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Eukaryote
Eukaryotic organisms that cannot be classified under the kingdoms Plantae, Animalia or Fungi are sometimes grouped in the kingdom PROTISTA . A EUKARYOTE (/juːˈkæri.oʊt/ or /juːˈkæriət/ ) is any organism whose cells have a cell nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes . Eukaryotes belong to the taxon EUKARYA or EUKARYOTA. The defining feature that sets eukaryotic cells apart from prokaryotic cells ( Bacteria and Archaea ) is that they have membrane-bound organelles, especially the nucleus, which contains the genetic material and is enclosed by the nuclear envelope . The presence of a nucleus gives eukaryotes their name, which comes from the Greek εὖ (_eu_, "well" or "true") and κάρυον (_karyon_, "nut" or "kernel"). Eukaryotic cells also contain other membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus . In addition, plants and algae contain chloroplasts
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Eukaryotic Cell (journal)
EUKARYOTIC CELL was an academic journal published by the American Society for Microbiology (ASM). The journal published findings from basic research studies of simple eukaryotic microorganisms
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Rhyacian
The RHYACIAN PERIOD ( /raɪˈeɪsiən/ ; Greek : ῥύαξ (rhýax), meaning "stream of lava ") is the second geologic period in the Paleoproterozoic Era and lasted from 2300 Mya to 2050 Mya (million years ago). Instead of being based on stratigraphy , these dates are defined chronometrically. The Bushveld Igneous Complex and other similar intrusions formed during this period. The Huronian (Makganyene) global glaciation began at the start of the Rhyacian lasted 100 million years. The first known eukaryotes began to evolve in the Rhyacian period. The multicellular Francevillian Group Fossils , at 2.1-Gyr are from the Rhyacian period
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Holocene
The HOLOCENE ( /ˈhɒləˌsiːn, ˈhoʊ-/ ) is the geological epoch that began after the Pleistocene at approximately 11,700 years before present . The Holocene is part of the Quaternary period. Its name comes from the Ancient Greek words ὅλος (_holos_, whole or entire) and καινός (_kainos_, new), meaning "entirely recent". It has been identified with the current warm period, known as MIS 1 , and is considered by some to be an interglacial period. The Holocene encompasses the growth and impacts of the human species worldwide, including all its written history , development of major civilizations, and overall significant transition toward urban living in the present
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Hadean
The HADEAN ( /ˈheɪdiən/ ) is a geologic eon of the Earth
Earth
predating the Archean . It began with the formation of the Earth
Earth
about 4.6 billion years ago and ended, as defined by the ICS , 4 billion years ago. The geologist Preston Cloud coined the term in 1972, originally to label the period before the earliest-known rocks on Earth. W. Brian Harland later coined an almost synonymous term: the "PRISCOAN PERIOD". Other, older texts simply refer to the eon as the PRE-ARCHEAN. In 2015, traces of carbon minerals interpreted as "remains of biotic life " were found in 4.1-billion-year-old rocks in Western Australia
Western Australia
. Artist's impression of a Hadean
Hadean
landscape
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Archean
The ARCHEAN Eon ( /ɑːrˈkiːən/ , also spelled ARCHAEAN) is a geologic eon , 4,000 to 2,500 million years ago (4 to 2.5 billion years), that followed the Hadean
Hadean
Eon and preceded the Proterozoic Eon. During the Archean, the Earth's crust had cooled enough to allow the formation of continents. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology and changes in classification * 2 Earth
Earth
at the beginning of the Archean
Archean
* 2.1 Palaeoenvironment * 3 Geology
Geology
* 4 Early life in the Archean
Archean
* 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links ETYMOLOGY AND CHANGES IN CLASSIFICATION Archean
Archean
(or Archaean) comes from the ancient Greek Αρχή (_Arkhē_), meaning "beginning, origin"
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Proterozoic
The PROTEROZOIC ( /ˌproʊtərəˈzoʊɪk, prɔː-, -trə-/ ) is a geological eon representing the time just before the proliferation of complex life on Earth . The name Proterozoic comes from Greek and means "earlier life", the Greek root protero-,means "former, earlier" and zoic-, means "animal, living being". The Proterozoic Eon extended from 7016788940000000000♠2500 Ma to 7016170726616000000♠541 Ma (million years ago), and is the most recent part of the Precambrian Supereon. It is subdivided into three geologic eras (from oldest to youngest): the Paleoproterozoic , Mesoproterozoic , and Neoproterozoic
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Phanerozoic
The PHANEROZOIC Eon ( British English PHANæROZOIC) is the current geologic eon in the geologic time scale , and the one during which abundant animal and plant life has existed. It covers 541 million years to the present, and began with the Cambrian Period when diverse hard-shelled animals first appeared. Its name was derived from the Ancient Greek words φανερός (phanerós) and ζωή (zōḗ), meaning _visible life_, since it was once believed that life began in the Cambrian , the first period of this eon. The time before the Phanerozoic, called the _ Precambrian _ supereon, is now divided into the Hadean , Archaean and Proterozoic eons
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Édouard Chatton
ÉDOUARD CHATTON (French pronunciation: ​ ) (11 October 1883 – 23 April 1947, Banyuls-sur-Mer
Banyuls-sur-Mer
) was a French biologist who first characterized the distinction between the eukaryotic and prokaryotic systems of cellular organization. Chatton coined the terms in his 1925 paper, Pansporella perplex: Reflections on the Biology and Phylogeny of the Protozoa. Chatton's initial interest was in various human pathogenic protozoa , members of the Apicomplexa and Trypanosomatids . He later expanded his studies to include marine protists, helping to contribute to the description of the dinoflagellate protists . At the Pasteur Institute he met and became a mentor to André Michel Lwoff , future Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine . The two scientists remained close associates until Chatton's death in 1947. The standard author abbreviation CHATTON is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical name
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Robert Whittaker
ROBERT HARDING WHITTAKER (December 27, 1920 – October 20, 1980) was a distinguished American plant ecologist , active in the 1950s to the 1970s. Born in Wichita, Kansas
Wichita, Kansas
, he obtained a B.A. at Washburn Municipal College (now Washburn University ) in Topeka, Kansas
Topeka, Kansas
, and, following military service , his Ph.D.
Ph.D.
at the University of Illinois . He held teaching and research positions at Washington State College in Hanford, Washington, the Hanford National Laboratories (where he pioneered use of radioactive tracers in ecosystem studies), Brooklyn College , University of California, Irvine , and, finally Cornell University
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Lynn Margulis
LYNN MARGULIS (born LYNN PETRA ALEXANDER; March 5, 1938 – November 22, 2011) was an American evolutionary theorist and biologist, science author, educator, and popularizer, and was the primary modern proponent for the significance of symbiosis in evolution . Historian Jan Sapp has said that "Lynn Margulis's name is as synonymous with symbiosis as Charles Darwin\'s is with evolution." In particular, Margulis transformed and fundamentally framed current understanding of the evolution of cells with nuclei – an event Ernst Mayr called "perhaps the most important and dramatic event in the history of life" – by proposing it to have been the result of symbiotic mergers of bacteria
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Kingdom (biology)
In biology , KINGDOM ( Latin
Latin
: REGNUM, plural REGNA) is the second highest taxonomic rank , just below domain . Kingdoms are divided into smaller groups called phyla . Traditionally, some textbooks from the United States
United States
used a system of six kingdoms ( Animalia , Plantae , Fungi , Protista
Protista
, Archaea / Archaeabacteria , and Bacteria
Bacteria
/Eubacteria ) while textbooks in Great Britain, India, Australia, Latin
Latin
America and other countries used five kingdoms (Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista
Protista
and Monera ). Some recent classifications based on modern cladistics have explicitly abandoned the term "kingdom", noting that the traditional kingdoms are not monophyletic , i.e., do not consist of all the descendants of a common ancestor
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Archaeplastida
The ARCHAEPLASTIDA (or PLANTAE _sensu lato _) are a major group of eukaryotes , comprising the red algae (Rhodophyta), the green algae , and the land plants , together with a small group of freshwater unicellular algae called glaucophytes . The chloroplasts of all these organisms are surrounded by two membranes, suggesting they developed directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria . In all other groups besides the amoeboid _ Paulinella chromatophora _, the chloroplasts are surrounded by three or four membranes, suggesting they were acquired secondarily from red or green algae. The cells of the Archaeplastida typically lack centrioles and have mitochondria with flat cristae
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Plant
PLANTS are mainly multicellular , predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom PLANTAE. The term is today generally limited to the GREEN PLANTS, which form an unranked clade VIRIDIPLANTAE (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants , conifers and other gymnosperms , ferns , clubmosses , hornworts , liverworts , mosses and the green algae , and excludes the red and brown algae . Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals , and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria ). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts , derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria . Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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SAR Supergroup
SAR or HAROSA (informally the SAR SUPERGROUP) is a clade that includes stramenopiles (heterokonts ), alveolates , and Rhizaria . The first letter of each group provides the "SAR" in the name (alternatively spelled "RAS"). The term "Harosa" (at the subkingdom level) has also been used for this grouping by Cavalier-Smith (2010). Adl _et al._ (2012) formalized the SAR supergroup as the node-based taxon Sar. They defined it as: _Sar: the least inclusive clade containing_ Bigelowiella natans _Moestrup & Sengco 2001 ( Rhizaria ),_ Tetrahymena thermophila _Nanney padding:0;"> Rhizaria Phytomyxea Engler border-left:1px solid;vertical-align:top;text-align:center;">Vampyrellida West 1901 emend. Hess et al. 2012 Filosa Leidy 1879 s.s
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