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Experience
EXPERIENCE is the mastery of an event or subject gained through involvement in or exposure to it. Terms in philosophy such as "empirical knowledge " or "_a posteriori_ knowledge" are used to refer to knowledge based on experience. A person with considerable experience in a specific field can gain a reputation as an expert . The concept of experience generally refers to know-how or procedural knowledge , rather than propositional knowledge : on-the-job training rather than book-learning. The interrogation of experience has a long term tradition in continental philosophy. Experience plays an important role in the philosophy of Søren Kierkegaard . The German term _Erfahrung_, often translated into English as "experience", has a slightly different implication, connoting the coherency of life 's experiences. Certain religious traditions (such as Buddhism , Surat Shabd Yoga , mysticism and Pentecostalism ) and educational paradigms with, for example, the conditioning of military recruit-training (also known as "boot camps"), stress the experiential nature of human epistemology . This stands in contrast to alternatives: traditions of dogma , logic or reasoning . Participants in activities such as tourism , extreme sports and recreational drug-use also tend to stress the importance of experience. The history of the word _experience_ aligns it closely with the concept of experiment
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Experience (other)
EXPERIENCE is a collection of events and/or activities from which an individual or group may gather knowledge, opinions and/or skills. EXPERIENCE may also refer to: * Conscious experience, see Consciousness .CONTENTS* 1 Arts and entertainment * 1.1 Music * 1.2 Other * 2 People * 3 Other uses * 4 See also ARTS AND ENTERTAINMENTMUSIC * The Jimi Hendrix Experience
Experience
(1966–69), a rock band, led by guitarist Jimi Hendrix, sometimes known as "The Experience". * _Experience_ (Jimi Hendrix album) (1971) * _Experience_ (Lincoln Thompson album) (1979) * _Experience_ (The Prodigy album) (1992) * _The Experience_ (Yolanda Adams album) , 2001 * _Experience: Jill Scott 826+ _ (2001), a live double album by American R font-style: italic;">This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title EXPERIENCE. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Experience_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Philosophy
PHILOSOPHY (from Greek φιλοσοφία, _philosophia_, literally "love of wisdom" ) is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence , knowledge , values , reason , mind , and language . The term was probably coined by Pythagoras (c. 570–495 BCE). Philosophical methods include questioning , critical discussion , rational argument and systematic presentation. Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it? What is most real ? However, philosophers might also pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live? Is it better to be just or unjust (if one can get away with it)? Do humans have free will ? Historically, "philosophy" encompassed any body of knowledge. From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, "natural philosophy " encompassed astronomy , medicine and physics . For example, Newton 's 1687 _Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy _ later became classified as a book of physics. In the 19th century, the growth of modern research universities led academic philosophy and other disciplines to professionalize and specialize. In the modern era, some investigations that were traditionally part of philosophy became separate academic disciplines, including psychology , sociology , linguistics and economics
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Empirical Knowledge
EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE, also known as SENSORY EXPERIENCE, is the knowledge received by means of the senses , particularly by observation and experimentation . The term comes from the Greek word for experience, ἐμπειρία (empeiría). After Immanuel Kant , in philosophy, it is common to call the knowledge gained a posteriori knowledge (in contrast to a priori knowledge). CONTENTS * 1 Meaning * 2 See also * 3 Footnotes * 4 References * 5 External links MEANING Empirical evidence is information that justifies the truth or falsity of a claim. In the empiricist view, one can claim to have knowledge only when based on empirical evidence. This stands in contrast to the rationalist view under which reason or reflection alone is considered evidence for the truth or falsity of some propositions . Empirical evidence is information acquired by observation or experimentation. This data is recorded and analyzed by scientists. This is the primary source of empirical evidence. Secondary sources describe, discuss, interpret, comment upon, analyze, evaluate, summarize, and process primary sources. Secondary source materials can be articles in newspapers or popular magazines, book or movie reviews, or articles found in scholarly journals that discuss or evaluate someone else's original research. Empirical evidence may be synonymous with the outcome of an experiment. In this regard, an empirical result is a unified confirmation
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Expert
An EXPERT is someone who has a prolonged or intense experience through practice and education in a particular field. Informally, an expert is someone widely recognized as a reliable source of technique or skill whose faculty for judging or deciding rightly, justly, or wisely is accorded authority and status by peers or the public in a specific well-distinguished domain. An expert, more generally, is a person with extensive knowledge or ability based on research, experience, or occupation and in a particular area of study. Experts are called in for advice on their respective subject, but they do not always agree on the particulars of a field of study. An expert can be believed, by virtue of credential , training , education , profession , publication or experience , to have special knowledge of a subject beyond that of the average person, sufficient that others may officially (and legally ) rely upon the individual's opinion . Historically, an expert was referred to as a sage (Sophos ). The individual was usually a profound thinker distinguished for wisdom and sound judgment . In specific fields, the definition of expert is well established by consensus and therefore it is not always necessary for individuals to have a professional or academic qualification for them to be accepted as an expert
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Know-how
KNOW-HOW is a term for practical knowledge on how to accomplish something, as opposed to "know-what" (facts), "know-why" (science), or "know-who" (communication). Know-how is often tacit knowledge , which means that it is difficult to transfer to another person by means of writing it down or verbalising it. Dubickis and Gaile-Sarkane (2017) states that the performance of know-how transfer is affected by accuracy of the stated aim, applied teaching, learning and assessment methods and both internal and external environment characteristics of the stakeholders involved in the process. The opposite of tacit knowledge is explicit knowledge . In the context of industrial property (now generally viewed as intellectual property - IP), know-how is a component in the transfer of technology in national and international environments, co-existing with or separate from other IP rights such as patents , trademarks and copyright and is an economic asset. While know-how is recognized in United States
United States
Tax regulations as a property, services by individuals having know-how are not
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Procedural Knowledge
PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE, also known as IMPERATIVE KNOWLEDGE, is the knowledge exercised in the performance of some task. See below for the specific meaning of this term in COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY and INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY law. Procedural knowledge is different from other kinds of knowledge , such as declarative knowledge , in that it can be directly applied to a task. For instance, the procedural knowledge one uses to solve problems differs from the declarative knowledge one possesses about problem solving because this knowledge is formed by doing. In some legal systems, such procedural knowledge has been considered the intellectual property of a company, and can be transferred when that company is purchased. One limitation of procedural knowledge is its job-dependent so it tends to be less general than declarative knowledge. For example, a computer expert might have knowledge about a computer algorithm in multiple languages, or in pseudo-code, but a Visual Basic programmer might know only about a specific implementation of that algorithm, written in Visual Basic. Thus the 'hands-on' expertise and experience of the Visual Basic programmer might be of commercial value only to Microsoft job-shops, for example. One advantage of procedural knowledge is that it can involve more senses , such as hands-on experience, practice at solving problems, understanding of the limitations of a specific solution, etc. Thus procedural knowledge can frequently eclipse theory
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Propositional Knowledge
DESCRIPTIVE KNOWLEDGE, also DECLARATIVE KNOWLEDGE or PROPOSITIONAL KNOWLEDGE, is the type of knowledge that is, by its very nature, expressed in declarative sentences or indicative propositions. This distinguishes descriptive knowledge from what is commonly known as "know-how", or procedural knowledge (the knowledge of how, and especially how best, to perform some task), and "knowing of", or knowledge by acquaintance (the knowledge of something's existence). The difference between knowledge and beliefs is as follows: A belief is an internal thought or memory which exists in one's mind . Most people accept that for a belief to be knowledge it must be, at least, true and justified . The Gettier problem in philosophy is the question of whether there are any other requirements before a belief can be accepted as knowledge. The article epistemology discusses the opinion of philosophers on how one can tell which beliefs constitute actual knowledge. CONTENTS * 1 Acquiring knowledge * 2 Types of knowledge * 3 Knowledge in various disciplines * 3.1 Knowledge in science and engineering * 3.2 Knowledge in history * 4 Situated knowledge * 5 Issues * 6 Non-scientific methods * 7 Practical limits for obtaining knowledge * 8 See also * 9 References ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE Main article: Knowledge acquisition (philosophy) People have used many methods to try to gain knowledge
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On-the-job Training
On-the-job training, sometimes called direct instruction , is one of the earliest forms of training (observational learning is probably the earliest). It is a one-on-one training located at the job site, where someone who knows how to do a task shows another how to perform it. In antiquity, the work performed by most people did not rely on abstract thinking or academic education. Parents or community members, who knew the skills necessary for survival, passed their knowledge on to the children through direct instruction. On the Job Training is still widely used today. It is a frequently used method of training because it requires only a person who knows how to do the task and the tools the person uses to do the task. It may not be the most effective or the most efficient method at times, but it is normally the easiest to arrange and manage. Because the training takes place on the job, it can be highly realistic and no transfer of learning is required. It is often inexpensive because no special equipment is needed other than what is normally used on the job. One drawback is that OJT takes the trainer and materials out of production for the duration of the training time. In addition, due to safety or other production factors, it is prohibitive in some environment. Even many researchers show the importance of the On the Job Training
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Philosophy Of Søren Kierkegaard
Søren Kierkegaard 's philosophy has been a major influence in the development of 20th-century philosophy, especially existentialism and postmodernism . Kierkegaard was a 19th-century Danish philosopher who has been called the "Father of Existentialism". His philosophy also influenced the development of existential psychology . Kierkegaard criticized aspects of the philosophical systems that were brought on by philosophers such as Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel before him and the Danish Hegelians . He was also indirectly influenced by the philosophy of Immanuel Kant . He measured himself against the model of philosophy which he found in Socrates , which aims to draw one's attention not to explanatory systems, but rather to the issue of how one exists. One of Kierkegaard's recurrent themes is the importance of subjectivity, which has to do with the way people relate themselves to (objective) truths. In Concluding Unscientific Postscript to Philosophical Fragments, he argues that "subjectivity is truth" and "truth is subjectivity." What he means by this is that most essentially, truth is not just a matter of discovering objective facts. While objective facts are important, there is a second and more crucial element of truth, which involves how one relates oneself to those matters of fact
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German Language
_No official regulation_ ( German orthography regulated by the Council for German Orthography ). LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 de ISO 639-2 ger (B) deu (T) ISO 639-3 Variously: deu – German gmh – Middle High German goh – Old High German gct – Colonia Tovar German bar – Bavarian cim – Cimbrian geh – Hutterite German ksh – Kölsch nds – Low German sli – Lower Silesian ltz – Luxembourgish vmf – Mainfränkisch mhn – Mócheno pfl – Palatinate German pdc – Pennsylvania German pdt – Plautdietsch swg – Swabian German gsw – Swiss German uln – Unserdeutsch sxu – Upper Saxon wae – Walser German wep – Westphalian hrx – Riograndenser Hunsrückisch yec – Yenish GLOTTOLOG high1287 High Franconian uppe1397 Upper German LINGUASPHERE further information 52-AC (Continental West Germanic) > 52-ACB (Deutsch & Dutch) > 52-ACB-d ( Central German incl. 52-ACB–dl & -dm Standard/Generalised High German ) + 52-ACB-e & -f ( Upper German & Swiss German ) + 52-ACB-h (émigré German varieties incl
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Personal Life
PERSONAL LIFE is the course of an individual 's life, especially when viewed as the sum of personal choices contributing to one's personal identity . In ancient past, most people's time was limited by the need to meet necessities such as food and shelter and there was not much leisure time . People identified with their social role in their community, and engaged in jobs based on necessity rather than personal choice. Privacy in such communities was rare. The modern conception of personal life is an offshoot of modern Western society. A modern person tends to distinguish one's work from one's personal life. It is a person's choices and preferences outside of work that define personal life, including one's choice of hobbies, cultural interests, manner of dress, and so on. In particular, what activities one engages in during leisure-time defines a person's personal life. For instance, a typical American has about five hours of leisure time per day, more than half of which is spent on watching TV. People in Western countries, such as the United States , tend to value privacy. Privacy includes both information privacy and decisional privacy; people expect to be left alone with respect to intimate details of their life and they expect to be free from undue control by others
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Religious
There is no scholarly consensus over the definition of "RELIGION". Conventionally, a "religion" is any cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views , texts , sanctified places, ethics, or organizations , that relate humanity to the supernatural or transcendental . Religions relate humanity to what anthropologist Clifford Geertz has referred to as a cosmic "order of existence". Different religions may or may not contain various elements ranging from the "divine ", "sacred things", "faith ", a "supernatural being or supernatural beings" or "some sort of ultimacy and transcendence that will provide norms and power for the rest of life". Religious practices may include rituals , sermons , commemoration or veneration (of deities ), sacrifices , festivals , feasts , trances , initiations , funerary services , matrimonial services , meditation , prayer , music , art , dance , public service , or other aspects of human culture. Religions have sacred histories and narratives , which may be preserved in sacred scriptures, and symbols and holy places , that aim mostly to give a meaning to life . Religions may contain symbolic stories, which are sometimes said by followers to be true, that have the side purpose of explaining the origin of life , the Universe and other things. Traditionally, faith, in addition to reason, has been considered a source of religious beliefs
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Traditions
A TRADITION is a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past. Common examples include holidays or impractical but socially meaningful clothes (like lawyers\' wigs or military officers' spurs ), but the idea has also been applied to social norms such as greetings. Traditions can persist and evolve for thousands of years—the word "tradition" itself derives from the Latin
Latin
_tradere_ literally meaning to transmit, to hand over, to give for safekeeping. While it is commonly assumed that traditions have ancient history, many traditions have been invented on purpose, whether that be political or cultural, over short periods of time. Various academic disciplines also use the word in a variety of ways. One way tradition is used more simply, often in academic work but elsewhere also, is to indicate the quality of a piece of information being discussed. The phrase "according to tradition," or "by tradition," usually means that whatever information follows is known only by oral tradition, but is not supported, (and perhaps may be refuted) by physical documentation, by a physical artifact, or other quality evidence. For example, "According to tradition, Homer was born on Chios, but many other locales have historically claimed him as theirs." This tradition may never be proven or disproven
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Buddhism
BUDDHISM ( /ˈbʊdɪzəm/ or /ˈbuːdɪzəm/ ) is a religion and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions , beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to the Buddha
Buddha
. Buddhism
Buddhism
originated in Ancient India sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia
Asia
, whereafter it declined in India
India
during the Middle Ages. Two major extant branches of Buddhism
Buddhism
are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada ( Pali
Pali
: "The School of the Elders") and Mahayana ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: "The Great Vehicle"). Buddhism
Buddhism
is the world\'s fourth-largest religion , with over 500 million followers or 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists. Buddhist schools vary on the exact nature of the path to liberation, the importance and canonicity of various teachings and scriptures , and especially their respective practices
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Surat Shabd Yoga
SURAT SHABD YOGA or SURAT SHABDA YOGA is a type of spiritual yoga practice in the Sant Mat tradition. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Basic principles * 3 Movements and masters * 4 The Line of Succession of sikhs * 4.1 Variations in movements * 5 Notes and references * 6 External links ETYMOLOGYSURAT is ‘attention’ or ‘face’, that is, an outward expression of the soul ; _SHABD _ or Shabda has multiple meanings including ‘sacred song’, ‘word’, ‘voice’, ‘hymn’, ‘verse’, or ‘sound current, ‘audible life stream’, and the ‘essence of the Absolute Supreme Being’. The Absolute Supreme Being is a dynamic force of creative energy sent out into the abyss of space at the dawn of the universe's manifestation, as sound vibrations. These vibrations continue and are sent forth through the ages, framing all things that constitute and inhabit the universe. YOGA is literal