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Executive (government)
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state. The executive executes and enforces law. In political systems based on the principle of separation of powers, authority is distributed among several branches (executive, legislative, judicial) — an attempt to prevent the concentration of power in the hands of a small group of people. In such a system, the executive does not pass laws (the role of the legislature) or interpret them (the role of the judiciary). Instead, the executive enforces the law as written by the legislature and interpreted by the judiciary. The executive can be the source of certain types of law, such as a decree or executive order. Executive bureaucracies are commonly the source of regulations. In the Westminster political system, the principle of separation of powers is not as entrenched
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Head Of State
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.[1] Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government. In countries with parliamentary systems, the head of state is typically a ceremonial figurehead that does not actually guide day-to-day government activities or is not empowered to exercise any kind of secular political authority (e.g., Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
of the Commonwealth Realms).[2] In countries where the head of state is also
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Mayor
In many countries, a mayor (from the Latin
Latin
maior [majˈjɔr], meaning "bigger") is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town. Worldwide, there is a wide variance in local laws and customs regarding the powers and responsibilities of a mayor as well as the means by which a mayor is elected or otherwise mandated. Depending on the system chosen, a mayor may be the chief executive officer of the municipal government, may simply chair a multi-member governing body with little or no independent power, or may play a solely ceremonial role
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Anarchy
Anarchy
Anarchy
is the condition of a society, entity, group of people, or a single person that rejects hierarchy.[1][2] Colloquially, it can also refer to a society experiencing widespread turmoil and collapse. The word originally meant leaderlessness, but in 1840 Pierre-Joseph Proudhon adopted the term in his treatise What Is Property? to refer to a new political philosophy: anarchism, which advocates stateless societies based on voluntary associations. In practical terms, anarchy can refer to the curtailment or abolition of traditional forms of government and institutions
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Politics By Country
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to politics and political science: Politics
Politics
– the exercise of power; process by which groups of people make collective decisions
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Cohabitation (government)
Cohabitation is a system of divided government that occurs in semi-presidential systems, such as France, when the President is from a different political party than the majority of the members of parliament. It occurs because such a system forces the president to name a premier (prime minister) that will be acceptable to the majority party within parliament
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Aut Simul Stabunt Aut Simul Cadent
The Latin brocard aut simul stabunt aut simul cadent (or simul simul for short), meaning they will either stand together, or fall together, is used in law to express those cases in which the end of a certain situation automatically brings upon the end of another one, and vice versa. The first use of this expression in the mass media, which made it known to the non-specialists, was in occasion of one of the first crises between fascist Italy and the Vatican concerning the Concordat. Pope Pius XI
Pope Pius XI
is believed to have pronounced the sentence to express the fact that challenging the
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Monarch
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.[1][2] A monarch may exercise the highest authority and power in the state, or others may wield that power on behalf of the monarch. Typically a monarch either personally inherits the lawful right to exercise the state's sovereign rights (often referred to as the throne or the crown) or is selected by an established process from a family or cohort eligible to provide the nation's monarch. Alternatively, an individual may become monarch by conquest, acclamation or a combination of means
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Republic
A republic (Latin: res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are not inherited. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch.[1][2][3] In American English, the definition of a republic refers specifically to a form of government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body[2] and exercise power according to the rule of law under a constitution, including separation of powers with an elected head of state, referred to as a constitutional republic[4][5][6][7] or representative democracy. [8] As of 2017[update], 159 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names – not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor is the word "republic" used in the names of all nations with elected governments
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Constitutional Monarchy
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercise authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.[1] Constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy
differs from absolute monarchy (in which a monarch holds absolute power), in that constitutional monarchs are bound to exercise their powers and authorities within the limits prescribed within an established legal framework
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Monarchy
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty. The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic), to partial and restricted (constitutional monarchy), to completely autocratic (absolute monarchy). Traditionally the monarch's post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In contrast, elective monarchies require the monarch to be elected.[1] Both types have further variations as there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy. For example, in some[which?] elected monarchies only pedigrees are taken into account for eligibility of the next ruler, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, etc
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Feudalism
Feudalism
Feudalism
was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries
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President Of The Council Of State
The official title President of the Council of State, or Chairman of the Council of State is used to describe the head of the states of Cuba, and formerly communist states in the East Germany, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Cambodia
Cambodia
and Vietnam. President of the Council of State of Republic of Cuba President of the Council of State of Socialist Republic of Vietnam Chairman of the State Council of German Democratic Republic Chairman of the Council of State of Polish People's Republic President of the State Council of Socialist Republic of Romania Chairman of the State Council of People's Republic of Bulgaria Chairman of the Council of State of People's Republic of KampucheaThis article about politics is a stub. You can help by expanding it.v t eThis government job-related article is a stub
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Premier
Premier is a title for the head of government in some countries, states and sub-national governments. A second in command to a premier is designated as a vice-premier or deputy premier.Contents1 Examples by country 2 By jurisdiction 3 See also 4 ReferencesExamples by country[edit] In many nations, "premier" is used interchangeably with "prime minister". In the People's Republic
Republic
of China, "premier" is more common and official, but "prime minister" is still used (see Premier of the People's Republic
Republic
of China). In five of the British overseas territories
British overseas territories
(Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, Montserrat, the Turks and Caicos Islands, and the British Virgin Islands), the elected heads of government are styled as "Premier"
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Federacy
A federacy is a form of government where one or several substate units enjoy considerably more independence than the majority of the substate units.[1] To some extent, such an arrangement can be considered to be similar to asymmetric federalism.Contents1 Description 2 Federacies2.1 Antigua and Barbuda 2.2 Australia and Norfolk Island 2.3 Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Nakhchivan 2.4 Denmark, the Faroe Islands
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Democracy
Democracy
Democracy
(Greek: δημοκρατία dēmokratía, literally "rule of the people"), in modern usage, is a system of government in which the citizens exercise power directly or elect representatives from among themselves to form a governing body, such as a parliament.[1] Democracy
Democracy
is someti
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