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Executive President
An EXECUTIVE PRESIDENT is a president who exercises active executive power in certain systems of government . Executive presidents are active in day-to-day governance of a nation, and are usually popularly elected. They contrast with figurehead presidents, common in most parliamentary republics , in which the president serves symbolic, nonpolitical roles (and often is appointed to office by parliament) while the prime minister holds all relevant executive power. A small number of nations, most notably South Africa
South Africa
and Botswana
Botswana
, have both an executive presidency and a system of governance that is parliamentary in character, with the President
President
elected by and dependent on the confidence of the legislature. In these states, the offices of president and prime minister (as both head of state and head of government respectively) might be said to be combined
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Semi-presidential System
A SEMI-PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible to the legislature of a state . A semi-presidential system differs from a parliamentary republic in that it has a popularly elected head of state , who is more than a purely ceremonial figurehead , and from the presidential system in that the cabinet , although named by the president, is responsible to the legislature , which may force the cabinet to resign through a motion of no confidence . While the German Weimar Republic (1919–1933) exemplified an early semi-presidential system, the term "semi-presidential" was introduced by a 1959 article by journalist Hubert Beuve-Méry and popularized by a 1978 work by political scientist Maurice Duverger , both of which intended to describe the French Fifth Republic (established in 1958)
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Presidential System
A PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch . This head of government is in most cases also the head of state , which is called president . In presidential countries, the executive is elected and is not responsible to the legislature, which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. Such dismissal is possible, however, in uncommon cases, often through impeachment . The title "president " has persisted from a time when such person personally presided over the governing body, as with the President
President
of the Continental Congress in the early United States
United States
, prior to the executive function being split into a separate branch of government
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Corporate Governance
CORPORATE GOVERNANCE is the mechanisms, processes and relations by which corporations are controlled and directed. Governance structures and principles identify the distribution of rights and responsibilities among different participants in the corporation (such as the board of directors, managers, shareholders, creditors, auditors, regulators, and other stakeholders ) and includes the rules and procedures for making decisions in corporate affairs. Corporate governance includes the processes through which corporations' objectives are set and pursued in the context of the social, regulatory and market environment. Governance mechanisms include monitoring the actions, policies, practices, and decisions of corporations, their agents, and affected stakeholders. Corporate governance practices are affected by attempts to align the interests of stakeholders
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Politics
POLITICS (from Greek: πολιτικα: Polis
Polis
definition "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group. It refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance — organized control over a human community, particularly a state . Furthermore, politics is the study or practice of the distribution of power and resources within a given community (this is usually a hierarchically organized population) as well as the interrelationship(s) between communities. In most countries, people have formed political parties to put forward their ideas. There is usually some disagreement between people within a party, but they work together because they feel that they agree on enough things, and they will have more power if they join together. They agree to take the same position on many issues, and agree to support the same changes to law and the same leaders
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Executive President
An EXECUTIVE PRESIDENT is a president who exercises active executive power in certain systems of government . Executive presidents are active in day-to-day governance of a nation, and are usually popularly elected. They contrast with figurehead presidents, common in most parliamentary republics , in which the president serves symbolic, nonpolitical roles (and often is appointed to office by parliament) while the prime minister holds all relevant executive power. A small number of nations, most notably South Africa
South Africa
and Botswana
Botswana
, have both an executive presidency and a system of governance that is parliamentary in character, with the President
President
elected by and dependent on the confidence of the legislature. In these states, the offices of president and prime minister (as both head of state and head of government respectively) might be said to be combined
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Botswana
BOTSWANA (/bɒtˈswɑːnə/ ), officially the REPUBLIC OF BOTSWANA (Tswana : Lefatshe la Botswana), is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa
Southern Africa
. Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland , Botswana
Botswana
adopted its new name after becoming independent within the Commonwealth on 30 September 1966. Since then, it has maintained a strong tradition of stable representative democracy , with a consistent record of uninterrupted democratic elections and the best perceived corruption ranking in Africa
Africa
since at least 1998. Botswana
Botswana
is topographically flat, with up to 70 percent of its territory being the Kalahari Desert
Kalahari Desert
. It is bordered by South Africa to the south and southeast, Namibia
Namibia
to the west and north, and Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
to the northeast
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South Africa
11 languages * Afrikaans
Afrikaans
* Northern Sotho * English * Southern Ndebele * Southern Sotho * Swazi * Tsonga * Tswana * Venda * Xhosa * Zulu ETHNIC GROUPS (2014 ) * 80.2% Black * 8.8% Coloured
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System Of Government
A GOVERNMENT is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state . In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature , administration , and judiciary . Government
Government
is a means by which state policies are enforced, as well as a mechanism for determining the policy . While all types of organizations have governance, the word government is often used more specifically to refer to the approximately 200 independent national governments on Earth
Earth
, as well as subsidiary organizations. Historically prevalent forms of government include aristocracy , timocracy , oligarchy , democracy and tyranny
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Executive (government)
The EXECUTIVE is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state . The executive executes and enforces law . In political systems based on the principle of separation of powers , authority is distributed among several branches (executive, legislative , judicial ) — an attempt to prevent the concentration of power in the hands of a small group of people. In such a system, the executive does not pass laws (the role of the legislature) or interpret them (the role of the judiciary). Instead, the executive enforces the law as written by the legislature and interpreted by the judiciary. The executive can be the source of certain types of law, such as a decree or executive order . Executive bureaucracies are commonly the source of regulations . In the Westminster political system , the principle of separation of powers is not as entrenched
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Figurehead
In politics, a FIGUREHEAD is a person who holds de jure (in name or by law) an important title or office (often supremely powerful), yet de facto (in reality) executes little actual power. The metaphor derives from the carved figurehead at the prow of a sailing ship. Commonly cited figureheads include Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
, who is Queen of sixteen Commonwealth realms and head of the Commonwealth , but has no power over the nations in which she is not head of state and does not exercise power in her own realms on her own initiative
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Parliamentary Republic
A PARLIAMENTARY REPUBLIC is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament). There are a number of variations of parliamentary republics. Most have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state , with the head of government holding real power, much like constitutional monarchies
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Prime Minister
A PRIME MINISTER is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government , often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system . In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet, and allocates posts to members within the government. In most systems, the prime minister is the presiding member and chairman of the cabinet. In a minority of systems, notably in semi-presidential systems of government, a prime minister is the official who is appointed to manage the civil service and execute the directives of the head of state . In parliamentary systems fashioned after the Westminster system
Westminster system
, the prime minister is the presiding and actual head of government and head of the executive branch
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President
The PRESIDENT is a common title for the head of state in most republics. In politics, president is a title given to leaders of republican states . The functions exercised by a president vary according to the form of government . In parliamentary and semi-presidential republics, they are limited to those of the head of state, and are thus largely ceremonial. In presidential republics , the role of the president is more prominent, encompassing also (in most cases) the functions of the head of government . In authoritarian regimes, a dictator or leader of a one-party state may also be called a president, often charismatically
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