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European Union
The EUROPEAN UNION (EU) is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe . It has an area of 4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi), and an estimated population of over 510 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs, and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture , fisheries , and regional development . Within the Schengen Area , passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002, and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency
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EU (other)
The EU is the European Union , a politico-economic union of European nations. EU or EU may also refer to: * .eu , a country code top-level domain for the European Union * Europe
Europe
, a continent * Euro
Euro
, a currencyCONTENTS * 1 Arts and entertainment * 2 Businesses and organizations * 2.1 Universities and colleges * 2.2 Other businesses and organizations * 3 Language * 4 Places * 5 Science and technology * 6 Other uses * 7 See also ARTS AND ENTERTAINMENT * Entropia Universe , a virtual universe * * EU (band) , a Russian electronic band * Europa Universalis , a computer game series * E.U
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Bulgarian Language
Moldova
Moldova
Ukraine
Ukraine
Serbia
Serbia
Albania
Albania
Romania
Romania
REGULATED BY Institute for the Bulgarian language
Bulgarian language
at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (Институт за български език при Българската академия на науките (БАН)) LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 bg ISO 639-2 bul ISO 639-3 bul GLOTTOLOG bulg1262 LINGUASPHERE 53-AAA-hb < 53-AAA-h THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Croatian Language
CROATIAN /kroʊˈeɪʃən/ (_ listen ) (hrvatski_ ) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats , principally in Croatia
Croatia
, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries. It is the official and literary standard of Croatia
Croatia
and one of the official languages of the European Union
European Union
. Croatian is also one of the official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a recognized minority language in Serbia, and neighboring countries. Standard Croatian is based on the most widespread dialect of Serbo-Croatian, Shtokavian , more specifically on Eastern Herzegovinian , which is also the basis of Standard Serbian , Bosnian , and Montenegrin
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Czech Language
CZECH (/ˈtʃɛk/ ; _čeština_ Czech pronunciation: ), historically also BOHEMIAN (/boʊˈhiːmiən, bə-/ ; _lingua Bohemica_ in Latin ), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group , that is extensively influenced by Latin and German . It is spoken by over 10 million people and is the official language of the Czech Republic . Czech is closely related to Slovak , to the point of being mutually intelligible to a very high degree. The Czecho-Slovak group developed within West Slavic in the high medieval period, and the standardisation of Czech and Slovak within the Czech–Slovak dialect continuum emerges in the early modern period
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Danish Language
DANISH /ˈdeɪnᵻʃ/ (_ listen ) (dansk_ pronounced (_ listen ); dansk sprog_, ) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany , where it has minority language status. There are also minor Danish-speaking communities in Norway , Sweden , Spain , the United States , Canada , Brazil and Argentina . Due to immigration and language shift in urban areas, around 15–20% of the population of Greenland speak Danish as their home language . Along with the other North Germanic languages, Danish is a descendant of Old Norse , the common language of the Germanic peoples that lived in Scandinavia during the Viking Era
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Dutch Language
DUTCH (_ Nederlands_ (help ·info )) is a West Germanic language that is spoken by around 23 million people as a first language—including most of the population of the Netherlands and about sixty percent of Belgium —and by another 5 million as a second language. It is the third most widely spoken Germanic language , after English and German. Outside of the Low Countries , it is the native language of the majority of the population of Suriname , and also holds official status in Aruba , Curaçao and Sint Maarten , which are constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands . Historical minorities on the verge of extinction remain in parts of France and Germany , and in Indonesia , while up to half a million native speakers may reside in the United States , Canada and Australia combined
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Estonian Language
ESTONIAN (_eesti keel_ ( listen )) is the official language of Estonia , spoken natively by about 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia. It belongs to the Finnic branch of the Uralic language family . CONTENTS * 1 Classification * 2 History * 2.1 Estonian literature * 2.2 State language * 3 Dialects * 4 Writing system * 4.1 Alphabet * 4.2 Orthography * 5 Phonology * 6 Grammar * 7 Vocabulary * 7.1 _Ex nihilo_ lexical enrichment * 8 Sample text * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links CLASSIFICATIONEstonian belongs to the Finnic branch of the Uralic languages , along with Finnish , Karelian , and other nearby languages. The Uralic languages do not belong to the Indo-European languages . Estonian is distantly related to Hungarian and to the Sami languages
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Finnish Language
FINNISH (_ suomi_ (help ·info ), or _suomen kieli_ ) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland. It is one of the two official languages of Finland and an official minority language in Sweden . In Sweden, both standard Finnish and Meänkieli , a Finnish dialect, are spoken. The Kven language , a dialect of Finnish, is spoken in Northern Norway by a minority group of Finnish descent. Finnish is the eponymous member of the Finnic language family and is typologically between fusional and agglutinative languages . It modifies and inflects nouns , adjectives , pronouns , numerals and verbs , depending on their roles in the sentence
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French Language
Phonological history * Oaths of Strasbourg * Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts * Anglo-Norman GRAMMAR * Adverbs * Articles and determiners * Pronouns (personal )* Verbs * (conjugation * morphology ) ORTHOGRAPHY * Alphabet * Reforms * Circumflex * Braille PHONOLOGY * Elision * Liaison * Aspirated h * Help:IPA for French * v * t * e FRENCH (_le français_ (_ listen ) or la langue française_ ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family . It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire , as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d\'oïl —languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French ( Francien ) has largely supplanted
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German Language
_No official regulation_ ( German orthography regulated by the Council for German Orthography )
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek
Modern Greek
: ελληνικά , _elliniká_, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα (_ listen ), ellinikí glóssa_, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B
Linear B
and the Cypriot syllabary
Cypriot syllabary
, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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Hungarian Language
HUNGARIAN is the official language of Hungary
Hungary
and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union
European Union
. Outside Hungary
Hungary
it is also spoken by communities of Hungarian people in neighbouring countries (especially in Romania
Romania
, Slovakia
Slovakia
, Serbia
Serbia
and Croatia
Croatia
), and by Hungarian diaspora
Hungarian diaspora
communities worldwide. Like Finnish and Estonian , it belongs to the Uralic language family , its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty . It is the most widely-spoken of the several European languages
European languages
not part of the Indo-European family . The Hungarian name for the language is _magyar_ or _magyar nyelv_ ( listen (help ·info ))
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Irish Language
IRISH (_Gaeilge_), also referred to as GAELIC or IRISH GAELIC, is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people . Irish is spoken as a first language by a small minority of Irish people, and as a second language by a larger group of non-native speakers. Irish enjoys constitutional status as the national and first official language of the Republic of Ireland , and is an officially recognised minority language in Northern Ireland . It is also among the official languages of the European Union . The public body Foras na Gaeilge is responsible for the promotion of the language throughout the island of Ireland
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Italian Language
ITALIAN (_ italiano_ (help ·info ) or _lingua italiana_ ) is a Romance language . By most measures, Italian, together with Sardinian, is the closest to Latin of the Romance languages. Italian is an official language in Italy , Switzerland , San Marino , Vatican City and western Istria (in Slovenia and Croatia ). It used to have official status in Albania , Malta and Monaco , where it is still widely spoken, as well as in former Italian East Africa and Italian North Africa regions where it plays a significant role in various sectors. Italian is also spoken by large expatriate communities in the Americas and Australia . It has official minority status in Bosnia and Herzegovina , Croatia , Slovenia and Romania
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Latvian Language
LATVIAN (_latviešu valoda_ ) is the official language of Latvia . It was previously known in English as LETTISH which remains the standard today in various forms in most other Germani