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Eukaryote
Eukaryotic organisms that cannot be classified under the kingdoms Plantae, Animalia
Animalia
or Fungi
Fungi
are sometimes grouped in the kingdom Protista.A eukaryote (/juːˈkæri.oʊt/ or /juːˈkæriət/) is any organism whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes ( Bacteria
Bacteria
and Archaea).[3][4][5] Eukaryotes belong to the domain Eukaryota
Eukaryota
or Eukarya. Their name comes from the Greek εὖ (eu, "well" or "true") and κάρυον (karyon, "nut" or "kernel").[6] Eukaryotic cells also contain other membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus, and in addition, some cells of plants and algae contain chloroplasts
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Boletus Edulis
Boletus
Boletus
edulis (English: penny bun, cep, porcino or porcini) is a basidiomycete fungus, and the type species of the genus Boletus. Widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
across Europe, Asia, and North America, it does not occur naturally in the Southern Hemisphere, although it has been introduced to southern Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. Several closely related European mushrooms formerly thought to be varieties or forms of B. edulis have been shown using molecular phylogenetic analysis to be distinct species, and others previously classed as separate species are conspecific with this species. The western North American species commonly known as the California
California
king bolete ( Boletus
Boletus
edulis var
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Ranunculus Asiaticus
Ranunculus
Ranunculus
asiaticus, the Persian buttercup, is a species of buttercup (Ranunculus) native to the eastern Mediterranean region
Mediterranean region
in southwestern Asia, southeastern Europe
Europe
(Crete, Karpathos
Karpathos
and Rhodes), and northeastern Africa.[1] It is a herbaceous perennial plant growing to 45 cm tall, with simple or branched stems. The basal leaves are three-lobed, with leaves higher on the stems more deeply divided; like the stems, they are downy or hairy. The flowers are 3–5 cm diameter, variably red to pink, yellow, or white, with one to several flowers on each stem.[2] It is a protected plant in some jurisdictions, including Israel. Cultivation and uses[edit] It is a popular ornamental plant in gardens, and widely used in floristry. Numerous cultivars have been selected, including 'Bloomingdale', 'Picotee', 'Pot Dwarf', and 'Superbissima'
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Holocene
The Holocene
Holocene
( /ˈhɒləˌsiːn, ˈhoʊ-/)[2][3] is the current geological epoch. It began after the Pleistocene[4], approximately 11,650 cal years before present.[5] The Holocene
Holocene
is part of the Quaternary
Quaternary
period. Its name comes from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
words ὅλος (holos, whole or entire) and καινός (kainos, new), meaning "entirely recent".[6] It has been identified with the current warm period, known as MIS 1, and is considered by some to be an interglacial period. The Holocene
Holocene
encompasses the growth and impacts of the human species worldwide, including all its written history, development of major civilizations, and overall significant transition toward urban living in the present
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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Robert Whittaker
Robert Harding Whittaker (December 27, 1920 – October 20, 1980) was a distinguished American plant ecologist, active in the 1950s to the 1970s. He was the first to propose the five-kingdom taxonomic classification of the world's biota into the Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista, and Monera
Monera
in 1969.[1][2] He also proposed the Whittaker Biome
Biome
Classification, which categorized biome-types upon two abiotic factors: temperature and precipitation. Born in Wichita, Kansas, he obtained a B.A. at Washburn Municipal College (now Washburn University) in Topeka, Kansas, and, following military service, his Ph.D.
Ph.D.
at the University of Illinois
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Tissue (biology)
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ. A tissue is an ensemble of similar cells and their extracellular matrix from the same origin that together carry out a specific function. Organs are then formed by the functional grouping together of multiple tissues. The English word is derived from the French tissu, meaning something that is woven, from the verb tisser, "to weave". The study of human and animal tissues is known as histology or, in connection with disease, histopathology. For plants, the discipline is called plant anatomy. The classical tools for studying tissues are the paraffin block in which tissue is embedded and then sectioned, the histological stain, and the optical microscope. In the last couple of decades,[clarification needed] developments in electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and the use of frozen tissue sections have enhanced the detail that can be observed in tissues
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Algae
Algae
Algae
(/ˈældʒi, ˈælɡi/; singular alga /ˈælɡə/) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic. Included organisms range from unicellular microalgae genera, such as Chlorella
Chlorella
and the diatoms, to multicellular forms, such as the giant kelp, a large brown alga which may grow up to 50 m in length. Most are aquatic and autotrophic and lack many of the distinct cell and tissue types, such as stomata, xylem, and phloem, which are found in land plants. The largest and most complex marine algae are called seaweeds, while the most complex freshwater forms are the Charophyta, a division of green algae which includes, for example, Spirogyra
Spirogyra
and the stoneworts. No definition of algae is generally accepted
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Osmia Bicornis
Osmia bicornis, synonym Osmia rufa, is a species of mason bee, and is known as the red mason bee due to its covering of dense gingery hair.[1][2][3][4] It is a solitary bee that nests in holes or stems and is polylectic, meaning it forages pollen from various different flowering plants.[5] These bees can be seen aggregating together[2] and nests in preexisting hollows, choosing not to excavate their own. These bees are not aggressive; they will only sting if handled very roughly and are safe to be closely observed by children.[2][4] Females only mate once, usually with closely related males. Further, females can determine the sex ratio of their offspring based on their body size, where larger females will invest more in diploid females eggs than small bees
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Common Chimpanzee
Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1776 Troglodytes troglodytes (Blumenbach, 1776) Troglodytes niger E. Geoffroy, 1812 Pan niger (E. Geoffroy, 1812) Anthropopithecus troglodytes (Sutton, 1883)The common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), also known as the robust chimpanzee, is a species of great ape. Colloquially, the common chimpanzee is often called the chimpanzee (or "chimp"), though this term can be used to refer to both species in the genus Pan: the common chimpanzee and the closely related bonobo, formerly called the pygmy chimpanzee. Evidence from fossils and DNA sequencing shows both species of chimpanzee are the sister taxon to the modern human lineage. The common chimpanzee is covered in coarse black hair, but has a bare face, fingers, toes, palms of the hands, and soles of the feet. It is considered more robust than the bonobo, weighing between 40 and 65 kg (88 and 143 lb) and measuring about 63 to 94 cm (25 to 37 in). Its gestation period is eight months
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Volvox Carteri
Volvox carteri F.Stein 1873 is a species of colonial green algae in the order Volvocales.[1] V. carteri forms large spherical colonies, or coenobium, of 2000-6000 Chlamydomonas type cells.[2] Colonies contain mostly somatic cells plus a smaller number of gametes in female or male colonies.[2] In addition to female colonies with eggs and male colonies with sperm bundles, purely vegetative colonies exist.[2] All three types of colonies may also have specialized cells called gonidia for asexual reproduction of the colony.[2] The genome of this species of algae was sequenced in 2010.[3] Sexual reproduction[edit] V. carteri can reproduce either asexually or sexually. Thus, it is a facultatively sexual organism. In nature, Volvox reproduces asexually in temporary ponds in spring, but becomes sexual and produces dormant over-wintering zygotes before the ponds dry up in the summer heat
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Rhyacian
The Rhyacian Period ( /raɪˈeɪsiən/; Greek: ῥύαξ, translit. rhýax, meaning "stream of lava") is the second geologic period in the Paleoproterozoic Era and lasted from 2300 Mya to 2050 Mya (million years ago).[1] Instead of being based on stratigraphy, these dates are defined chronometrically.[2] The Bushveld Igneous Complex
Bushveld Igneous Complex
and other similar intrusions formed during this period.[2] The Huronian (Makganyene) global glaciation began at the start of the Rhyacian lasted 100 million years.[3] The first known eukaryotes began to evolve in the Rhyacian period
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Mitosis
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei. In general, mitosis (division of the nucleus) is preceded by the S stage of interphase (during which the DNA
DNA
is replicated) and is often accompanied or followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm, organelles and cell membrane into two new cells containing roughly equal shares of these cellular components.[1] Mitosis
Mitosis
and cytokinesis together define the mitotic (M) phase of an animal cell cycle—the division of the mother cell into two daughter cells genetically identical to each other. The process of mitosis is divided into stages corresponding to the completion of one set of activities and the start of the next
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Cell Type
A cell type is a classification used to distinguish between morphologically or phenotypically distinct cell forms within a species. A multicellular organism may contain a number of widely differing and specialized cell types, such as muscle cells and skin cells in humans, that differ both in appearance and function yet are genetically identical. Cells are able to be of the same genotype, but different cell type due to the differential regulation of the genes they contain
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Biological Membrane
A biological membrane or biomembrane is an enclosing or separating membrane that acts as a selectively permeable barrier within living things. Biological membranes, in the form of eukaryotic cell membranes, consist of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded, integral and peripheral proteins used in communication and transportation of chemicals and ions. The bulk of lipid in a cell membrane provides a fluid matrix for proteins to rotate and laterally diffuse for physiological functioning. Proteins are adapted to high membrane fluidity environment of lipid bilayer with the presence of an annular lipid shell, consisting of lipid molecules bound tightly to surface of integral membrane proteins
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Lynn Margulis
Lynn Margulis
Lynn Margulis
(born Lynn Petra Alexander;[2][3] March 5, 1938 – November 22, 2011)[4] was an American evolutionary theorist and biologist, science author, educator, and popularizer, and was the primary modern proponent for the significance of symbiosis in evolution. Historian Jan Sapp has said that "Lynn Margulis's name is as synonymous with symbiosis as Charles Darwin's is with evolution."[5] In particular, Margulis transformed and fundamentally framed current understanding of the evolution of cells with nuclei – an event Ernst Mayr
Ernst Mayr
called "perhaps the most important and dramatic event in the history of life"[6] – by proposing it to have been the result of symbiotic mergers of bacteria
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