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European Liberalism
In general, liberalism in Europe is a political movement that supports a broad tradition of individual liberties and constitutionally-limited and democratically accountable government. This usually encompasses the belief that government should act to alleviate poverty and other social problems, but not through radical changes to the structure of society. Supporters of classical liberalism are mainly found in centrist movements and parties; however, supporters of other versions of liberalism are found in political parties across the left and right spectrum. European liberals in the centre-right generally favor limited government intervention in economy
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Liberalism And Progressivism Within Islam
Liberalism
Liberalism
and progressivism within Islam
Islam
involve professed Muslims who have produced a considerable body of liberal thought on the re-interpretation and reform of Islamic understanding and practice.[1
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Liberal Feminism
Liberal feminism
Liberal feminism
is an individualistic form of feminist theory, which focuses on women's ability to maintain their equality through their own actions and choices. Its emphasis is on making the legal and political rights of women equal to men. Liberal feminists argue that society holds the false belief that women are, by nature, less intellectually and physically capable than men; thus it tends to discriminate against women in the academy, the forum, and the marketplace. Liberal feminists believe that "female subordination is rooted in a set of customary and legal constraints that blocks women's entrance to and success in the so-called public world"
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Separation Of Church And State
The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state. Conceptually, the term refers to the creation of a secular state (with or without legally explicit church–state separation) and to disestablishment, the changing of an existing, formal relationship between the church and the state.[1] In a society, the degree of political separation between the church and the civil state are determined by the legal structures and prevalent legal views that define the proper relationship between organized religion and the state. The arm's length principle proposes a relationship wherein the two political entities interact as organizations independent of the authority of the other
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Social Contract
In both moral and political philosophy, the social contract is a theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment. Usually, the social contract concerns the origin of society and the legitimacy of the authority of the state over the individual.[1] Social contract
Social contract
arguments typically posit that individuals have consented, either explicitly or tacitly, to surrender some of their freedoms and submit to the authority of the ruler or magistrate (or to the decision of a majority), in exchange for protection of their remaining rights
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Welfare State
The welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens. It is based on the principles of equality of opportunity, equitable distribution of wealth, and public responsibility for those unable to avail themselves of the minimal provisions for a good life. The general term may cover a variety of forms of economic and social organization.[1] The sociologist T.H. Marshall described the modern welfare state as a distinctive combination of democracy, welfare, and capitalism.[2] Modern welfare states include Germany, France, Belgium
Belgium
and the Netherlands,[3] as well as the Nordic countries, such as Iceland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Finland[4] which employ a system known as the Nordic model
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Anarcho-capitalism
Anarcho-capitalism
Anarcho-capitalism
is a political philosophy and school of anarchist thought that advocates the elimination of the state in favor of self-ownership, private property, and free markets. Anarcho-capitalists hold that, in the absence of statute (law by centralized decrees and legislation), society tends to contractually self-regulate and civilize through the discipline of the free market (in what its proponents describe as a "voluntary society").[1][2] In an anarcho-capitalist society, law enforcement, courts, and all other security services would be operated by privately funded competitors retained by private property owners rather than centrally through compulsory taxation. Money, along with all other goods and services, would be privately and competitively provided in an open market
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Civic Nationalism
Civic nationalism, also known as liberal nationalism, is a form of nationalism identified by political philosophers who believe in a non-xenophobic form of nationalism compatible with liberal values of freedom, tolerance, equality, and individual rights.[1][2] Ernest Renan and John Stuart Mill
John Stuart Mill
are often thought to be early civic nationalists.[citation needed] Civic nationalists often defend the value of national identity by saying that individuals need a national identity in order to lead meaningful, autonomous lives[3] and that democratic polities need national identity in order to function properly.[4]Contents1 Overview 2 History 3 See also 4 References4.1 SourcesOverview[edit] Civic nationhood is a political identity built around shared citizenship in a democratic state
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Conservative Liberalism
Conservative liberalism is a variant of liberalism, combining liberal values and policies with conservative stances, or simply representing the right-wing of the liberal movement.[1] It is a more positive and less radical variant of classical liberalism.[2] Conservative liberal parties tend to combine market liberal policies with more traditional stances on social and ethical issues.[specify][3] Neoconservatism
Neoconservatism
has also been identified as an ideological relative or twin to conservative liberalism.[4]Contents1 Overview 2 Conservative liberal parties worldwide2.1 Conservative liberal parties or parties with conservative liberal factions 2.2 Historical conservative liberal parties or parties with conservative liberal factions3 See also 4 ReferencesOverview[edit] "Instead of following progressive liberalism [i.e
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Democratic Liberalism
Not to be confused with liberal democracy, democratic liberalism aims to reach a synthesis of democracy which is the participation of the people in the power, and the rational liberalism, which declines the emotional populism. It arose accepting general suffrage after World War I, and its main question is how to ask people between elections, or should they be asked at all? In 2004, James Surowiecki
James Surowiecki
published The Wisdom of Crowds, in which he argued that small groups exhibit more intelligence than isolated individuals and that collective intelligence shapes business, economies, societies and nations. The Liberal Democrats (UK)
Liberal Democrats (UK)
describe their ideology as giving "power to the people"; they are against the concentration of power in unaccountable bodies
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Geolibertarianism
Geolibertarianism
Geolibertarianism
is a political and economic ideology particularly committed to tax reform that integrates libertarianism with Georgism (alternatively geoism or geonomics). It is most often associated with left-libertarianism or the radical center.[1][2] Geolibertarians hold that geographical space and raw natural resources—any assets that qualify as land by economic definition—are rivalrous goods to be considered common property or more accurately unowned, which all individuals share an equal human right to access, not capital wealth to be privatized fully and absolutely. Therefore, landholders must pay compensation according to the rental value decided by the free market, absent any improvements, to the community for the civil right of usufruct (that is, legally recognized exclusive possession with restrictions on property abuse) or otherwise fee simple title with no such restrictions
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Green Liberalism
Green liberalism, or liberal environmentalism,[1] is liberalism that includes green politics in its ideology. Green liberals are usually liberal on social issues and "green" on economic issues.[1] The term "green liberalism" was coined by political philosopher Marcel Wissenburg in his 1998 book Green Liberalism: The Free and The Green Society. He argues that liberalism must reject the idea of absolute property rights and accept restraints that limit the freedom to abuse nature and natural resources. However, he rejects the control of population growth and any control over the distribution of resources as incompatible with individual liberty, instead favoring supply-side control: more efficient production and curbs on overproduction and over-exploitation
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Equity Feminism
Equity feminism is a form of liberal feminism discussed since the 1980s,[1][2] specifically a kind of classically liberal or libertarian feminism.[3]Contents1 Overview 2 Theorists 3 See also 4 ReferencesOverview[edit] The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
refers to Wendy McElroy, Joan Kennedy Tay
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Rule Of Law
The rule of law is the principle that law should govern a nation, as opposed to being governed by decisions of individual government officials. It primarily refers to the influence and authority of law within society, particularly as a constraint upon behaviour, including behaviour of government officials.[2] The phrase can be traced back to 16th century Britain, and in the following century the Scottish theologian Samuel Rutherford
Samuel Rutherford
used the phrase in his argument against the divine right of kings.[3] John Locke
John Locke
wrote that freedom in society means being subject only to laws made by a legislature that apply to everyone, with a person being otherwise free from both governmental and private restrictions upon liberty. The "rule of law" was further popularized in the 19th century by British jurist A. V. Dicey
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Liberal Internationalism
Liberal internationalism is a foreign policy doctrine that argues that liberal states should intervene in other sovereign states in order to pursue liberal objectives. Such intervention can include both military invasion and humanitarian aid. This view is contrasted to isolationist, realist, or non-interventionist foreign policy doctrines; these critics characterize it as liberal interventionism.Contents1 History 2 Theory 3 Examples 4 See also 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] Liberal Internationalism emerged during the nineteenth century, notably under the auspices of British Foreign Secretary and Prime Minister Lord Palmerston and was developed in the second decade of the 20th century under U.S. President Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
(see Wilsonianism).[1] Theory[edit] The goal of liberal internationalism is to achieve global structures within the international system that are inclined towards promoting a liberal world order
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Liberal Socialism
Liberal socialism
Liberal socialism
is a socialist political philosophy that incorporates liberal principles.[1] Liberal socialism
Liberal socialism
does not have the goal of completely abolishing capitalism and replacing it with socialism,[2] but it instead supports a mixed economy that includes both private property and social ownership in capital goods.[3][4] Although liberal socialism unequivocally favors a mixed market economy, it identifies legalistic and artificial monopolies to be the fault of capitalism[5] and opposes an entirely unregulated economy.[6] It considers both liberty and equality to be compatible and mutually dependent on each other.[1] Principles that can be described as "liberal socialist" are based on the works of philosophers such as Mill, Bernstein, Dewey, Rosselli, Bobbio, Mouffe and Polanyi.[7] Other important liberal socialist figures include Calogero, Gobetti, Hobhouse, Keynes and Tawney
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