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Eugenics
Eugenics
Eugenics
(/juːˈdʒɛnɪks/; from Greek εὐγενής eugenes 'well-born' from εὖ eu, 'good, well' and γένος genos, 'race, stock, kin')[2][3] is a set of beliefs and practices that aims at improving the genetic quality of a human population.[4][5] The exact definition of eugenics has been a matter of debate since the term was coined by Francis Galton
Francis Galton
in 1883. The concept predates this coinage, with Plato
Plato
suggesting applying the principles of selective breeding to humans around 400 BCE. Frederick Osborn's 1937 journal article "Development of a Eugenic Philosophy"[6] framed it as a social philosophy—that is, a philosophy with implications for social order. That definition is not universally accepted
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William Inge (priest)
William Ralph Inge KCVO (/ˈɪŋ/;[1] 6 June 1860 – 26 February 1954) was an English author, Anglican priest, professor of divinity at Cambridge, and Dean of St Paul's
Dean of St Paul's
Cathedral, which provided the appellation by which he was widely known, Dean Inge. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
three times.[2]Contents1 Life 2 Family 3 Legacy 4 Publications 5 See also 6 References 7 Sources 8 Further reading 9 External linksLife[edit] He was born at Crayke, Yorkshire. His father was William Inge, Provost of Worcester College, Oxford, and his mother Susanna Churton, daughter of Edward Churton, Archdeacon of Cleveland
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Inbreeding Depression
Inbreeding
Inbreeding
depression is the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding, or breeding of related individuals. Population
Population
biological fitness refers to an organism's ability to survive and perpetuate its genetic material. Inbreeding depression is often the result of a population bottleneck. In general, the higher the genetic variation or gene pool within a breeding population, the less likely it is to suffer from inbreeding depression. Inbreeding
Inbreeding
depression seems to be present in most groups of organisms, but varies across mating systems. Hermaphroditic
Hermaphroditic
species often exhibit lower degrees of inbreeding depression than outcrossing species, as repeated generations of selfing is thought to purge deleterious alleles from populations
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World War II
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Human Rights
Human rights
Human rights
are moral principles or norms[1] that describe certain standards of human behaviour, and are regularly protected as legal rights in municipal and international law.[2] They are commonly understood as inalienable[3] fundamental rights "to which a person is inherently entitled simply because she or he is a human being",[4] and which are "inherent in all human beings"[5] regardless of their nation, location, language, religion, ethnic origin or any other status.[3] They are applicable everywhere and at every time in the sense of being universal,[1] and they are egalitarian in the sense of being the same f
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Assisted Reproductive Technology
Assisted reproductive technology
Assisted reproductive technology
(ART) is the technology used to achieve pregnancy in procedures such as fertility medication, in vitro fertilization and surrogacy. It is reproductive technology used primarily for infertility treatments, and is also known as fertility treatment. It mainly belongs to the field of reproductive endocrinology and infertility, and may also include intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and cryopreservation. Some forms of ART are also used with regard to fertile couples for genetic reasons (preimplantation genetic diagnosis)
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Gestational Surrogacy
Surrogacy is a method or agreement whereby a woman agrees to carry a pregnancy for another person or persons, who will become the newborn child's parent(s) after birth. Intended parents may seek a surrogacy arrangement when pregnancy is medically impossible, pregnancy risks present an unacceptable danger to the mother's health, or a man or male couple wish to have a child. Monetary compensation may or may not be involved in these arrangements. If the surrogate receives money for the surrogacy the arrangement is considered commercial surrogacy; if she receives no compensation beyond reimbursement of medical and other reasonable expenses it is referred to as altruistic.[1] The legality and costs of surrogacy vary widely between jurisdictions, sometimes resulting in interstate or international surrogacy arrangements. There are laws in some countries which restrict and regulate surrogacy and the consequences of surrogacy
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Cytoplasmic Transfer
Mitochondrial replacement (MRT, sometimes called mitochondrial donation) is a special form of in vitro fertilisation in which the future baby's mitochondrial DNA comes from a third party. This technique is used in cases when mothers carry genes for mitochondrial diseases
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Genetic Diversity
Genetic diversity
Genetic diversity
is the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species. It is distinguished from genetic variability, which describes the tendency of genetic characteristics to vary. Genetic diversity
Genetic diversity
serves as a way for populations to adapt to changing environments. With more variation, it is more likely that some individuals in a population will possess variations of alleles that are suited for the environment. Those individuals are more likely to survive to produce offspring bearing that allele. The population will continue for more generations because of the success of these individuals.[1] The academic field of population genetics includes several hypotheses and theories regarding genetic diversity. The neutral theory of evolution proposes that diversity is the result of the accumulation of neutral substitutions
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Council Of Agde
The Council of Agde
Agde
was a regional synod held in September 506 at Agatha or Agde, on the Mediterranean coast east of Narbonne, in the Septimania
Septimania
region of the Visigothic Kingdom, with the permission of the Visigothic King Alaric.[1] The Council met under the presidency of Bishop
Bishop
Caesarius of Arles
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Europe
Europe
Europe
is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[5] Though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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William Goodell (gynecologist)
William Goodell (October 17, 1829 – October 27, 1894) was an eminent American gynecologist from Philadelphia, best remembered for first describing what is now referred to as Goodell's sign.[1] Biography[edit] William Goodell was born in Malta, the son of missionary William Goodell,[2] and studied at William's College, Massachusetts and Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, graduating in 1854. He worked in Constantinople until 1861. He then worked in general practice in West Chester until he was appointed Lecturer on Obstetric Diseases of Women at the University of Pennsylvania in 1870, and then Clinical Professor in Diseases of Women and Children in 1874.[3] Selected works[edit]A Sketch of the Life and Writings of Louyse Bourgeois, Midwife to Marie de' Medici, the Queen of Henry IV of France, The Annual Address of the Retiring President before the Philadelphia County Medical Society
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Castration
Castration
Castration
(also known as gonadectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles. Surgical
Surgical
castration is bilateral orchiectomy (excision of both testes), and chemical castration uses pharmaceutical drugs to deactivate the testes. Castration
Castration
causes sterilization (preventing them from reproducing); it also greatly reduces the production of certain hormones, such as testosterone. Surgical
Surgical
castration in animals is often called neutering. The term "castration" is sometimes also used to refer to the removal of the ovaries in the female, otherwise known as an oophorectomy or, in animals, spaying
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Neutering
Neutering, from the Latin
Latin
neuter ("of neither sex"),[1] is the removal of an animal's reproductive organ, either all of it or a considerably large part. "Neutering" is often used incorrectly to refer only to male animals, but the term actually applies to both sexes. The male-specific term is castration, while spaying is usually reserved for female animals. Colloquially, both terms are often referred to as fixing.[2] In male horses, castrating is referred to as gelding. Modern veterinary practice tends to use the term de-sexing. Neutering
Neutering
is the most common method for the sterilization of animals. In the United States, most humane societies, animal shelters, and rescue groups urge pet owners to have their pets neutered to prevent the births of unwanted litters, which contribute to the overpopulation of unwanted animals in the rescue system
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Insanity
Insanity, craziness, or madness is a spectrum of both group and individual behaviors characterized by certain abnormal mental or behavioral patterns. Insanity
Insanity
may manifest as violations of societal norms, including a person or persons becoming a danger to themselves or others, though not all such acts are considered insanity; it has been associated with the idea of contagion, as in the case of copycat suicides, likewise, not all acts showing indifference toward societal norms are acts of insanity
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Alvin Langdon Coburn
Alvin Langdon Coburn
Alvin Langdon Coburn
(June 11, 1882 – November 23, 1966) was an early 20th-century photographer who became a key figure in the development of American pictorialism. He became the first major photographer to emphasize the visual potential of elevated viewpoints and later made some of the first completely abstract photographs.Contents1 Life1.1 Childhood (1882–1899) 1.2 Rise to fame (1900–1905) 1.3 Symbolist period (1906–1912) 1.4 Explorations (1913–1923) 1.5 Spiritual devotion (1923–1930) 1.6 Later life (1931–1966)2 Gallery 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External linksLife[edit] Childhood (1882–1899)[edit] Coburn was born on June 11, 1882, at 134 East Springfield Street in Boston, Massachusetts, to a middle-class family. His father, who had established the successful firm of Coburn & Whitman Shirts, died when Alvin was seven
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