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Eukaryote
Eukaryotic organisms that cannot be classified under the kingdoms Plantae, Animalia or Fungi
Fungi
are sometimes grouped in the kingdom PROTISTA . A EUKARYOTE (/juːˈkæri.oʊt/ or /juːˈkæriət/ ) is any organism whose cells have a cell nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes . Eukaryotes belong to the taxon EUKARYA or EUKARYOTA. The defining feature that sets eukaryotic cells apart from prokaryotic cells ( Bacteria
Bacteria
and Archaea
Archaea
) is that they have membrane-bound organelles, especially the nucleus, which contains the genetic material and is enclosed by the nuclear envelope . The presence of a nucleus gives eukaryotes their name, which comes from the Greek εὖ (eu, "well" or "true") and κάρυον (karyon, "nut" or "kernel")
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Robert Whittaker
ROBERT HARDING WHITTAKER (December 27, 1920 – October 20, 1980) was a distinguished American plant ecologist , active in the 1950s to the 1970s. Born in Wichita, Kansas
Wichita, Kansas
, he obtained a B.A. at Washburn Municipal College (now Washburn University
Washburn University
) in Topeka, Kansas
Topeka, Kansas
, and, following military service , his Ph.D.
Ph.D.
at the University of Illinois
University of Illinois
. He held teaching and research positions at Washington State College in Hanford, Washington, the Hanford National Laboratories (where he pioneered use of radioactive tracers in ecosystem studies), Brooklyn College , University of California, Irvine
University of California, Irvine
, and, finally Cornell University
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Algae
ALGAE (/ˈældʒi, ˈælɡi/ ; singular ALGA /ˈælɡə/ ) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms which are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic . Included organisms range from unicellular genera, such as Chlorella and the diatoms , to multicellular forms, such as the giant kelp , a large brown alga which may grow up to 50 m in length. Most are aquatic and autotrophic and lack many of the distinct cell and tissue types, such as stomata , xylem , and phloem , which are found in land plants . The largest and most complex marine algae are called seaweeds , while the most complex freshwater forms are the Charophyta , a division of green algae which includes, for example, Spirogyra and the stoneworts . No definition of algae is generally accepted. One definition is that algae "have chlorophyll as their primary photosynthetic pigment and lack a sterile covering of cells around their reproductive cells"
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek : ελληνικά , elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα ( listen ), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary , were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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Gamete
A GAMETE (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry" ) is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce . In species that produce two morphologically distinct types of gametes, and in which each individual produces only one type, a female is any individual that produces the larger type of gamete—called an ovum (or egg)—and a male produces the smaller tadpole -like type—called a sperm . This is an example of anisogamy or heterogamy , the condition in which females and males produce gametes of different sizes (this is the case in humans; the human ovum has approximately 100,000 times the volume of a single human sperm cell ). In contrast, isogamy is the state of gametes from both sexes being the same size and shape, and given arbitrary designators for mating type
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Tissue (biology)
In biology , TISSUE is a cellular organizational level intermediate between cells and a complete organ . A tissue is an ensemble of similar cells from the same origin that together carry out a specific function. Organs are then formed by the functional grouping together of multiple tissues. Etymology: from the French "tissue", from "tisser", meaning something that is woven, referring to the fact this organ is made of layers of cells. The study of tissue is known as histology or, in connection with disease, histopathology . The classical tools for studying tissues are the paraffin block in which tissue is embedded and then sectioned, the histological stain , and the optical microscope . In the last couple of decades, developments in electron microscopy , immunofluorescence , and the use of frozen tissue sections have enhanced the detail that can be observed in tissues
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Holocene
? Preboreal (10.3–9 ka ) Boreal (9–7.5 ka ) Atlantic (7.5 –5 ka ) Subboreal (5 –2.5 ka ) Subatlantic (2.5 ka –present) Holocene
Holocene
Epoch This box: * view * talk * edit ↑ Pleistocene HoloceneThe HOLOCENE ( /ˈhɒləˌsiːn, ˈhoʊ-/ ) is the current geological epoch . It began after the Pleistocene , approximately 11,700 years before present . The Holocene
Holocene
is part of the Quaternary period. Its name comes from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
words ὅλος (holos, whole or entire) and καινός (kainos, new), meaning "entirely recent". It has been identified with the current warm period, known as MIS 1 , and is considered by some to be an interglacial period
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Rhyacian
The RHYACIAN PERIOD ( /raɪˈeɪsiən/ ; Greek : ῥύαξ (rhýax), meaning "stream of lava ") is the second geologic period in the Paleoproterozoic Era and lasted from 2300 Mya to 2050 Mya (million years ago). Instead of being based on stratigraphy , these dates are defined chronometrically. The Bushveld Igneous Complex and other similar intrusions formed during this period. The Huronian (Makganyene) global glaciation began at the start of the Rhyacian lasted 100 million years. The first known eukaryotes began to evolve in the Rhyacian period. The multicellular Francevillian Group Fossils , at 2.1-Gyr are from the Rhyacian period. For the time period from 2250 Ma to 2060 Ma, an alternative period based on stratigraphy rather than chronometry, named either the JATULIAN or the EUKARYIAN, was suggested in the geological timescale review 2012 edited by Gradstein et al., but as of February 2017 , this has not yet been officially adopted by the IUGS
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Nuclear Envelope
A NUCLEAR MEMBRANE, also known as the NUCLEOLEMMA or KARYOTHECA, is the lipid bilayer membrane which surrounds the genetic material and nucleolus in eukaryotic cells . The nuclear membrane consists of two lipid bilayers —the inner nuclear membrane, and the outer nuclear membrane. The space between the membranes is called the perinuclear space, a region contiguous with the lumen (inside) of the endoplasmic reticulum . It is usually about 20–40 nm wide. The nuclear membrane also has many small holes called nuclear pores that allow material to move in and out of the nucleus. CONTENTS * 1 Outer membrane * 2 Inner membrane * 3 Nuclear pores * 4 Cell division * 4.1 Breakdown * 4.2 Reformation * 5 References * 6 External links OUTER MEMBRANEThe outer nuclear membrane also shares a common border with the endoplasmic reticulum
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Biological Membrane
A BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANE or BIOMEMBRANE is an enclosing or separating membrane that acts as a selectively permeable barrier within living things. Biological membranes, in the form of eukaryotic cell membranes , consist of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded, integral and peripheral proteins used in communication and transportation of chemicals and ions . The bulk of lipid in a cell membrane provides a fluid matrix for proteins to rotate and laterally diffuse for physiological functioning. Proteins are adapted to high membrane fluidity environment of lipid bilayer with the presence of an annular lipid shell , consisting of lipid molecules bound tightly to surface of integral membrane proteins . The cell membranes are different from the isolating tissues formed by layers of cells, such as mucous membranes , basement membranes , and serous membranes
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Alveolata
Apicomplexa
Apicomplexa
Chromerida Ciliophora
Ciliophora
Dinoflagellata
Dinoflagellata
The ALVEOLATES (meaning "with cavities") are a group of protists , considered a major clade and superphylum within Eukarya
Eukarya
, and are also called ALVEOLATA. CONTENTS * 1 Characteristics * 2 Classification * 2.1 Phylogeny * 2.2 Taxonomy * 3 Development * 4 Evolution * 5 References * 6 External links CHARACTERISTICSThe most notable shared characteristic is the presence of cortical (outer-region) alveoli (sacs). These are flattened vesicles (sacs) packed into a continuous layer just under the membrane and supporting it, typically forming a flexible pellicle (thin skin). In dinoflagellates they often form armor plates. Alveolates have mitochondria with tubular cristae (ridges), and their flagellae or cilia have a distinct structure
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Lynn Margulis
LYNN MARGULIS (born LYNN PETRA ALEXANDER; March 5, 1938 – November 22, 2011) was an American evolutionary theorist and biologist, science author, educator, and popularizer, and was the primary modern proponent for the significance of symbiosis in evolution . Historian Jan Sapp has said that "Lynn Margulis's name is as synonymous with symbiosis as Charles Darwin\'s is with evolution." In particular, Margulis transformed and fundamentally framed current understanding of the evolution of cells with nuclei – an event Ernst Mayr called "perhaps the most important and dramatic event in the history of life" – by proposing it to have been the result of symbiotic mergers of bacteria
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Mitosis
In cell biology , MITOSIS is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei. In general, mitosis (division of the nucleus) is preceded by the S stage of interphase (during which the DNA
DNA
is replicated) and is often accompanied or followed by cytokinesis , which divides the cytoplasm , organelles and cell membrane into two new cells containing roughly equal shares of these cellular components. Mitosis
Mitosis
and cytokinesis together define the MITOTIC (M) PHASE of an animal cell cycle—the division of the mother cell into two daughter cells genetically identical to each other. The process of mitosis is divided into stages corresponding to the completion of one set of activities and the start of the next. These stages are prophase , prometaphase , metaphase , anaphase , and telophase
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Ploidy
PLOIDY is the number of sets of chromosomes in a cell , and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes . Cells are described according to the number of sets present (the PLOIDY LEVEL): MONOPLOID (1 set), DIPLOID (2 sets), TRIPLOID (3 sets), TETRAPLOID (4 sets), pentaploid (5 sets), hexaploid (6 sets), heptaploid or septaploid (7 sets), etc. The generic term POLYPLOID is used to describe cells with three or more sets of chromosomes (triploid or a higher ploidy). Humans are diploid organisms, carrying two complete sets of chromosomes: one set of 23 chromosomes from their father and one set of 23 chromosomes from their mother. The two sets combined provide a full complement of 46 chromosomes. This total number of chromosomes is called the CHROMOSOME NUMBER. When a species has a varying chromosome number, e.g
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Cell Type
A CELL TYPE is a classification used to distinguish between morphologically or phenotypically distinct cell forms within a species . A multicellular organism may contain a number of widely differing and specialized cell types, such as muscle cells and skin cells in humans, that differ both in appearance and function yet are genetically identical. Cells are able to be of the same genotype , but different cell type due to the differential regulation of the genes they contain. Classification of a specific cell type is often done through the use of microscopy (such as those from the cluster of differentiation family that are commonly used for this purpose in immunology ). Animals have evolved a greater diversity of cell types in a multicellular body (100–150 different cell types), compared with 10–20 in plants, fungi, and protoctists
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Asexual Reproduction
ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes , and almost never changes the number of chromosomes . Asexual reproduction is the primary form of reproduction for single-celled organisms such as the Archaea and bacteria . Many plants and fungi reproduce asexually as well. While all prokaryotes reproduce asexually (without the formation and fusion of gametes), mechanisms for lateral gene transfer such as conjugation , transformation and transduction are sometimes likened to sexual reproduction or at least with sex , in the sense of genetic recombination in meiosis . A complete lack of sexual reproduction is relatively rare among multicellular organisms, particularly animals. It is not entirely understood why the ability to reproduce sexually is so common among them
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