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European Community Number
The EUROPEAN COMMUNITY NUMBER (EC NUMBER) is a unique seven-digit identifier that was assigned to substances for regulatory purposes within the European Union by the European Commission. The _EC Inventory_ comprises three individual inventories, EINECS, ELINCS and the NLP list. CONTENTS * 1 Structure * 2 EC Inventory * 3 List numbers * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links STRUCTUREThe EC Number may be written in a general form as: NNN-NNN-R, where R is a check digit and N represents integers. The check digit is calculated using the ISBN method. According to this method, the check digit R is the following sum modulo 11: R = ( N 1 + 2 N 2 + 3 N 3 + 4 N 4 + 5 N 5 + 6 N 6 ) mod 11 {displaystyle R=(N_{1}+2N_{2}+3N_{3}+4N_{4}+5N_{5}+6N_{6})mod 11} If the remainder R is equal to 10, that combination of digits is not used for an EC number. To illustrate, the EC number of dexamethasone is 200-003-9
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Enzyme Commission Number
The ENZYME COMMISSION NUMBER (EC NUMBER) is a numerical classification scheme for enzymes , based on the chemical reactions they catalyze . As a system of ENZYME NOMENCLATURE, every EC number is associated with a recommended name for the respective enzyme. Strictly speaking, EC numbers do not specify enzymes, but enzyme-catalyzed reactions. If different enzymes (for instance from different organisms) catalyze the same reaction, then they receive the same EC number. Furthermore, through convergent evolution , completely different protein folds can catalyze an identical reaction and therefore would be assigned an identical EC number (these are called non-homologous isofunctional enzymes , or NISE). By contrast, UniProt identifiers uniquely specify a protein by its amino acid sequence
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Regulatory
REGULATION is an abstract concept of management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends. In systems theory , these types of rules exist in various fields of biology and society , but the term has slightly different meanings according to context
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European Union
The EUROPEAN UNION (EU) is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe . It has an area of 4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi), and an estimated population of over 510 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs, and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture , fisheries , and regional development . Within the Schengen Area , passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002, and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency
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Modular Arithmetic
In mathematics , MODULAR ARITHMETIC is a system of arithmetic for integers , where numbers "wrap around" upon reaching a certain value—the MODULUS (plural MODULI). The modern approach to modular arithmetic was developed by Carl Friedrich Gauss in his book _ Disquisitiones Arithmeticae _, published in 1801. A familiar use of modular arithmetic is in the 12-hour clock , in which the day is divided into two 12-hour periods. If the time is 7:00 now, then 8 hours later it will be 3:00. Usual addition would suggest that the later time should be 7 + 8 = 15, but this is not the answer because clock time "wraps around" every 12 hours. Because the hour number starts over after it reaches 12, this is arithmetic _modulo_ 12. According to the definition below, 12 is congruent not only to 12 itself, but also to 0, so the time called "12:00" could also be called "0:00", since 12 is congruent to 0 modulo 12
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Dexamethasone
DEXAMETHASONE is a type of corticosteroid medication. It is used in the treatment of many conditions, including rheumatic problems , a number of skin diseases , severe allergies , asthma , chronic obstructive lung disease , croup , brain swelling , and along with antibiotics in tuberculosis . In adrenocortical insufficiency , it should be used together with a medication that has greater mineralocorticoid effects such as fludrocortisone . In preterm labor , it may be used to improve outcomes in the baby. It may be taken by mouth, as an injection into a muscle , or intravenously . The effects of dexamethasone are frequently seen within a day and last for about three days. The long-term use of dexamethasone may result in thrush , bone loss, cataracts , easy bruising, or muscle weakness. It is pregnancy category C in the United States meaning use should be based on benefits being predicted to be greater than risks
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Dangerous Substances Directive (67/548/EEC)
The DANGEROUS SUBSTANCES DIRECTIVE (as amended) was one of the main European Union laws concerning chemical safety, until its full replacement by the new regulation CLP regulation (2008) , starting in 2016. It was made under Article 100 (Art. 94 in a consolidated version) of the Treaty of Rome . By agreement, it is also applicable in the EEA , and compliance with the directive will ensure compliance with the relevant Swiss laws
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REACH Regulation
REGISTRATION, EVALUATION, AUTHORISATION AND RESTRICTION OF CHEMICALS (REACH) is a European Union regulation dating from 18 December 2006. REACH addresses the production and use of chemical substances , and their potential impacts on both human health and the environment. Its 849 pages took seven years to pass, and it has been described as the most complex legislation in the Union's history and the most important in 20 years. It is the strictest law to date regulating chemical substances and will affect industries throughout the world. REACH entered into force on 1 June 2007, with a phased implementation over the next decade. The regulation also established the European Chemicals Agency , which manages the technical, scientific and administrative aspects of REACH
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European Chemicals Agency
The EUROPEAN CHEMICALS AGENCY (ECHA; /ˈɛkə/ _EK-ə_ ) is an agency of the European Union which manages the technical, scientific and administrative aspects of the implementation of the European Union regulation called Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). ECHA is the driving force among regulatory authorities in implementing the EU's chemicals legislation. ECHA helps companies to comply with the legislation, advances the safe use of chemicals, provides information on chemicals and addresses chemicals of concern. It is located in Helsinki , Finland . The Agency, headed by Executive Director Geert Dancet , started working on 1 June 2007
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Official Journal Of The European Union
This article is part of a series on the politics and government of the European Union EXECUTIVE * Juncker Commission President Juncker (EPP) * Vice Presidents * College * Civil Service Secretary-General Italianer LEGISLATIVE PARLIAMENT President Tajani (EPP) * Largest groups; * EPP (Manfred Weber) * S">(Gianni Pittella) * 8th session (2014-19) * 751 MEPs * Bureau * Vice Presidents * Quaestor * Conference * Legislative procedure COUNCIL OF THE EU Presidency * Configurations * General * Foreign * Justice and Home * Economic <
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Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation And Restriction Of Chemicals
REGISTRATION, EVALUATION, AUTHORISATION AND RESTRICTION OF CHEMICALS (REACH) is a European Union regulation dating from 18 December 2006. REACH addresses the production and use of chemical substances , and their potential impacts on both human health and the environment. Its 849 pages took seven years to pass, and it has been described as the most complex legislation in the Union's history and the most important in 20 years. It is the strictest law to date regulating chemical substances and will affect industries throughout the world. REACH entered into force on 1 June 2007, with a phased implementation over the next decade. The regulation also established the European Chemicals Agency , which manages the technical, scientific and administrative aspects of REACH
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European Chemical Substances Information System
The EUROPEAN CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES INFORMATION SYSTEM (ESIS) was a chemoinformatics database that stored information system on chemicals of the European Union
European Union
. It was created by the former European Chemicals
Chemicals
Bureau , which completed its mandate in 2008, in the year 2003. ESIS was set up by the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission in order to make data on the safety of chemicals more readily accessible to the public, offering a single search tool on chemicals and the legislation under which they are presently covered. By October 3, 2013, ESIS contained 14,897 substance records
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CAS Registry Number
A CAS REGISTRY NUMBER, also referred to as CASRN or CAS NUMBER, is a unique numerical identifier assigned by Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) to every chemical substance described in the open scientific literature (currently including those described from at least 1957 through the present), including organic and inorganic compounds, minerals , isotopes , alloys and nonstructurable materials (UVCBs, of Unknown, Variable Composition, or Biological origin). The Registry maintained by CAS is an authoritative collection of disclosed chemical substance information. It currently identifies more than 129 million organic and inorganic substances and 67 million protein and DNA sequences, plus additional information about each substance. It is updated with around 15,000 additional new substances daily. CONTENTS * 1 Use * 2 Format * 3 Granularity * 4 Search engines * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 External links USE _ This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the ISO . An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents. The DOI system uses the indecs Content Model for representing metadata
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Wikidata
WIKIDATA is a collaboratively edited knowledge base operated by the Wikimedia Foundation . It is intended to provide a common source of data which can be used by Wikimedia projects such as , and by anyone else, under a public domain licence. This is similar to the way Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
provides storage for media files and access to those files for all Wikimedia projects, and which are also freely available for reuse. Wikidata
Wikidata
is powered by the software Wikibase . CONTENTS * 1 Concepts * 2 Development history * 2.1 Phase 1 * 2.2 Phase 2 * 2.3 Phase 3 * 3 Reception * 4 Logo * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links CONCEPTS Screenshots Three statements from Wikidata\'s item on the planet Mars. Values include links to other items and to Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons

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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * _Special_ (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials , a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on _The Blind Leading the Naked _ * "Special", a song on _ The Documentary _ album by GameFILM AND TELEVISION * Special (lighting) , a stage light that is used for a single, s
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