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European Community Number
The EUROPEAN COMMUNITY NUMBER (EC NUMBER) is a unique seven-digit identifier that was assigned to substances for regulatory purposes within the European Union by the European Commission. The _EC Inventory_ comprises three individual inventories, EINECS, ELINCS and the NLP list. CONTENTS * 1 Structure * 2 EC Inventory * 3 List numbers * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links STRUCTUREThe EC Number may be written in a general form as: NNN-NNN-R, where R is a check digit and N represents integers. The check digit is calculated using the ISBN method. According to this method, the check digit R is the following sum modulo 11: R = ( N 1 + 2 N 2 + 3 N 3 + 4 N 4 + 5 N 5 + 6 N 6 ) mod 11 {displaystyle R=(N_{1}+2N_{2}+3N_{3}+4N_{4}+5N_{5}+6N_{6})mod 11} If the remainder R is equal to 10, that combination of digits is not used for an EC number. To illustrate, the EC number of dexamethasone is 200-003-9. N1 is 2, N2 through N5 are 0, and N6 is 3. 2 + 2 0 + 3 0 + 4 0 + 5 0 + 6 3 11 = 20 11 = 1 + 9 11 {displaystyle {frac {2+2!times !0+3!times !0+4!times !0+5!times !0+6!times !3}{11}}={frac {20}{11}}=1+{frac {9}{11}}} The remainder is 9, which is the check digit. There is a set of 181 ELINCS numbers (EC numbers starting with 4) for which the checksum by the above algorithm is 10 and the number has not been skipped but issued with a checksum of 1
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Enzyme Commission Number
The ENZYME COMMISSION NUMBER (EC NUMBER) is a numerical classification scheme for enzymes , based on the chemical reactions they catalyze . As a system of ENZYME NOMENCLATURE, every EC number is associated with a recommended name for the respective enzyme. Strictly speaking, EC numbers do not specify enzymes, but enzyme-catalyzed reactions. If different enzymes (for instance from different organisms) catalyze the same reaction, then they receive the same EC number. Furthermore, through convergent evolution , completely different protein folds can catalyze an identical reaction and therefore would be assigned an identical EC number (these are called non-homologous isofunctional enzymes , or NISE). By contrast, UniProt identifiers uniquely specify a protein by its amino acid sequence. CONTENTS * 1 Format of number * 2 Top level codes * 3 Reaction similarity * 4 History * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links FORMAT OF NUMBEREvery enzyme code consists of the letters "EC" followed by four numbers separated by periods. Those numbers represent a progressively finer classification of the enzyme. Preliminary EC numbers exist and have an 'n' as part of the fourth (serial) digit (e.g. EC 3.5.1.n3)
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Regulatory
REGULATION is an abstract concept of management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends. In systems theory , these types of rules exist in various fields of biology and society , but the term has slightly different meanings according to context. For example: * in biology, gene regulation and metabolic regulation allow living organisms to adapt to their environment and maintain homeostasis * in government , typically a regulation specifically means a piece of the delegated legislation drafted by subject matter experts to enforce a statutory instrument (primary legislation ) * in business, industry self-regulation occurs through self-regulatory organizations and trade associations which allow industries to set rules with less government involvement * in psychology, self-regulation theory is the study of how individuals regulate their thoughts and behaviors to reach goalsCONTENTS* 1 Social * 1.1 Reasons * 1.2 History * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links * 4.1 Wikibooks SOCIAL Regulation can take many forms: legal restrictions promulgated by a government authority, contractual obligations (for example, contracts between insurers and their insureds ), social regulation (e.g. norms ), co-regulation, third-party regulation, certification, accreditation or market regulation
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European Union
The EUROPEAN UNION (EU) is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe . It has an area of 4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi), and an estimated population of over 510 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs, and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture , fisheries , and regional development . Within the Schengen Area , passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002, and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency . The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the European Economic Community (EEC), established, respectively, by the 1951 Treaty of Paris and 1957 Treaty of Rome . The original members of what came to be known as the European Communities , were the Inner Six ; Belgium , France , Italy , Luxembourg , the Netherlands and West Germany
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Modular Arithmetic
In mathematics , MODULAR ARITHMETIC is a system of arithmetic for integers , where numbers "wrap around" upon reaching a certain value—the MODULUS (plural MODULI). The modern approach to modular arithmetic was developed by Carl Friedrich Gauss in his book _ Disquisitiones Arithmeticae _, published in 1801. A familiar use of modular arithmetic is in the 12-hour clock , in which the day is divided into two 12-hour periods. If the time is 7:00 now, then 8 hours later it will be 3:00. Usual addition would suggest that the later time should be 7 + 8 = 15, but this is not the answer because clock time "wraps around" every 12 hours. Because the hour number starts over after it reaches 12, this is arithmetic _modulo_ 12. According to the definition below, 12 is congruent not only to 12 itself, but also to 0, so the time called "12:00" could also be called "0:00", since 12 is congruent to 0 modulo 12. CONTENTS* 1 Definition of congruence relation * 1.1 Examples * 2 Properties * 3 Congruence classes * 4 Residue systems * 4.1 Reduced residue systems * 5 Integers modulo _n_ * 6 Applications * 7 Computational complexity * 8 Example implementations * 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 References * 12 External links DEFINITION OF CONGRUENCE RELATION This section is about the (mod _n_) notation. For the binary _mod_ operation, see modulo operation
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Dexamethasone
DEXAMETHASONE is a type of corticosteroid medication. It is used in the treatment of many conditions, including rheumatic problems , a number of skin diseases , severe allergies , asthma , chronic obstructive lung disease , croup , brain swelling , and along with antibiotics in tuberculosis . In adrenocortical insufficiency , it should be used together with a medication that has greater mineralocorticoid effects such as fludrocortisone . In preterm labor , it may be used to improve outcomes in the baby. It may be taken by mouth, as an injection into a muscle , or intravenously . The effects of dexamethasone are frequently seen within a day and last for about three days. The long-term use of dexamethasone may result in thrush , bone loss, cataracts , easy bruising, or muscle weakness. It is pregnancy category C in the United States meaning use should be based on benefits being predicted to be greater than risks. In Australia, it is class A, meaning it has been frequently used in pregnancy and not been found to cause problems to the baby. It should not be taken when breastfeeding . Dexamethasone has anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant effects. Dexamethasone was first made in 1957. It is on the World Health Organization\'s List of Essential Medicines , the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system . Dexamethasone is not expensive
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Dangerous Substances Directive (67/548/EEC)
The DANGEROUS SUBSTANCES DIRECTIVE (as amended) was one of the main European Union laws concerning chemical safety, until its full replacement by the new regulation CLP regulation (2008) , starting in 2016. It was made under Article 100 (Art. 94 in a consolidated version) of the Treaty of Rome . By agreement, it is also applicable in the EEA , and compliance with the directive will ensure compliance with the relevant Swiss laws. CONTENTS * 1 Scope * 2 Classification of dangerous substances * 3 Danger symbols * 4 Standard Risk and Safety phrases * 5 Packaging requirements * 6 Labelling requirements * 7 Material safety data sheet * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links SCOPEThe directive applies to pure chemicals and to mixtures of chemicals (preparations) that are placed on the market in the European Union , therefore it does not apply directly to substances created purely for research purposes. Additional rules concerning preparations are contained in the Dangerous Preparations Directive (1999/45/EC): these are very similar to the rules contained in the Dangerous Substances Directive 67/548/EEC. The directive does not apply to the following groups of substances and preparations (Art
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REACH Regulation
REGISTRATION, EVALUATION, AUTHORISATION AND RESTRICTION OF CHEMICALS (REACH) is a European Union regulation dated 18 December 2006. REACH addresses the production and use of chemical substances , and their potential impacts on both human health and the environment. Its 849 pages took seven years to pass, and it has been described as the most complex legislation in the Union's history and the most important in 20 years. It is the strictest law to date regulating chemical substances and will affect industries throughout the world. REACH entered into force on 1 June 2007, with a phased implementation over the next decade. The regulation also established the European Chemicals Agency , which manages the technical, scientific and administrative aspects of REACH. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Background * 3 Requirements * 3.1 Registration * 3.2 Evaluation * 3.3 Authorisation * 3.4 Information exchange * 4 History * 5 Rationale * 6 In non-EU countries * 7 Controversy * 8 Only representative services * 9 Example of chemical inventories in various countries/regions * 10 Authorisation List * 11 See also * 12 References * 13 External links OVERVIEW European Chemicals Agency headquarters in Annankatu, Helsinki
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European Chemicals Agency
The EUROPEAN CHEMICALS AGENCY (ECHA; /ˈɛkə/ _EK-ə_ ) is an agency of the European Union which manages the technical, scientific and administrative aspects of the implementation of the European Union regulation called Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). ECHA is the driving force among regulatory authorities in implementing the EU's chemicals legislation. ECHA helps companies to comply with the legislation, advances the safe use of chemicals, provides information on chemicals and addresses chemicals of concern. It is located in Helsinki , Finland . The Agency, headed by Executive Director Geert Dancet , started working on 1 June 2007. CONTENTS * 1 Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) * 2 Classification, Labelling and Packaging of Substances and Mixtures (CLP) * 3 Biocidal Products Regulation (BPR) * 4 Prior Informed Consent (PIC) * 5 Controlling Hazardous Chemicals * 6 References * 7 See also * 8 External links REGISTRATION, EVALUATION, AUTHORISATION AND RESTRICTION OF CHEMICALS (REACH)THE REACH REGULATION requires companies to provide information on the hazards, risks and safe use of chemical substances that they manufacture or import. Companies register this information with ECHA and it is then freely available on their website. So far, thousands of the most hazardous and the most commonly used substances have been registered
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Official Journal Of The European Union
This article is part of a series on the politics and government of the European Union EXECUTIVE * Juncker Commission President Juncker (EPP) * Vice Presidents * College * Civil Service Secretary-General Italianer LEGISLATIVE PARLIAMENT President Tajani (EPP) * Largest groups; * EPP (Manfred Weber) * S">(Gianni Pittella) * 8th session (2014-19) * 751 MEPs * Bureau * Vice Presidents * Quaestor * Conference * Legislative procedure COUNCIL OF THE EU Presidency * Configurations * General * Foreign * Justice and Home * Economic * Euro * Legislative procedure * Voting * Secretariat * Secretary-General * Uwe Corsepius * Directorates-general * COREPER JUDICIARY * Court of Justice * Members * Rulings * General Court CENTRAL BANK President Draghi * ESCB * Euro * EMU * Eurozone COURT OF AUDITORS * Budget * OLAF OTHER BODIES * Agencies * Investment Bank * CoR * EESC * Ombudsman * National parliaments POLICIES AND ISSUES FOREIGN RELATIONS * High Representative * Federica Mogherini * Ext
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Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation And Restriction Of Chemicals
REGISTRATION, EVALUATION, AUTHORISATION AND RESTRICTION OF CHEMICALS (REACH) is a European Union regulation dated 18 December 2006. REACH addresses the production and use of chemical substances , and their potential impacts on both human health and the environment. Its 849 pages took seven years to pass, and it has been described as the most complex legislation in the Union's history and the most important in 20 years. It is the strictest law to date regulating chemical substances and will affect industries throughout the world. REACH entered into force on 1 June 2007, with a phased implementation over the next decade. The regulation also established the European Chemicals Agency , which manages the technical, scientific and administrative aspects of REACH. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Background * 3 Requirements * 3.1 Registration * 3.2 Evaluation * 3.3 Authorisation * 3.4 Information exchange * 4 History * 5 Rationale * 6 In non-EU countries * 7 Controversy * 8 Only representative services * 9 Example of chemical inventories in various countries/regions * 10 Authorisation List * 11 See also * 12 References * 13 External links OVERVIEW European Chemicals Agency
European Chemicals Agency
headquarters in Annankatu, Helsinki
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European Chemical Substances Information System
The EUROPEAN CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES INFORMATION SYSTEM (ESIS) was a chemoinformatics database that stored information system on chemicals of the European Union . It was created by the former European Chemicals Bureau , which completed its mandate in 2008, in the year 2003. ESIS was set up by the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission in order to make data on the safety of chemicals more readily accessible to the public, offering a single search tool on chemicals and the legislation under which they are presently covered. By October 3, 2013, ESIS contained 14,897 substance records
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CAS Registry Number
A CAS REGISTRY NUMBER, also referred to as CASRN or CAS NUMBER, is a unique numerical identifier assigned by Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) to every chemical substance described in the open scientific literature (currently including those described from at least 1957 through the present), including organic and inorganic compounds, minerals , isotopes , alloys and nonstructurable materials (UVCBs, of Unknown, Variable Composition, or Biological origin). The Registry maintained by CAS is an authoritative collection of disclosed chemical substance information. It currently identifies more than 129 million organic and inorganic substances and 67 million protein and DNA sequences, plus additional information about each substance. It is updated with around 15,000 additional new substances daily. CONTENTS * 1 Use * 2 Format * 3 Granularity * 4 Search engines * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 External links USE _ This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (June 2017)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_Historically, chemicals have been identified by a wide variety of synonyms. Frequently these are arcane and constructed according to regional naming conventions relating to chemical formulae, structures or origins
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the ISO . An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents. The DOI system uses the indecs Content Model for representing metadata. The DOI for a document remains fixed over the lifetime of the document, whereas its location and other metadata may change. Referring to an online document by its DOI provides more stable linking than simply using its URL, because if its URL changes, the publisher only needs to update the metadata for the DOI to link to the new URL. The developer and administrator of the DOI system is the International DOI Foundation (IDF), which introduced it in 2000
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Wikidata
WIKIDATA is a collaboratively edited knowledge base operated by the Wikimedia Foundation . It is intended to provide a common source of data which can be used by Wikimedia projects such as , and by anyone else, under a public domain licence. This is similar to the way Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
provides storage for media files and access to those files for all Wikimedia projects, and which are also freely available for reuse. Wikidata
Wikidata
is powered by the software Wikibase . CONTENTS * 1 Concepts * 2 Development history * 2.1 Phase 1 * 2.2 Phase 2 * 2.3 Phase 3 * 3 Reception * 4 Logo * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links CONCEPTS Screenshots Three statements from Wikidata\'s item on the planet Mars. Values include links to other items and to Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
. A layout of the four main components of a phase-1 Wikidata
Wikidata
page: the label, description, aliases and interlanguage links. A article's list of interlanguage links as they appeared in an edit box (left) and on the article's page (right) prior to Wikidata
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