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Extinct
In biology and ecology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species. The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of the species, although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point. Because a species' potential range may be very large, determining this moment is difficult, and is usually done retrospectively
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Divergent Evolution
Divergent evolution
Divergent evolution
is the accumulation of differences between groups, leading to the formation of new species. The term can also be applied in molecular evolution, such as to proteins that derive from homologous genes. Both orthologous genes (resulting from a speciation event) and paralogous genes (resulting from gene duplication) can illustrate divergent evolution. Through gene duplication, it is possible for divergent evolution to occur between two genes within a species. Similarities between species that have diverged are due to their common origin, so such similarities are homologies. In contrast, convergent evolution arises when an adaptation has arisen independently, creating analogous structures such as the wings of birds and of insects.Contents1 Divergence 2 Adaptive radiation 3 Speciation 4 See also 5 ReferencesDivergence[edit] The American naturalist J. T. Gulick
J. T

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IUCN Red List Conservation Dependent Species
As of July 2016, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists 238 conservation dependent species.[1] 0.29% of all evaluated species are listed as conservation dependent. The IUCN also lists seven subspecies and five varieties as conservation dependent. Of the animal subpopulations evaluated by the IUCN, one species subpopulation and one subspecies subpopulation has been assessed as conservation dependent. The conservation dependent category is part of the IUCN 1994 Categories & Criteria (version 2.3), which is no longer used in evaluation of taxa, but persists in the IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
for taxa evaluated prior to 2001, when version 3.1 was first used. Using the 2001 (v3.1) system these taxa are classed as near threatened, but those that have not been re-evaluated remain with the "conservation dependent" category. This is a complete list of conservation dependent species and subspecies evaluated by the IUCN
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Lower Risk
An animal with the conservation status of lower risk is one with populations levels high enough to ensure its survival. Animals with this status do not qualify as being threatened or extinct, however, natural disasters or certain human activities would cause them to change to either of these classifications. This classification is sub-divided into three types: Conservation dependent
Conservation dependent
- where cessation of current conservation measures could result in it being classified at a higher risk level. Near threatened
Near threatened
- close to becoming vulnerable but not meeting the criteria. Least concern
Least concern
- where neither of the two above apply.See also[edit]Biodiversity action plan Endangered speciesReferences[edit]"The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species". Archived from the original on 2009-05-17. Retrieved 2015-05-22. This ecology-related article is a stub
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Parallel Evolution
Parallel evolution is the development of a similar trait in related, but distinct, species descending from the same ancestor, but from different clades.[1][2]Contents1 Parallel vs. convergent evolution1.1 Examples1.1.1 Parallel evolution between marsupials and placentals2 See also 3 ReferencesParallel vs. convergent evolution[edit]Evolution at an amino acid position. In each case, the left-hand species changes from incorporating alanine (A) at a specific position within a protein in a hypothetical common ancestor deduced from comparison of sequences of several species, and now incorporates serine (S) in its present-day form
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IUCN Red List Of Extinct Species
On 29 January 2010, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
identified 842 (746 animals, 96 plants) extinct species, subspecies and varieties, stocks and sub-populations.Contents1 Kingdom Animalia1.1 Phylum Arthropoda1.1.1 Class Arachnida1.1.1.1 Order Holothyroidae 1.1.1.2 Order Opiliones1.1.2 Subphylum Crustacea1.1.2.1 Order Amphipoda 1.1.2.2 Order Calanoida 1.1.2.3 Order Cyclopoida 1.1.2.4 Order Decapoda 1.1.2.5 Order Podocopida1.1.3 Class Diplopoda1.1.3.1 Order Spirobolida1.1.4 Class Insecta1.1.4.1 Order C
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International Union For The Conservation Of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature
International Union for Conservation of Nature
(IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature
International Union for Conservation of Nature
and Natural Resources[2]) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, research, field projects, advocacy, and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence, encourage and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation
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Human Evolution
Human
Human
evolution is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humans, beginning with the evolutionary history of primates – in particular genus Homo
Homo
– and leading to the emergence of Homo sapiens
Homo sapiens
as a distinct species of the hominid family, the great apes
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Abiogenesis
Abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life,[3][4][5][note 1] is the natural process by which life arises from non-living matter, such as simple organic compounds.[3][4][6][7] The transition from non-living to living entities was not a single event but a gradual process of increasing complexity.[8][9][10][11] Abiogenesis
Abiogenesis
is studied through a combination of paleontology, chemistry, and extrapolation from the characteristics of modern organisms, and aims to determine how pre-life chemical reactions gave rise to life.[12] The study of abiogenesis can be geophysical, chemical, or biological,[13] with more recent approaches attempting a synthesis of all three,[14] as life arose under conditions that are strikingly different from those on Earth
Earth
today
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Lists Of Organisms By Population
This is a collection of lists of organisms by their population. While of the most numbers are estimates, they have been made by the experts in their fields. Species
Species
population is a science falling under the purview of population ecology and biogeography
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Genetic Divergence
Genetic divergence is the process in which two or more populations of an ancestral species accumulate independent genetic changes (mutations) through time, often after the populations have become reproductively isolated for some period of time. In some cases, subpopulations living in ecologically distinct peripheral environments can exhibit genetic divergence from the remainder of a population, especially where the range of a population is very large (see parapatric speciation). The genetic differences among divergent populations can involve silent mutations (that have no effect on the phenotype) or give rise to significant morphological and/or physiological changes
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Polymorphism (biology)
Polymorphism[1] in biology and zoology is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species. To be classified as such, morphs must occupy the same habitat at the same time and belong to a panmictic population (one with random mating).[2] Three mechanisms may cause polymorphism:[3] Genetic polymorphism – where the phenotype of each individual is genetically determined A conditional development strategy, where the phenotype of each individual is set by environmental cues A mixed development strategy, where the phenotype is randomly assigned during developmentPolymorphism as used in zoology and biology involves morphs of the phenotype, and the term polyphenism can be used to clarify that the different forms arise from the same genotype
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Convergent Evolution
Convergent evolution
Convergent evolution
is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages. Convergent evolution
Convergent evolution
creates analogous structures that have similar form or function but were not present in the last common ancestor of those groups. The cladistic term for the same phenomenon is homoplasy. The recurrent evolution of flight is a classic example, as flying insects, birds, pterosaurs, and bats have independently evolved the useful capacity of flight. Functionally similar features that have arisen through convergent evolution are analogous, whereas homologous structures or traits have a common origin but can have dissimilar functions
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Genetic Variation
Genetic variation
Genetic variation
means that biological systems – individuals and populations – are different over space. Each gene pool includes various alleles of genes.[2] The variation occurs both within and among populations, supported by individual carriers of the variant genes. Genetic variation
Genetic variation
is brought about, fundamentally, by mutation, which is a permanent change in the chemical structure of chromosomes. Genetic recombination
Genetic recombination
also produces changes within alleles.Contents1 Among individuals within a population 2 Between populations 3 Measurement 4 Sources 5 Forms 6 Maintenance in populations 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksAmong individuals within a population[edit] Genetic variation
Genetic variation
among individuals within a population can be identified at a variety of levels
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Coevolution
In biology, coevolution occurs when two or more species reciprocally affect each other's evolution. Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
mentioned evolutionary interactions between flowering plants and insects in On the Origin of Species
On the Origin of Species
(1859). The term coevolution was coined by Paul R. Ehrlich
Paul R. Ehrlich
and Peter H. Raven
Peter H

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