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FTP
The File
File
Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used for the transfer of computer files between a client and server on a computer network. FTP is built on a client-server model architecture and uses separate control and data connections between the client and the server.[1] FTP users may authenticate themselves with a clear-text sign-in protocol, normally in the form of a username and password, but can connect anonymously if the server is configured to allow it. For secure transmission that protects the username and password, and encrypts the content, FTP is often secured with SSL/TLS (FTPS)
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Integrated Services Digital Network
Integrated Services Digital Network
Integrated Services Digital Network
(ISDN) is a set of communication standards for simultaneous digital transmission of voice, video, data, and other network services over the traditional circuits of the public switched telephone network. It was first defined in 1988 in the CCITT red book.[1] Prior to ISDN, the telephone system was viewed as a way to transport voice, with some special services available for data. The key feature of ISDN
ISDN
is that it integrates speech and data on the same lines, adding features that were not available in the classic telephone system
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Stream Control Transmission Protocol
The Stream Control Transmission Protocol
Stream Control Transmission Protocol
(SCTP) is a computer networking communications protocol which operates at the transport layer and serves a role similar to the popular protocols TCP and UDP. It is standardized by IETF
IETF
in RFC 4960. SCTP provides some of the features of both UDP and TCP: it is message-oriented like UDP and ensures reliable, in-sequence transport of messages with congestion control like TCP. It differs from those protocols by providing multi-homing and redundant paths to increase resilience and reliability. In the absence of native SCTP support in operating systems, it is possible to tunnel SCTP over UDP,[1] as well as to map TCP API calls to SCTP calls so existing applications can use SCTP without modification.[2] The reference implementation was released as part of FreeBSD
FreeBSD
version 7
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Tunneling Protocol
In computer networks, a tunneling protocol allows a network user to access or provide a network service that the underlying network does not support or provide directly. One important use of a tunneling protocol is to allow a foreign protocol to run over a network that does not support that particular protocol; for example, running IPv6 over IPv4. Another important use is to provide services that are impractical or unsafe to be offered using only the underlying network services; for example, providing a corporate network address to a remote user whose physical network address is not part of the corporate network
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XMPP
Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) is a communications protocol for message-oriented middleware based on XML
XML
(Extensible Markup Language).[1] It enables the near-real-time exchange of structured yet extensible data between any two or more network entities.[2] Originally named Jabber,[3] the protocol was developed by the Jabber open-source community in 1999 for near real-time instant messaging (IM), presence information, and contact list maintenance.
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Open Shortest Path First
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a routing protocol for Internet Protocol (IP) networks. It uses a link state routing (LSR) algorithm and falls into the group of interior gateway protocols (IGPs), operating within a single autonomous system (AS). It is defined as OSPF Version 2 in RFC 2328 (1998) for IPv4.[1] The updates for IPv6 are specified as OSPF Version 3 in RFC 5340 (2008).[2] OSPF supports the Classless Inter-Domain Routing
Classless Inter-Domain Routing
(CIDR) addressing model. OSPF is a widely used IGP in large enterprise networks
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Neighbor Discovery Protocol
The Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP, ND)[1] is a protocol in the Internet protocol suite
Internet protocol suite
used with Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol
Version 6 (IPv6). It operates at the Network Layer of the Internet model (RFC 1122), and is responsible for gathering various information required for internet communication, including the configuration of local connections and the domain name servers and gateways used to communicate with more distant systems.[2] The protocol defines five different ICMPv6 packet types to perform functions for IPv6
IPv6
similar to the Address Resolution Protocol
Address Resolution Protocol
(ARP) and Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Router Discovery and Router Redirect protocols for IPv4
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Address Resolution Protocol
The Address Resolution Protocol
Address Resolution Protocol
(ARP) is a communication protocol used for discovering the link layer address, such as a MAC address, associated with a given network layer address, typically an IPv4 address. This mapping is a critical function in the Internet protocol suite. ARP was defined in 1982 by RFC 826,[1] which is Internet Standard STD 37. ARP has been implemented with many combinations of network and data link layer technologies, such as IPv4, Chaosnet, DECnet and Xerox PARC Universal Packet (PUP) using IEEE 802
IEEE 802
standards, FDDI, X.25, Frame Relay and Asynchronous Transfer Mode
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
(ATM)
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Datagram Congestion Control Protocol
In computer networking, the Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) is a message-oriented transport layer protocol. DCCP implements reliable connection setup, teardown, Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN), congestion control, and feature negotiation. The IETF
IETF
published DCCP as RFC 4340, a proposed standard, in March 2006. RFC 4336 provides an introduction. DCCP provides a way to gain access to congestion-control mechanisms without having to implement them at the application layer. It allows for flow-based semantics like in Transmission Control Protocol
Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP), but does not provide reliable in-order delivery. Sequenced delivery within multiple streams as in the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is not available in DCCP. A DCCP connection contains acknowledgment traffic as well as data traffic
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Resource Reservation Protocol
The Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) is a transport layer[1] protocol designed to reserve resources across a network for quality of service (QoS) using the integrated services model. RSVP operates over an IPv4
IPv4
or IPv6
IPv6
and provides receiver-initiated setup of resource reservations for multicast or unicast data flows. It does not transport application data but is similar to a control protocol, like Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) or Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP). RSVP is described in RFC 2205. RSVP can be used by hosts and routers to request or deliver specific levels of QoS for application data streams or flows. RSVP defines how applications place reservations and how they can relinquish the reserved resources once no longer required. RSVP operation will generally result in resources being reserved in each node along a path
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Simple Network Management Protocol
Simple Network Management Protocol
Simple Network Management Protocol
(SNMP) is an Internet Standard protocol for collecting and organizing information about managed devices on IP networks and for modifying that information to change device behavior. Devices that typically support SNMP include cable modems, routers, switches, servers, workstations, printers, and more.[1] SNMP is widely used in network management for network monitoring. SNMP exposes management data in the form of variables on the managed systems organized in a management information base (MIB) which describe the system status and configuration. These variables can then be remotely queried (and, in some circumstances, manipulated) by managing applications. Three significant versions of SNMP have been developed and deployed. SNMPv1 is the original version of the protocol
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Internet Layer
The internet layer is a group of internetworking methods, protocols, and specifications in the Internet protocol suite
Internet protocol suite
that are used to transport datagrams (packets) from the originating host across network boundaries, if necessary, to the destination host specified by an IP address which is defined for this purpose by the Internet Protocol (IP). The internet layer derives its name from its function of forming an internet (uncapitalized), or facilitating internetworking, which is the concept of connecting multiple networks with each other through gateways. Internet-layer protocols use IP-based packets. The internet layer does not include the protocols that define communication between local (on-link) network nodes which fulfill the purpose of maintaining link states between the local nodes, such as the local network topology, and that usually use protocols that are based on the framing of packets specific to the link types
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Internet Protocol
The Internet
Internet
Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite
Internet protocol suite
for relaying packets across network boundaries. Its routing function enables internetworking, and essentially establishes the Internet. IP has the task of delivering packets from the source host to the destination host solely based on the IP addresses in the packet headers. For this purpose, IP defines packet structures that encapsulate the data to be delivered. It also defines addressing methods that are used to label the datagram with source and destination information. Historically, IP was the connectionless datagram service in the original Transmission Control Program introduced by Vint Cerf
Vint Cerf
and Bob Kahn in 1974; the other being the connection-oriented Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
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IPv4
Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol
version 4 (IPv4) is the fourth version of the Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol
(IP). It is one of the core protocols of standards-based internetworking methods in the Internet, and was the first version deployed for production in the ARPANET
ARPANET
in 1983. It still routes most Internet
Internet
traffic today,[1] despite the ongoing deployment of a successor protocol, IPv6. IPv4
IPv4
is described in IETF
IETF
publication RFC 791 (September 1981), replacing an earlier definition (RFC 760, January 1980). IPv4
IPv4
is a connectionless protocol for use on packet-switched networks. It operates on a best effort delivery model, in that it does not guarantee delivery, nor does it assure proper sequencing or avoidance of duplicate delivery
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Link Layer
In computer networking, the link layer is the lowest layer in the Internet
Internet
Protocol Suite, the networking architecture of the Internet. It is described in RFC 1122 and RFC 1123. The link layer is the group of methods and communications protocols that only operate on the link that a host is physically connected to
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Internet Control Message Protocol
The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is a supporting protocol in the Internet protocol suite
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