, which carry trains of signal pulses called action potentials to distant parts of the brain or body targeting specific recipient cells. Physiologically, the function of the brain is to exert centralized control over the other organs of the body. The brain acts on the rest of the body both by generating patterns of muscle activity and by driving the secretion of chemicals called hormones. This centralized control allows rapid and coordinated responses to changes in the environment
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Frontal Lobe
The frontal lobe, located at the front of the brain, is the largest of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the mammalian brain. The frontal lobe is located at the front of each cerebral hemisphere (in front of the parietal lobe and the temporal lobe). It is separated from the parietal lobe by a groove between tissues called the central sulcus, and from the temporal lobe by a deeper groove called the lateral sulcus (Sylvian fissure). The most anterior rounded part of the frontal lobe (though not well-defined) is known as the frontal pole, one of the three poles of the cerebrum.[1] The precentral gyrus, a portion of the frontal lobe directly anterior to the central sulcus, contains the primary motor cortex, which controls voluntary movements of specific body parts. The frontal lobe contains most of the dopamine-sensitive neurons in the cerebral cortex
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Artery
An artery (plural arteries) (from Greek ἀρτηρία (artēria), meaning 'windpipe, artery')[1] is a blood vessel that takes blood from the heart to all parts of the body. Most arteries carry oxygenated blood; the two exceptions are the pulmonary and the umbilical arteries, which carry deoxygenated blood to the organs that oxygenate it. The effective arterial blood volume is that extracellular fluid which fills the arterial system. The arteries are part of the circulatory system, which is responsible for the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to all cells, as well as the removal of carbon dioxide and waste products, the maintenance of optimum blood pH, and the circulation of proteins and cells of the immune system
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Pharyngeal Arch
The pharyngeal arches —also known as visceral arches—are structures seen in the embryonic development of vertebrates that are recognisable precursors for many structures. In fish the arches are known as the branchial arches or gill arches. In the human embryo, the arches are first seen during the fourth week of development. They appear as a series of outpouchings of mesoderm on both sides of the developing pharynx
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Sensory Fiber
A sensory nerve, also called an afferent nerve, is a nerve that carries sensory information toward the central nervous system (CNS). It is a cable-like bundle of the afferent nerve fibers coming from sensory receptors in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). A motor nerve carries information from the CNS to the PNS, and both types of nerve are called peripheral nerves. Afferent nerve fibers link the sensory neurons throughout the body, in pathways to the relevant processing circuits in the central nervous system.[1] Afferent nerve fibers are often paired with efferent nerve fibers from the motor neurons (that travel from the CNS to the PNS), in mixed nerves
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Parasympathetic Nervous System
The parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system (a division of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)), the other being the sympathetic nervous system.[1][2] (The enteric nervous system (ENS) is now usually referred to as separate from the autonomic nervous system since it has its own independent reflex activity.) The autonomic nervous system is responsible for regulating the body's unconscious actions. The parasympathetic system is responsible for stimulation of "rest-and-digest" or "feed and breed"[3] activities that occur when the body is at rest, especially after eating, including sexual arousal, salivation, lacrimation (tears), urination, digestion and defecation
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Special Visceral Efferent
Special visceral efferent fibers (SVE) are the efferent nerve fibers that provide motor innervation to the muscles of the pharyngeal arches in humans, and the branchial arches in fish.[1] Some sources prefer the term "branchiomotor",[2] or "branchial efferent".[3] The only nerves containing SVE fibers are cranial nerves: the trigeminal nerve (V), the facial nerve (VII), the glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), the vagus nerve (X) and the accessory nerve (XI).[4] References[edit]^ cranialnerves at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University) ^ Definition: branchiomotor nuclei from Online Medical Dictionary ^ "ana.ed.ac.uk". Retrieved 2008-02-17.  ^ Drake et al
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