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FM Broadcasting
FM BROADCASTING is a method of radio broadcasting using frequency modulation (FM) technology. Invented in 1933 by American engineer Edwin Armstrong , it is used worldwide to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio . FM broadcasting is capable of better sound quality than AM broadcasting , the chief competing radio broadcasting technology, so it is used for most music broadcasts. FM radio stations use the VHF frequencies. The term "FM band" describes the frequency band in a given country which is dedicated to FM broadcasting
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Amplitude Modulation
AMPLITUDE MODULATION (AM) is a modulation technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave . In amplitude modulation, the amplitude (signal strength) of the carrier wave is varied in proportion to the waveform being transmitted. That waveform may, for instance, correspond to the sounds to be reproduced by a loudspeaker , or the light intensity of television pixels. This technique contrasts with frequency modulation , in which the frequency of the carrier signal is varied, and phase modulation , in which its phase is varied. AM was the earliest modulation method used to transmit voice by radio. It was developed during the first two decades of the 20th century beginning with Landell de Moura and Reginald Fessenden
Reginald Fessenden
's radiotelephone experiments in 1900
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Frequency Modulation
In telecommunications and signal processing , FREQUENCY MODULATION (FM) is the encoding of information in a carrier wave by varying the instantaneous frequency of the wave. This contrasts with amplitude modulation , in which the amplitude of the carrier wave varies, while the frequency remains constant. In analog frequency modulation, such as FM radio broadcasting of an audio signal representing voice or music, the instantaneous frequency deviation , the difference between the frequency of the carrier and its center frequency, is proportional to the modulating signal. Digital data can be encoded and transmitted via FM by shifting the carrier's frequency among a predefined set of frequencies representing digits - for example one frequency can represent a binary 1 and a second can represent binary 0. This modulation technique is known as frequency-shift keying (FSK)
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Modulation
In electronics and telecommunications , MODULATION is the process of varying one or more properties of a periodic waveform , called the _carrier signal _, with a modulating signal that typically contains information to be transmitted. Most radio systems in the 20th century used frequency modulation (FM) or amplitude modulation (AM) to make the carrier carry the radio broadcast. In general telecommunications, modulation is a process of conveying message signal, for example, a digital bit stream or an analog audio signal, inside another signal that can be physically transmitted. Modulation of a sine waveform transforms a narrow frequency range baseband message signal into a moderate to high frequency range passband signal, one that can pass through a filter. A MODULATOR is a device that performs modulation. A DEMODULATOR (sometimes _detector_ or _demod_) is a device that performs demodulation , the inverse of modulation
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Radio Studio
A RECORDING STUDIO is a specialized facility for sound recording , mixing and audio production of instrumental or vocal musical performances, spoken words and other sounds. They range in size from a small in-home "project studio" large enough to record a single singer-guitarist, to a large building with space for a full orchestra of 100 or more musicians. Ideally both the recording and monitoring (listening and mixing) spaces are specially designed by an acoustician or audio engineer to achieve optimum acoustic properties (acoustic isolation or diffusion or absorption of reflected sound "echoes" that could otherwise interfere with the sound heard by the listener). Recording studios may be used to record singers , instrumental musicians (e.g., electric guitar, piano, saxophone, or ensembles such as orchestras ), voice-over artists for advertisements or dialogue replacement in film, television or animation, foley , or to record their accompanying musical soundtracks
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Carrier Wave
In telecommunications , a CARRIER WAVE, CARRIER SIGNAL, or just CARRIER, is a waveform (usually sinusoidal ) that is modulated (modified) with an input signal for the purpose of conveying information. This carrier wave usually has a much higher frequency than the input signal does. The purpose of the carrier is usually either to transmit the information through space as an electromagnetic wave (as in radio communication), or to allow several carriers at different frequencies to share a common physical transmission medium by frequency division multiplexing (as, for example, a cable television system). The term is also used for an unmodulated emission in the absence of any modulating signal. Most radio systems in the 20th century used frequency modulation (FM) or amplitude modulation (AM) to make the carrier carry information. The frequency of a radio or television station is actually the carrier wave's frequency
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Amplitude
The AMPLITUDE of a periodic variable is a measure of its change over a single period (such as time or spatial period ). There are various definitions of amplitude (see below), which are all functions of the magnitude of the difference between the variable's extreme values . In older texts the phase is sometimes called the amplitude
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Frequency
FREQUENCY is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time . It is also referred to as TEMPORAL FREQUENCY, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency and angular frequency . The PERIOD is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency. For example, if a newborn baby's heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period—the time interval between beats—is half a second (that is, 60 seconds divided by 120 beats ). Frequency is an important parameter used in science and engineering to specify the rate of oscillatory and vibratory phenomena, such as mechanical vibrations, audio (sound ) signals, radio waves , and light
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Demodulation
DEMODULATION is extracting the original information-bearing signal from a modulated carrier wave . A DEMODULATOR is an electronic circuit (or computer program in a software-defined radio ) that is used to recover the information content from the modulated carrier wave. There are many types of modulation so there are many types of demodulators. The signal output from a demodulator may represent sound (an analog audio signal ), images (an analog video signal ) or binary data (a digital signal ). These terms are traditionally used in connection with radio receivers , but many other systems use many kinds of demodulators. For example, in a modem , which is a contraction of the terms modulator /demodulator, a demodulator is used to extract a serial digital data stream from a carrier signal which is used to carry it through a telephone line , coaxial cable , or optical fiber
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Radio Broadcasting
RADIO BROADCASTING is a unidirectional wireless transmission over radio waves intended to reach a wide audience . Stations can be linked in radio networks to broadcast a common radio format , either in broadcast syndication or simulcast or both. Audio broadcasting also can be done via cable radio , local wire television networks , satellite radio , and internet radio via streaming media on the Internet
Internet
. The signal types can be either analog audio or digital audio . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Types * 2.1 Shortwave * 2.2 AM * 2.3 FM * 2.4 Pirate radio * 2.5 Terrestrial digital radio * 2.6 Satellite * 3 Program formats * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links HISTORY See also: History of radio § Broadcasting
Broadcasting
, and History of broadcasting The earliest radio stations were simply radiotelegraphy systems and did not carry audio
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Frequency Modulation
In telecommunications and signal processing , FREQUENCY MODULATION (FM) is the encoding of information in a carrier wave by varying the instantaneous frequency of the wave. This contrasts with amplitude modulation , in which the amplitude of the carrier wave varies, while the frequency remains constant. In analog frequency modulation, such as FM radio broadcasting of an audio signal representing voice or music, the instantaneous frequency deviation , the difference between the frequency of the carrier and its center frequency, is proportional to the modulating signal. Digital data can be encoded and transmitted via FM by shifting the carrier's frequency among a predefined set of frequencies representing digits - for example one frequency can represent a binary 1 and a second can represent binary 0. This modulation technique is known as frequency-shift keying (FSK)
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Edwin Armstrong
EDWIN HOWARD ARMSTRONG (December 18, 1890 – January 31, 1954) was an American electrical engineer and inventor , best known for developing FM (frequency modulation ) radio. He held 42 patents and received numerous awards, including the first Medal of Honor awarded by the Institute of Radio Engineers (now IEEE), the French Legion of Honor , the 1941 Franklin Medal
Franklin Medal
and the 1942 Edison Medal . He was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame
National Inventors Hall of Fame
and included in the International Telecommunication Union
International Telecommunication Union
's roster of great inventors
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High Fidelity
HIGH FIDELITY (often shortened to HI-FI or HIFI) reproduction is a term used by home stereo listeners, audiophiles and home audio enthusiasts to refer to high-quality reproduction of sound to distinguish it from the lower quality sound produced by inexpensive audio equipment, or the inferior quality of sound reproduction that can be heard in recordings made until the late 1940s. Ideally, high-fidelity equipment has inaudible noise and distortion , and a flat (neutral, uncolored) frequency response within the intended frequency range. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Listening tests * 3 Semblance of realism * 4 Modularity * 5 Modern equipment * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links HISTORY Bell Laboratories began experimenting with a wider range of recording techniques in the early 1930s
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Radio
RADIO is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude , frequency , phase , or pulse width . When radio waves strike an electrical conductor , the oscillating fields induce an alternating current in the conductor. The information in the waves can be extracted and transformed back into its original form. Radio
Radio
systems need a transmitter to modulate (change) some property of the energy produced to impress a signal on it, for example using amplitude modulation or angle modulation (which can be frequency modulation or phase modulation ). Radio
Radio
systems also need an antenna to convert electric currents into radio waves , and radio waves into an electric current. An antenna can be used for both transmitting and receiving
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AM Broadcasting
AM BROADCASTING is a radio broadcasting technology, which employs amplitude modulation (AM) transmissions. It was the first method developed for making audio radio transmissions, and is still used worldwide, primarily for medium wave (also known as "AM band") transmissions, but also on the longwave and shortwave radio bands. The earliest experimental AM transmissions were begun in the early 1900s. However, widespread AM broadcasting
AM broadcasting
was not established until the 1920s, following the development of vacuum tube receivers and transmitters
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Radio Station
A RADIO STATION is a set of equipment necessary to carry on communication via radio waves . Generally, it is a receiver or transmitter , an antenna , and some smaller additional equipment necessary to operate them. Radio stations play a vital role in communication technology as they are heavily relied on to transfer data and information across the world. More broadly, the definition of a radio station includes the aforementioned equipment and a building in which it is installed. Such a station may include several "radio stations" defined above (i.e. several sets of receivers or transmitters installed in one building but functioning independently, and several antennas installed on a field next to the building). This definition of a radio station is more often referred to as a transmitter site, transmitter station , transmission facility or transmitting station
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