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Euthalia Nais
EUTHALIA NAIS, the BARONET, is a species of Nymphalid butterfly found in South Asia . CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Distribution * 3 Life cycle * 3.1 Larva * 3.2 Pupa * 4 Larval host plants * 5 See also * 6 References DESCRIPTION In Narsapur, Medak district , India The male and the female both have tawny-yellow uppersides. The forewing has a traverse black line below apex cell and an oval spot beyond encircling a small yellow spot, a broad short oblique discal bar and an angulated postdiscal lunular band the costa narrowly and the termen shaded with black. Hindwing: a comparatively large triangular patch below the middle of the costa, a postdiscal evenly curved series of spots and a broad band along the termen black. Underside dark ochraceous red. Forewing: the base shaded with fuscous black, two spots at base of cell and a transverse line beyond crimson pink, edged with black: a very broad oblique discal band, angulated downwards below vein 4, bordered posteriorly by a large black spot on the inner side and outwardly and anteriorly by an oblique broad black band, followed by four anterior obliquely placed ochraceous-white spots, and beyond by a very narrow lunular black band bent downwards below vein 6
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις _(taxis )_, meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία _(-nomia)_, meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms. With the advent of such fields of study as phylogenetics , cladistics , and systematics , the Linnaean system has progressed to a system of modern biological classification based on the evolutionary relationships between organisms, both living and extinct
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Animal
ANIMALS are multicellular , eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom ANIMALIA (also called METAZOA). The animal kingdom emerged as a clade within Apoikozoa as the sister group to the choanoflagellates . Animals are motile , meaning they can move spontaneously and independently at some point in their lives. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop , although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later in their lives. All animals are heterotrophs : they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance . Most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion , about 542 million years ago. Animals can be divided broadly into vertebrates and invertebrates . Vertebrates have a backbone or spine (vertebral column ), and amount to less than five percent of all described animal species . They include fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds and mammals . The remaining animals are the invertebrates, which lack a backbone. These include molluscs (clams , oysters , octopuses , squid , snails ); arthropods (millipedes , centipedes , insects , spiders , scorpions , crabs , lobsters , shrimp ); annelids (earthworms , leeches ), nematodes (filarial worms , hookworms ), flatworms (tapeworms , liver flukes ), cnidarians (jellyfish , sea anemones , corals ), ctenophores (comb jellies), and sponges
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Arthropod
Condylipoda Latreille, 1802 An ARTHROPOD (from Greek ἄρθρον _arthron_, "joint" and πούς _pous_, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton ), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages . Arthropods form the phylum ARTHROPODA, which includes insects , arachnids , myriapods , and crustaceans . Arthropods are characterized by their jointed limbs and cuticle made of chitin , often mineralised with calcium carbonate . The arthropod body plan consists of segments , each with a pair of appendages . The rigid cuticle inhibits growth, so arthropods replace it periodically by moulting . Their versatility has enabled them to become the most species-rich members of all ecological guilds in most environments. They have over a million described species, making up more than 80% of all described living animal species, some of which, unlike most animals, are very successful in dry environments. Arthropods range in size from the microscopic crustacean _ Stygotantulus _ up to the Japanese spider crab . Arthropods' primary internal cavity is a hemocoel , which accommodates their internal organs , and through which their haemolymph – analogue of blood – circulates; they have open circulatory systems . Like their exteriors, the internal organs of arthropods are generally built of repeated segments
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Insect
See text . INSECTS or INSECTA (from Latin _insectum_, a calque of Greek ἔντομον , "cut into sections") are by far the largest group of hexapod invertebrates within the arthropod phylum . Definitions and circumscriptions vary; in one approach insects comprise a class within the Phylum Arthopoda. As the term is used here, it is synonymous with ECTOGNATHA. Insects have a chitinous exoskeleton , a three-part body (head , thorax and abdomen ), three pairs of jointed legs , compound eyes and one pair of antennae . They are the most diverse group of animals on the planet, including more than a million described species and representing more than half of all known living organisms . The number of extant species is estimated at between six and ten million, and potentially represent over 90% of the differing animal life forms on Earth. Insects may be found in nearly all environments , although only a small number of species reside in the oceans, a habitat dominated by another arthropod group, crustaceans . The life cycles of insects vary but most hatch from eggs . Insect growth is constrained by the inelastic exoskeleton and development involves a series of molts . The immature stages can differ from the adults in structure, habit and habitat, and can include a passive pupal stage in those groups that undergo 4-stage metamorphosis (see holometabolism )
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Lepidoptera
Aglossata Glossata Heterobathmiina Zeugloptera LEPIDOPTERA (/ˌlɛpᵻˈdɒptərə/ _lep-i-DOP-tər-ə_ ) is an order of insects that includes butterflies and moths (both are called LEPIDOPTERANS). About 180,000 species of the Lepidoptera are described, in 126 families and 46 superfamilies , 10% of the total described species of living organisms. It is one of the most widespread and widely recognizable insect orders in the world. The Lepidoptera show many variations of the basic body structure that have evolved to gain advantages in lifestyle and distribution. Recent estimates suggest the order may have more species than earlier thought, and is among the four most speciose orders, along with the Hymenoptera , Diptera , and Coleoptera . Lepidopteran species are characterized by more than three derived features, some of the most apparent being the scales covering their bodies and wings , and a proboscis . The scales are modified, flattened "hairs", and give butterflies and moths their extraordinary variety of colors and patterns. Almost all species have some form of membranous wings, except for a few that have reduced wings or are wingless. Like most other insects, butterflies and moths are holometabolous , meaning they undergo complete metamorphosis . Mating and the laying of eggs are carried out by adults, normally near or on host plants for the larvae
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Nymphalidae
and see article text DIVERSITY Over 600 genera About 5,700 species The NYMPHALIDAE are the largest family of butterflies with about 6,000 species distributed throughout most of the world, belonging to the superfamily Papilionoidea . These are usually medium-sized to large butterflies. Most species have a reduced pair of forelegs and many hold their colourful wings flat when resting. They are also called BRUSH-FOOTED BUTTERFLIES or FOUR-FOOTED BUTTERFLIES, because they are known to stand on only four legs while the other two are curled up; in some species, these forelegs have a brush-like set of hairs, which gives this family its other common name. Many species are brightly coloured and include popular species such as the emperors , monarch butterfly , admirals , tortoiseshells , and fritillaries . However, the under wings are, in contrast, often dull and in some species look remarkably like dead leaves, or are much paler, producing a cryptic effect that helps the butterflies blend into their surroundings. CONTENTS * 1 Nomenclature * 2 Classification * 2.1 Systematics and phylogeny * 2.2 Example species from this family * 3 Morphology * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links NOMENCLATURERafinesque introduced the name Nymphalia as a subfamily name in diurnal Lepidoptera
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Euthalia
Numerous, see text EUTHALIA (from Ancient Greek : Euthalia Ευθαλια "flower", "bloom") is a genus of brush-footed butterflies
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Binomial Nomenclature
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE (also called BINOMINAL NOMENCLATURE or BINARY NOMENCLATURE) is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms , although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a BINOMIAL NAME (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a BINOMEN, BINOMINAL NAME or a SCIENTIFIC NAME; more informally it is also called a LATIN NAME. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the second part identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus _ Homo _ and within this genus to the species _ Homo sapiens _. The _formal_ introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus , effectively beginning with his work _ Species Plantarum _ in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin , in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book _Pinax theatri botanici_ (English, _Illustrated exposition of plants_) many names of genera that were later adopted by Linnaeus. The application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the _ International Code of Zoological Nomenclature _ (_ICZN_) for animals and the _International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants _ (_ICN_)
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Johann Reinhold Forster
JOHANN REINHOLD FORSTER (22 October 1729 – 9 December 1798) was a Reformed (Calvinist) pastor and naturalist of partially Scottish descent who made contributions to the early ornithology of Europe and North America. He is best known as the naturalist on James Cook 's second Pacific voyage, where he was accompanied by his son Georg Forster . These expeditions promoted the career of Johann Reinhold Forster and the findings became the bedrock of colonial professionalism and helped set the stage for the future development of anthropology and ethnology. They also laid the framework for general concern about the impact that alteration of the physical environment for European economic expansion would have on exotic societies. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links BIOGRAPHY Johann Reinhold Forster
Johann Reinhold Forster
and Georg Forster in Tahiti
Tahiti
, by John Francis Rigaud (1742–1810), 1780. Forster's family originated in the Lords Forrester in Scotland from where his great-grandfather had emigrated after losing most of his property during the rule of Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
along with many other Scots. Forster himself was born in the city of Tczew (Dirschau) in Poland
Poland

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Nymphalid
and see article text DIVERSITY Over 600 genera About 5,700 species The NYMPHALIDAE are the largest family of butterflies with about 6,000 species distributed throughout most of the world, belonging to the superfamily Papilionoidea . These are usually medium-sized to large butterflies. Most species have a reduced pair of forelegs and many hold their colourful wings flat when resting. They are also called BRUSH-FOOTED BUTTERFLIES or FOUR-FOOTED BUTTERFLIES, because they are known to stand on only four legs while the other two are curled up; in some species, these forelegs have a brush-like set of hairs, which gives this family its other common name. Many species are brightly coloured and include popular species such as the emperors , monarch butterfly , admirals , tortoiseshells , and fritillaries . However, the under wings are, in contrast, often dull and in some species look remarkably like dead leaves, or are much paler, producing a cryptic effect that helps the butterflies blend into their surroundings. CONTENTS * 1 Nomenclature * 2 Classification * 2.1 Systematics and phylogeny * 2.2 Example species from this family * 3 Morphology * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links NOMENCLATURERafinesque introduced the name Nymphalia as a subfamily name in diurnal Lepidoptera
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South Asia
SOUTH ASIA or SOUTHERN ASIA is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent , which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC
SAARC
countries and, for some authorities , adjoining countries to the west and east. Topographically, it is dominated by the Indian Plate
Indian Plate
, which rises above sea level as Nepal
Nepal
and northern parts of India situated south of the Himalayas
Himalayas
and the Hindu Kush . South
South
Asia
Asia
is bounded on the south by the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
and on land (clockwise, from west ) by West
West
Asia
Asia
, Central Asia
Asia
, East Asia
Asia
, and Southeast Asia
Asia

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Narsapur, Medak District
NARSAPUR is a census town in Medak district of the Indian state of Telangana . It is located in Narsapur mandal . Narsapur Trekking Picture Forest DEMOGRAPHICSTelugu is the Local Language here. Total population of Narsapur is 14735 .Males are 7691 and Females are 7,044 living in 2733 Houses. Total area of Narsapur is 2264 hectares. REFERENCES * ^ A B C "District Census Handbook – Karimnagar" (PDF). Census of India. pp. 12, 44. Retrieved 11 June 2016. * ^ "District Level Mandal wise list of villages in Medak district" (PDF). Chief Commissioner of Land Administration. National Informatics Centre. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 5 March 2016
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Dang District, India
DANG ( Listen (help ·info )), also known as THE DANGS, is a district in the state of Gujarat
Gujarat
in India
India
. The administrative headquarters of the district are located in Ahwa . The Dangs have an area of 1,764 km² and a population of 226,769 (as of 2011). As of 2011 it is the least populous district of Gujarat
Gujarat
(out of 33 ). As per the Planning Commission, Dangs is the most economically distressed district out of 640 districts in India. Saputara
Saputara
and Waghai are important places in this district. CONTENTS* 1 Administrative divisions * 1.1 Tehsil * 2 History * 3 Demographics * 4 Economy * 5 Forest of the Dangs * 6 Rivers * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONSTEHSIL * Subir * Ahwa * Waghai HISTORY See also: Surat Agency Before Independence several wars were fought between the five tribal kings of Dang and the British Raj . According to the history of Dang, the biggest war to took place at Lashkaria Amba , in when the kings of all the five states joined together to protect Dang from British rule. The British were beaten and agreed to a compromise
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Shorea Robusta
Vatica robusta SHOREA ROBUSTA, also known as śāL, SAKHUA or SHALA TREE, is a species of tree belonging to the Dipterocarpaceae family. CONTENTS * 1 Distribution and description * 2 Religious significance * 2.1 Buddhism * 3 Confusion with cannonball tree and other trees * 4 Uses * 5 Gallery * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links DISTRIBUTION AND DESCRIPTION New leaves with flower buds at Jayanti in Buxa Tiger Reserve in Jalpaiguri
Jalpaiguri
district of West Bengal
West Bengal
, India. This tree is native to the Indian subcontinent , ranging south of the Himalaya
Himalaya
, from Myanmar
Myanmar
in the east to Nepal
Nepal
, India
India
and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
. In India, it extends from Assam
Assam
, Bengal
Bengal
, Odisha
Odisha
and Jharkhand
Jharkhand
west to the Shivalik Hills in Haryana
Haryana
, east of the Yamuna . The range also extends through the Eastern Ghats
Eastern Ghats
and to the eastern Vindhya and Satpura ranges of central India. It is often the dominant tree in the forests where it occurs
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Diospyros Melanoxylon
DIOSPYROS MELANOXYLON, the COROMANDEL EBONY or EAST INDIAN EBONY, is a species of flowering tree in the family Ebenaceae that is native to India and Sri Lanka and that has a hard, dry bark. Its common name derives from Coromandel , the coast of southeastern India. Locally it is known as temburini or by its Hindi name TENDU. In Odisha and Jharkhand it is known as KENDU. The leaves can be wrapped around tobacco to create the Indian beedi , which has outsold conventional cigarettes in India. COMMON NAMES * (Kannada) : Beedi Yele * (Oriya) : Kendu * (Bengali) : kend, kendu * (Hindi) : abnus, kendu, tendu, timburni * (Nepali) : abnush, * (Sanskrit) : dirghapatraka * (Tamil) : karai, karundumbi, tumbi, tumbili, தும்பி, தும்பிலி * (Telugu) : tuniki, beedi aaku * (Sinhala) : kalu thimbiri, කළු තිඹිරි * (Trade name) : ebony Tendu Patta (Leaf) Collection PHARMACOLOGYThe leaf of the tree contains valuable flavones . The pentacyclic triterpenes found in the leaves possess antimicrobial properties, while the bark shows antihyperglycemic activity. The bark of four Diospyros species found in India has been determined to have significant antiplasmodial effects against Plasmodium falciparum , which causes malaria in humans. REFERENCES * ^ "Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb.". Germplasm Resources Information Network . United States Department of Agriculture . 2006-10-27. Retrieved 2009-04-09
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