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Executive President
An EXECUTIVE PRESIDENT is a president who exercises active executive power in certain systems of government . Executive presidents are active in day-to-day governance of a nation, and are usually popularly elected. They contrast with figurehead presidents, common in most parliamentary republics , in which the president serves symbolic, nonpolitical roles (and often is appointed to office by parliament) while the prime minister holds all relevant executive power. A small number of nations, most notably South Africa
South Africa
and Botswana
Botswana
, have both an executive presidency and a system of governance that is parliamentary in character, with the President
President
elected by and dependent on the confidence of the legislature. In these states, the offices of president and prime minister (as both head of state and head of government respectively) might be said to be combined. The above examples notwithstanding, executive presidencies are found in presidential systems and semi-presidential systems . The usual checks and balances on an executive president are through the judicial system through statutory authorisations or prohibitions and by some legislative body or bodies (e.g., congress, parliament, senate). Rarely, an executive president has some powers that are unchecked, which can lead to abuses
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President
In politics, PRESIDENT is a title given to leaders of republican states . In the modern world, it is a common title for the head of state in most republics. The functions exercised by a president vary according to the form of government. In parliamentary and semi-presidential republics, they are limited to those of the head of state, and are thus largely ceremonial. In presidential republics , the role of the president is more prominent, encompassing also (in most cases) the functions of the head of government . In authoritarian regimes, a dictator or leader of a one-party state may also be called a president, often charismatically
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Executive (government)
The EXECUTIVE is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state . The executive executes and enforces law . In political systems based on the principle of separation of powers , authority is distributed among several branches (executive, legislative , judicial ) — an attempt to prevent the concentration of power in the hands of a small group of people. In such a system, the executive does not pass laws (the role of the legislature) or interpret them (the role of the judiciary). Instead, the executive enforces the law as written by the legislature and interpreted by the judiciary. The executive can be the source of certain types of law, such as a decree or executive order . Executive bureaucracies are commonly the source of regulations . In the Westminster political system , the principle of separation of powers is not as entrenched. Members of the executive, called ministers , are also members of the legislature, and hence play an important part in both the writing and enforcing of law. In this context, the executive consists of a leader(s) of an office or multiple offices. Specifically, the top leadership roles of the executive branch may include: * head of state —often the supreme leader , the president or monarch , the chief public representative and living symbol of national unity. * head of government —often the _de facto _ leader, prime minister , overseeing the administration of all affairs of state
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System Of Government
A GOVERNMENT is the system or group of people governing an organized community, usually a state . In the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
, the word "government" is also used more narrowly to refer to the collective group of people that exercises executive authority in a state. This usage is analogous to what is called an "administration " in American English . Furthermore, especially in American English, the concepts of "the state" and "the government" may be used synonymously to refer to the person or group of people exercising authority over a politically organized territory. Finally, government is also sometimes used in English as a synonym for governance . In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislators , administrators , and arbitrators . Government
Government
is the means by which state policy is enforced, as well as the mechanism for determining the policy of the state. A form of government, or form of state governance, refers to the set of political systems and institutions that make up the organisation of a specific government
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Figurehead
In politics, a FIGUREHEAD is a person who holds _de jure _ (in name or by law) an important title or office (often supremely powerful), yet _de facto _ (in reality) executes little actual power. The metaphor derives from the carved figurehead at the prow of a sailing ship. Commonly cited figureheads include Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
, who is Queen of sixteen Commonwealth realms and head of the Commonwealth , but has no power over the nations in which she is not head of state and does not exercise power in her own realms on her own initiative. Other figureheads are the Emperor of Japan , the King of Sweden
King of Sweden
, or presidents in majority of parliamentary republics , such as the President
President
of India , President
President
of Israel , President
President
of Bangladesh , President
President
of Greece , President
President
of Germany , President
President
of Pakistan , and President
President
of China (when not simultaneously holding the CPC General Secretary and Chairman of CMC posts). During the crisis of the March on Rome
March on Rome
in 1922, King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy , though a figurehead, played a key role in handing power to Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini

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Parliamentary Republic
A PARLIAMENTARY REPUBLIC is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament). There are a number of variations of parliamentary republics. Most have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state , with the head of government holding real power, much like constitutional monarchies . Some have combined the roles of head of state and head of government, much like presidential systems , but with a dependency upon parliamentary power. For the first case mentioned above, the form of executive-branch arrangement is distinct from most other parliamentary and semi-presidential republics that separate the head of state (usually designated as the "president ") from the head of government (usually designated as "prime minister ", "premier " or "chancellor ") and subject the latter to the confidence of parliament and a lenient tenure in office while the head of state lacks dependency and investing either office with the majority of executive power
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Prime Minister
A PRIME MINISTER is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government , often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system . In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet, and allocates posts to members within the government. In most systems, the prime minister is the presiding member and chairman of the cabinet. In a minority of systems, notably in semi-presidential systems of government, a prime minister is the official who is appointed to manage the civil service and execute the directives of the head of state . In parliamentary systems fashioned after the Westminster system , the prime minister is the presiding and actual head of government and head of the executive branch. In such systems, the head of state or the head of state's official representative (i.e. the monarch, president, or governor-general) usually holds a largely ceremonial position, although often with reserve powers . The prime minister is often, but not always, a member of the Legislature or the Lower House thereof and is expected with other ministers to ensure the passage of bills through the legislature . In some monarchies the monarch may also exercise executive powers (known as the royal prerogative ) that are constitutionally vested in the crown and may be exercised without the approval of parliament
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South Africa
11 languages * Afrikaans * Northern Sotho * English * Southern Ndebele * Southern Sotho * Swazi * Tsonga * Tswana * Venda * Xhosa * Zulu ETHNIC GROUPS (2014 ) * 80.2% Black * 8.8% Coloured * 8.4% White * 2.5% Asian RELIGION See _ Religion in South Africa _ DEMONYM South African GOVERNMENT Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic • PRESIDENT Jacob Zuma • DEPUTY PRESIDENT Cyril Ramaphosa LEGISLATURE Parliament • UPPER HOUSE National Council • LOWER HOUSE National Assembly INDEPENDENCE FROM THE UNITED K
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Botswana
BOTSWANA (/bɒtˈswɑːnə/ ), officially the REPUBLIC OF BOTSWANA (Tswana : _Lefatshe la Botswana_), is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa. The citizens refer to themselves as _Batswana_ (singular: _Motswana_). Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland , Botswana adopted its new name after becoming independent within the Commonwealth on 30 September 1966. Since then, it has maintained a strong tradition of stable representative democracy , with a consistent record of uninterrupted democratic elections and the best perceived corruption ranking in Africa for the last four years. Botswana is topographically flat, with up to 70 percent of its territory being the Kalahari Desert . It is bordered by South Africa to the south and southeast, Namibia to the west and north, and Zimbabwe to the northeast. Its border with Zambia to the north near Kazungula is poorly defined but at most is a few hundred metres long. A mid-sized country of just over 2 million people, Botswana is one of the most sparsely populated nations in the world. Around 10 percent of the population lives in the capital and largest city, Gaborone . Formerly one of the poorest countries in the world—with a GDP per capita of about US$70 per year in the late 1960s— Botswana has since transformed itself into one of the fastest-growing economies in the world
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Presidential System
A PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch . This head of government is in most cases also the head of state , which is called _president _. In presidential countries, the executive is elected and is not responsible to the legislature, which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. Such dismissal is possible, however, in uncommon cases, often through impeachment . The title "president " has persisted from a time when such person personally presided over the governing body, as with the President of the Continental Congress in the early United States , prior to the executive function being split into a separate branch of government. A presidential system contrasts with a parliamentary system , where the head of government is elected to power through the legislative . There is an intermediary system called semi-presidentialism . Countries that feature a presidential or semi-presidential system of government are not the exclusive users of the title of president. Heads of state of parliamentary republics , largely ceremonial in most cases, are called presidents. Dictators or leaders of one-party states , popularly elected or not, are also often called presidents
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Semi-presidential System
A SEMI-PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible to the legislature of a state . A semi-presidential system differs from a parliamentary republic in that it has a popularly elected head of state , who is more than a purely ceremonial figurehead , and from the presidential system in that the cabinet , although named by the president, is responsible to the legislature , which may force the cabinet to resign through a motion of no confidence . While the German Weimar Republic
Republic
(1919–1933) exemplified an early semi-presidential system, the term "semi-presidential" was introduced by a 1959 article by journalist Hubert Beuve-Méry and popularized by a 1978 work by political scientist Maurice Duverger , both of which intended to describe the French Fifth Republic
Republic
(established in 1958). CONTENTS * 1 Subtypes * 2 Division of powers * 3 Cohabitation * 4 Republics with a semi-presidential system of government * 5 See also * 6 Notes and references * 7 External links SUBTYPESThere are two separate subtypes of semi-presidentialism: premier-presidentialism and president-parliamentarism. Under the PREMIER-PRESIDENTIAL system, the prime minister and cabinet are exclusively accountable to parliament
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Corporate Governance
CORPORATE GOVERNANCE is the mechanisms, processes and relations by which corporations are controlled and directed. Governance structures and principles identify the distribution of rights and responsibilities among different participants in the corporation (such as the board of directors, managers, shareholders, creditors, auditors, regulators, and other stakeholders ) and includes the rules and procedures for making decisions in corporate affairs. Corporate governance includes the processes through which corporations' objectives are set and pursued in the context of the social, regulatory and market environment. Governance mechanisms include monitoring the actions, policies, practices, and decisions of corporations, their agents, and affected stakeholders. Corporate governance practices are affected by attempts to align the interests of stakeholders. Interest in the corporate governance practices of modern corporations, particularly in relation to accountability, increased following the high-profile collapses of a number of large corporations during 2001–2002, most of which involved accounting fraud; and then again after the recent financial crisis in 2008 . Corporate scandals of various forms have maintained public and political interest in the regulation of corporate governance. In the U.S., these include Enron and MCI Inc. (formerly WorldCom)
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Politics
POLITICS (from Greek: Politiká: _Politika_, definition "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions applying to all members of each group. More narrowly, it refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance — organized control over a human community, particularly a state . Furthermore, politics is the study or practice of the distribution of power and resources within a given community (this is usually a hierarchically organized population) as well as the interrelationship(s) between communities. A variety of methods are deployed in politics, which include promoting or forcing one's own political views among people, negotiation with other political subjects, making laws , and exercising force , including warfare against adversaries. Politics is exercised on a wide range of social levels, from clans and tribes of traditional societies, through modern local governments , companies and institutions up to sovereign states , to the international level . It is very often said that politics is about power. A political system is a framework which defines acceptable political methods within a given society. History of political thought can be traced back to early antiquity, with seminal works such as Plato 's _Republic _, Aristotle 's _ Politics _ and the works of Confucius
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * _Special_ (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials , a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on _The Blind Leading the Naked _ * "Special", a song on _ The Documentary _ album by GameFILM AND TELEVISION * Special (lighting) , a stage light that is used for a single, specific purpose * "Special" (Lost) , an episode of the television series _Lost_ * _Special_ (film) * _The Specials_ (film) * Television special , television programming that temporarily replaces scheduled programmingOTHER USES * A special price, a form of discounts and allowances * A kit car or one-off home built vehicle * A euphemi
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Executive President
An EXECUTIVE PRESIDENT is a president who exercises active executive power in certain systems of government . Executive presidents are active in day-to-day governance of a nation, and are usually popularly elected. They contrast with figurehead presidents, common in most parliamentary republics , in which the president serves symbolic, nonpolitical roles (and often is appointed to office by parliament) while the prime minister holds all relevant executive power. A small number of nations, most notably South Africa
South Africa
and Botswana
Botswana
, have both an executive presidency and a system of governance that is parliamentary in character, with the President
President
elected by and dependent on the confidence of the legislature. In these states, the offices of president and prime minister (as both head of state and head of government respectively) might be said to be combined. The above examples notwithstanding, executive presidencies are found in presidential systems and semi-presidential systems . The usual checks and balances on an executive president are through the judicial system through statutory authorisations or prohibitions and by some legislative body or bodies (e.g., congress, parliament, senate). Rarely, an executive president has some powers that are unchecked, which can lead to abuses
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Main Page
The 1983 ATLANTIC HURRICANE SEASON was the least active Atlantic hurricane season in 53 years. Although the season begins by convention on June 1, there were no tropical depressions until July 23, and only four of the season's seven depressions became tropical storms . Tropical Depression Three became Hurricane Alicia_(satellite image pictured)_ on August 17 and made landfall in Texas the next day, breaking thousands of glass windows in Houston's skyscrapers, killing 22 people and causing $1.7 billion in damage. The storm that became Hurricane Barry formed on August 25, crossed Florida, and made landfall near Brownsville, Texas
Brownsville, Texas
, dissipating five days later. Hurricane Chantal stayed out at sea, and was absorbed by a front on September 15. Tropical Depression Six formed on September 19 and caused heavy rains in the Caribbean
Caribbean
. Tropical Storm Dean, the final storm of the season, attained peak winds of 65 mph (105 km/h), and made landfall on the Delmarva Peninsula
Delmarva Peninsula
on September 29. (FULL ARTICLE... ) Recently featured: * 2012 Tour de France
2012 Tour de France
* Murder of Dwayne Jones * Audioslave * ARCHIVE * BY EMAIL * MORE FEATURED ARTICLES... DID YOU KNOW... _ Tjele helmet fragment
Tjele helmet fragment
* ..
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