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Executive (government)
The EXECUTIVE is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state . The executive executes and enforces law . In political systems based on the principle of separation of powers , authority is distributed among several branches (executive, legislative , judicial ) — an attempt to prevent the concentration of power in the hands of a small group of people. In such a system, the executive does not pass laws (the role of the legislature) or interpret them (the role of the judiciary). Instead, the executive enforces the law as written by the legislature and interpreted by the judiciary. The executive can be the source of certain types of law, such as a decree or executive order . Executive bureaucracies are commonly the source of regulations . In the Westminster political system , the principle of separation of powers is not as entrenched
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Portal
PORTAL may refer to: * Portal (architecture) , a monumental gate or door, or the extremities (ends) of a tunnel * Portals in fiction , magical or technological doorways that connect two locations, dimensions, or points in time * _ Portal _, a video game series developed by Valve Corporation CONTENTS* 1 Computing * 1.1 Gateways to information * 1.2 Other computing * 2 Art, entertainment, and media


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Aut Simul Stabunt Aut Simul Cadent
The Latin brocard AUT SIMUL STABUNT AUT SIMUL CADENT (or SIMUL SIMUL for short), meaning they will either stand together, or fall together, is used in law to express those cases in which the end of a certain situation automatically brings upon the end of another one, and vice versa. The first use of this expression in the mass media, which made it known to the non-specialists, was in occasion of one of the first crises between fascist Italy and the Vatican concerning the Concordat . Pope Pius XI is believed to have pronounced the sentence to express the fact that challenging the Concordat would have swept away the whole Lateran treaty , reopening the Roman question . CONSTITUTIONAL LAWIn contemporary constitutional law, especially in the regions and municipalities of Italy , this expression is often used to refer to a mechanism where the resignation or the death of the head of government causes the dissolution of the legislature
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Cohabitation (government)
COHABITATION is a system of divided government that occurs in semi-presidential systems , such as France
France
, when the President is from a different political party than the majority of the members of parliament . It occurs because such a system forces the president to name a premier (prime minister ) that will be acceptable to the majority party within parliament. Thus, cohabitation occurs because of the duality of the executive: an independently elected President and a prime minister who must be acceptable both to this president and to the legislature
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Politics By Country
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to politics and political science: POLITICS – the exercise of power; process by which groups of people make collective decisions . Politics is the art or science of running governmental or state affairs (including behavior within civil governments ), institutions, fields, and special interest groups such as the corporate , academic , and religious segments of society. POLITICAL SCIENCE – the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behavior
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Anarchy
ANARCHY is the condition of a society , entity, group of people, or a single person that rejects hierarchy . The word originally meant leaderlessness , but in 1840 Pierre-Joseph Proudhon
Pierre-Joseph Proudhon
adopted the term in his treatise _ What Is Property? _ to refer to a new political philosophy : anarchism , which advocates stateless societies based on voluntary associations . In practical terms, anarchy can refer to the curtailment or abolition of traditional forms of government . It can also designate a nation (or anywhere on earth that is inhabited) that has no system of government or central rule
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Monarchy
A MONARCHY is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty , embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch , exercises the role of sovereignty. The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic ), to partial and restricted (_constitutional_ monarchy ), to completely autocratic (_absolute_ monarchy ). Traditionally the monarch's post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In contrast, elective monarchies require the monarch to be elected. Both types have further variations as there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy. For example, in some elected monarchies only pedigrees are taken into account for eligibility of the next ruler, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, etc. Occasionally this might create a situation of rival claimants whose legitimacy is subject to effective election
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Monarch
A MONARCH is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy . A monarch may exercise the highest authority and power in the state , or others may wield that power on behalf of the monarch. Typically a monarch either personally inherits the lawful right to exercise the state's sovereign rights (often referred to as _the throne_ or _the crown _) or is selected by an established process from a family or cohort eligible to provide the nation's monarch. Alternatively, an individual may become monarch by conquest, acclamation or a combination of means. A monarch usually reigns for life or until abdication
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Republic
A REPUBLIC (Latin : _res publica _) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter" – not the private concern or property of the rulers – and where offices of state are elected or appointed, rather than inherited. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch . In American English, the definition of a republic can also refer specifically to a government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body, known elsewhere as a representative democracy (a democratic republic ), and exercise power according to the rule of law (a constitutional republic). As of 2017 , 159 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names; not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor do all nations with elected governments use the word "republic" in their names
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Constitutional Monarchy
A CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises their authorities in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution . Constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy
differs from absolute monarchy (in which a monarch holds absolute power), in that constitutional monarchs are bound to exercise their powers and authorities within the limits prescribed within an established legal framework. Constitutional monarchies range from countries such as Morocco
Morocco
, where the constitution grants substantial discretionary powers to the sovereign, to countries such as Sweden
Sweden
or Denmark
Denmark
where the monarch retains very few formal authorities. A constitutional monarchy may refer to a system in which the monarch acts as a non-party political head of state under the constitution , whether written or unwritten
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Head Of State
A HEAD OF STATE (or CHIEF OF STATE) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state . Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers , the head of state may be a purely ceremonial figurehead with limited or no executive power or concurrently the head of government . In countries with parliamentary system , the head of state is typically a ceremonial figurehead that does not actually guide day-to-day government activities and may not be empowered to exercise any kind of secular political authority (e.g., Queen Margrethe II of Denmark ). In countries where the head of state is also the head of government, the head of state serves as both a public figurehead and the actual highest-ranking political leader who oversees the executive branch (e.g., the President of the United States )
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President Of The Council Of State
The official title PRESIDENT OF THE COUNCIL OF STATE, or CHAIRMAN OF THE COUNCIL OF STATE is used to describe the head of the states of Cuba , and formerly communist states in the East Germany , Poland , Romania , Bulgaria , Cambodia and Vietnam . * President of the Council of State of Republic of Cuba * President of the Council of State of Socialist Republic of Vietnam * Chairman of the State Council of German Democratic Republic * Chairman of the Council of State of Polish People\'s Republic * President of the State Council of Socialist Republic of Romania * Chairman of the State Council of People\'s Republic of Bulgaria * Chairman of the Council of State of People\'s Republic of Kampuchea _ This article about politics is a stub
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List Of Current Heads Of State And Government
This is a LIST OF CURRENT HEADS OF STATE AND GOVERNMENT, showing heads of state and heads of government where different, mainly in parliamentary systems . Often a leader is both in presidential systems . In parliamentary systems , the head of government role (i.e. executive branch) is fulfilled by both the listed head of government and the head of state. The list also includes the names of recently elected or appointed heads of state and government who will take office on an appointed date, such as presidents-elect and prime ministers-designate , and those leading a government in exile if internationally recognised
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Westminster System
The WESTMINSTER SYSTEM is a parliamentary system of government modelled after that which developed in the United Kingdom . This term comes from the Palace of Westminster , the seat of the British parliament . The system is a series of procedures for operating a legislature . It is used, or was once used, in the national legislatures and subnational legislatures of most former British Empire colonies upon gaining responsible government , beginning with the first of the Canadian provinces in 1848 and the six Australian colonies between 1855 and 1890. However, some former colonies have since adopted either the presidential system ( Nigeria for example) or a hybrid system (like South Africa ) as their form of government
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List Of State Leaders
This is a LIST OF CURRENT HEADS OF STATE AND GOVERNMENT, showing heads of state and heads of government where different, mainly in semi-presidential and parliamentary systems . Often, a leader is both in presidential and semi-presidential systems . In semi-presidential and parliamentary systems , the head of government role (i.e. executive branch) is fulfilled by both the listed head of government and the head of state. The list also includes the names of recently elected or appointed heads of state and government who will take office on an appointed date, such as presidents-elect and prime ministers-designate , and those leading a government in exile if internationally recognised
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List Of National Governments
This is a list of the offices of heads of state , heads of government , cabinet , and legislature , of sovereign states . Date of Origin refers to most recent fundamental change in form of government, for example independence, change from absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy, revolution, new constitution
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