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Félix Houphouët-Boigny
Félix Houphouët-Boigny
Félix Houphouët-Boigny
([feliks ufwɛ(t) bwaɲi];[1][2] 18 October 1905 – 7 December 1993), affectionately called Papa Houphouët or Le Vieux (The Old One), was the first President of Ivory Coast (1960 to 1993), serving for more than three decades until his death. A tribal chief, he worked as a medical aide, union leader, and planter before being elected to the French Parliament. He served in several ministerial positions within the French government before leading Côte d'Ivoire following independence in 1960. Throughout his life, he played a significant role in politics and the decolonization of Africa. Under Houphouët-Boigny's politically moderate leadership, Ivory Coast prospered economically
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Trade Union
A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.[1] The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members (rank and file members) and negotiates labour contracts (collective bargaining) with employers
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Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
or Kim Il Sung (/ˈkɪm ˈɪlˈsʌŋ, ˈsʊŋ/;[1] Chosŏn'gŭl: 김일성, Korean: [kimils͈ʌŋ]; born Kim Sŏng-ju (김성주); 15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994) was the leader of North Korea
North Korea
from its establishment in 1948 until his death in 1994.[2] He held the posts of Premier from 1948 to 1972 and President from 1972 to 1994. He was also the leader of the Workers' Party of Korea
Korea
(WPK) from 1949 to 1994 (titled chairman from 1949 to 1966 and general secretary after 1966). Coming to power after the end of Japanese rule in 1945, he authorized the invasion of South Korea
South Korea
in 1950, triggering a defense of South Korea
South Korea
by the United Nations
United Nations
led by the United States. Following the military stalemate in the Korean War, a cease-fire was signed on 27 July 1953
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Thomas Sankara
Thomas Isidore Noël Sankara (French pronunciation: ​[tɔma izidɔʁ nɔɛl sɑ̃kaʁa]; 21 December 1949 – 15 October 1987) was a Burkinabé military captain, Marxist revolutionary, pan-Africanist and President of Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
from 1983 to 1987.[1][2] Viewed by supporters as a charismatic and iconic figure of revolution, he is commonly referred to as "Africa's Che Guevara".[1][3][4] Sankara seized power in a popularly-supported coup in 1983, aged just thirty-three, with the goal of eliminating corruption and the dominance of the former French colonial power.[1][5]
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Burkina Faso
Coordinates: 13°N 2°W / 13°N 2°W / 13; -2Burkina FasoFlagCoat of armsMotto: "Unité–Progrès–Justice" (French) "Unity–Progress–Justice"Anthem:  Une Seule Nuit
Une Seule Nuit
/ Ditanyè  (French) One Single Night / Hymn of VictoryLocation of  Burkina Faso  (dark blue) – in Africa  (light blue & dark grey) – in the African Union  (light blue)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Ouagadougou 12°20′N 1°40′W /
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People's Republic Of China
China, officially the People's Republic
People's Republic
of China
China
(PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia
East Asia
and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area,[k][19] depending on the source consulted. China
China
also has the most neighbor countries in the world
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UNITA
The National Union for the Total Independence of Angola
Angola
(UNITA) (Portuguese: União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola) is the second-largest political party in Angola. Founded in 1966, UNITA fought alongside the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) in the Angolan War for Independence
Angolan War for Independence
(1961–1975) and then against the MPLA
MPLA
in the ensuing civil war (1975–2002)
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Angola
Coordinates: 12°30′S 18°30′E / 12.500°S 18.500°E / -12.500; 18.500 Republic
Republic
of Angola República de Angola  (Portuguese)FlagEmblemMotto: Virtus Unita Fortior  (Latin) (English: "Virtue is stronger when united")Anthem:  Angola
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Fidel Castro
Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (/ˈkæstroʊ/;[1] American Spanish: [fiˈðel aleˈhandɾo ˈkastɾo ˈrus] ( listen); August 13, 1926 – November 25, 2016) was a Cuban politician and communist revolutionary who governed the Republic of Cuba
Cuba
as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008. Politically a Marxist–Leninist and Cuban nationalist, Castro also served as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba
Communist Party of Cuba
from 1961 until 2011. Under his administration, Cuba
Cuba
became a one-party communist state, while industry and business were nationalized and state socialist reforms were implemented throughout the society. Born in Birán, Oriente as the son of a wealthy Spanish farmer, Castro adopted leftist anti-imperialist politics while studying law at the University of Havana
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Cuba
Coordinates: 22°00′N 80°00′W / 22.000°N 80.000°W / 22.000; -80.000Republic of Cuba República de Cuba  (Spanish)FlagCoat of armsMotto:  "¡Patria o Muerte, Venceremos!" (Spanish) "Homeland or Death, we shall overcome!"[1]Anthem: La Bayamesa Bayamo
Bayamo
Song [2]Location of  Cuba  (green)Capital and largest city Havana 23°8′N 82°23′W / 23.133°N 82.383°W / 23.133; -82.383Official languages SpanishEthnic groups (2012[3])64.1% White 26.6% Mulatto, Mest
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North Korea
Coordinates: 40°00′N 127°00′E / 40.000°N 127.000°E / 40.000; 127.000Democratic People's Republic of Korea 조선민주주의인민공화국 Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin KonghwagukFlagEmblemAnthem: "Aegukka" Korean: 애국가, The Patriotic SongArea controlled by the North Korean state are shown in dark green; North Korean-claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green.Status Sovereign stateCapital and largest city Pyongyang 39°2′N 125°45′E / 39.033°N 125.750°E / 39.033; 125.750Official languages Korean[1]Official script Chosŏn'gŭl[2]DemonymNorth Korean KoreanGovernment Unitary one-party Juche
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Mathieu Kérékou
Mathieu Kérékou
Mathieu Kérékou
(French pronunciation: ​[ma.tjø ke.ʁe.ku]) (2 September 1933 – 14 October 2015) was a Beninese politician who served as President of Benin
President of Benin
from 1972 to 1991 and again from 1996 to 2006. After seizing power in a military coup, he ruled the country for 19 years, for most of that time under an officially Marxist–Leninist ideology, before he was stripped of his powers by the National Conference of 1990. He was defeated in the 1991 presidential election but was returned to the presidency in the 1996 election and controversially re-elected in 2001.Contents1 Military background 2 1972 coup and single-party rule 3 Transition to democracy 4 1996 presidential election 5 Disputed re-election, 2001 6 Religion and symbolism 7 Retirement and death 8 ReferencesMilitary background[edit] Kérékou was born in 1933 in Kouarfa village,[1] in north-west French Dahomey
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Coup D'état
A coup d'état (/ˌkuː deɪˈtɑː/ ( listen); French: [ku deta]), also known simply as a coup, a putsch (/pʊtʃ/), golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.[1]Contents1 Terminology1.1 Etymology 1.2 Use of the phrase 1.3 Putsch 1.4 Pronunciamiento2 History 3 Types 4 Predictors 5 Coup-proofing 6 Democratization 7 Repression after failed coups, and counter-coups 8 International responses 9 In Popular Media 10 Current leaders who assumed power via coups d'état 11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 Bibliography 15 External linksTerminology[edit] Etymology[edit] Coup is when a country or a team attempt at taking something that is not theirs. The phrase coup d'état is French, literally meaning a "stroke of state" or "blow against the state"
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Devaluation
In modern monetary policy, a devaluation is an official lowering of the value of a country's currency within a fixed exchange rate system, by which the monetary authority formally sets a new fixed rate with respect to a foreign reference currency or currency basket
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Animism
Animism
Animism
(from Latin
Latin
anima, "breath, spirit, life")[1][2] is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.[3][4][5][6] Potentially, animism perceives all things—animals, plants, rocks, rivers, weather systems, human handiwork and perhaps even words—as animated and alive. Animism
Animism
is used in the anthropology of religion as a term for the belief system of many indigenous peoples,[7] especially in contrast to the relatively more recent development of organised religions.[8] Although each culture has its own different mythologies and rituals, "animism" is said to describe the most common, foundational thread of indigenous peoples' "spiritual" or "supernatural" perspectives
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Regent
A regent (from the Latin
Latin
regens,[1] "[one] ruling"[2]) is "a person appointed to administer a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated."[3] The rule of a regent or regents is called a regency. A regent or regency council may be formed ad hoc or in accordance with a constitutional rule. "Regent" is sometimes a formal title. If the regent is holding his position due to his position in the line of succession, the compound term prince regent is often used; if the regent of a minor is his mother, she is often referred to as "queen regent". If the formally appointed regent is unavailable or cannot serve on a temporary basis, a Regent
Regent
ad interim may be appointed to fill the gap. In a monarchy, a regent usually governs due to one of these reasons, but may also be elected to rule during the interregnum when the royal line has died out
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