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Eudicots
The EUDICOTS, EUDICOTIDAE or EUDICOTYLEDONS are a monophyletic clade of flowering plants that had been called TRICOLPATES or NON-MAGNOLIID DICOTS by previous authors. The botanical terms were introduced in 1991 by evolutionary botanist James A. Doyle and paleobotanist Carol L. Hotton to emphasize the later evolutionary divergence of tricolpate dicots from earlier, less specialized, dicots. The close relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains was initially seen in morphological studies of shared derived characters . These plants have a distinct trait in their pollen grains of exhibiting three colpi or grooves paralleling the polar axis. Later molecular evidence confirmed the genetic basis for the evolutionary relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains and dicotyledonous traits. The term means "true dicotyledons", as it contains the majority of plants that have been considered dicots and have characteristics of the dicots
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Early Cretaceous
The EARLY CRETACEOUS/MIDDLE CRETACEOUS (geochronological name) or the LOWER CRETACEOUS (chronostratigraphic name), is the earlier or lower of the two major divisions of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
. It is usually considered to stretch from 146 Ma to 100 Ma. During this time many new types of dinosaurs appeared or came into prominence, including _ Psittacosaurus
Psittacosaurus
_, spinosaurids , carcharodontosaurids and coelurosaurs , while survivors from the Late Jurassic
Jurassic
continued. Angiosperms (flowering plants) appear for the first time. SEE ALSO * Geology portal * Palaeontology portal * Time portal * Geologic Period REFERENCES * ^ Sun, G., Q. Ji, D.L. Dilcher, S. Zheng, K.C
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Primula Hortensis
PRIMULA HORTENSIS is a name which has been applied to various hybrids in the genus Primula
Primula
, e.g. to Primula
Primula
× polyantha Mill. by Focke and to Primula
Primula
× pubescens by Wittstein. This Ericales article is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Primula_hortensis additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Plant
PLANTS are mainly multicellular , predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom PLANTAE. The term is today generally limited to the GREEN PLANTS, which form an unranked clade VIRIDIPLANTAE (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants , conifers and other gymnosperms , ferns , clubmosses , hornworts , liverworts , mosses and the green algae , and excludes the red and brown algae . Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals , and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria ). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts , derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria . Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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Flowering Plant
sweet bay SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION Kingdom: Plantae Subkingdom: Embryophyta (unranked): Spermatophyta (unranked): ANGIOSPERMS GROUPS (APG IV) Basal angiosperms * Amborellales * Nymphaeales * Austrobaileyales Core angiosperms * magnoliids * Chloranthales * monocots * Ceratophyllales * eudicots SYNONYMS * Anthophyta Cronquist * Angiospermae Lindl. * Magnoliophyta Cronquist , Takht. they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers , endosperm within the seeds, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant that produces seeds within an enclosure, in other words, a fruiting plant
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APG III System
The APG III SYSTEM of flowering plant classification is the third version of a modern, mostly molecular -based, system of plant taxonomy being developed by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG). Published in 2009, it was superseded in 2016 by a further revision, the APG IV system . Along with the publication outlining the new system, there were two accompanying publications in the same issue of the Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society . The first, by Chase † = newly recognized order for the APG system; § = new family circumscription described in the text; $ = families that represent the broader circumscription of options available in APG II and favoured here; $$ = families that were in square brackets in APG II, the narrower circumscriptions favoured here. ANGIOSPERMS * † Amborellales Melikyan, A.V.Bobrov & Zaytzeva * Amborellaceae Pichon* † Nymphaeales Salisb. ex Bercht
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Ranunculales
See text RANUNCULALES is an order of flowering plants . Of necessity it contains the family Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
, the buttercup family, because the name of the order is based on the name of a genus in that family. Ranunculales
Ranunculales
belongs to a paraphyletic group known as the basal eudicots. It is the most basal clade in this group; in other words, it is sister to the remaining eudicots. Widely known members include poppies , barberries , and buttercups . CONTENTS* 1 Taxonomy * 1.1 Molecular phylogenetics * 1.2 Evolution * 2 References * 3 Bibliography * 4 External links TAXONOMYHistorically the term Ranales was used to include the Ranunculaceae and related families, as described by Bentham and Hooker . This became replaced with Ranunculales
Ranunculales
by Melchior in 1964
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Proteales
Nelumbonaceae (lotus) Platanaceae (plane trees) Proteaceae
Proteaceae
Sabiaceae PROTEALES is the botanical name of an order of flowering plants consisting of two (or three) families. The Proteales
Proteales
have been recognized by almost all taxonomists. CONTENTS * 1 Families * 2 Classification * 2.1 Cronquist * 2.2 Dahlgren and Thorne * 2.3 Engler * 2.4 Wettstein * 3 References FAMILIESIn the classification system of Dahlgren the Proteales
Proteales
were in the superorder Proteiflorae (also called Proteanae).The APG II system
APG II system
of 2003 also recognizes this order, and places it in the clade eudicots with this circumscription: * order Proteales * family Nelumbonaceae * family Proteaceae
Proteaceae
with "+ ..." = optionally separate family (that may be split off from the preceding family)
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Trochodendrales
TROCHODENDRACEAE is the only family of flowering plants in the order TROCHODENDRALES. It comprises two extant genera , each with a single species found in south east Asia. The two living species ( Tetracentron sinense and Trochodendron aralioides) both have secondary xylem without vessel elements , which is quite rare in angiosperms. As the vessel-free wood suggests primitiveness, these two species have attracted much taxonomic attention. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Ecology * 3 Phytochemistry * 4 Fossils * 5 Systematic position * 6 Classification * 7 Taxa included * 8 References * 9 External links DESCRIPTION * Deciduous or evergreen trees , up to 20–30 m, sometimes with umbrella-shaped branches ( Trochodendron )
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Buxales
The BUXALES are a small order of eudicot flowering plants , recognized by the APG IV system of 2016. The order includes the family Buxaceae ; the families Didymelaceae
Didymelaceae
and Haptanthaceae
Haptanthaceae
may also be recognized or may be included in the Buxaceae. Many members of the order are evergreen shrubs or trees, although some are herbaceous perennials. They have separate "male" (staminate) and "female" (carpellate) flowers, mostly on the same plant (i.e. they are mostly monoecious ). Some species are of economic importance either for the wood they produce or as ornamental plants . CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Taxonomy * 2.1 Phylogeny * 2.2 Genera * 2.3 Former treatment * 3 Uses * 4 References DESCRIPTIONThe Buxales
Buxales
have relatively few obvious shared features distinguishing them from related groups of plants (i.e. few obvious synapomorphies )
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Gunnerales
The GUNNERALES are an order of flowering plants . In the APG III system (2009) and APG IV system (2016) it contains two genera: Gunnera (in family Gunneraceae ) and Myrothamnus (in family Myrothamnaceae ). In the Cronquist system (1981), the Gunneraceae were in the Haloragales and Myrothamnaceae in the Hamamelidales . DNA analysis was definitive, but the grouping of the two families was a surprise, given their very dissimilar morphologies. In Cronquist's old system (1981, 1988), and Takhtajan's (1997), the Gunneraceae were in the Rosidae, and the Myrothamnaceae were in the Hamamelids. In modern classification systems such as APG III and APG IV this order was the first to derive from the core eudicots. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Ecology * 3 References * 4 External links DESCRIPTIONBoth families contain ellagic acid
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Dilleniales
The DILLENIALES are an order of flowering plants , potentially containing one family, Dilleniaceae . The APG III system of 2009, like the earlier APG II system
APG II system
of 2003, left the Dilleniaceae unplaced as to order, while noting that the name Dilleniales
Dilleniales
was available. Stevens at the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website has subsequently placed Dilleniaceae in the order Dilleniales. The Cronquist system , of 1981, recognized such an order and placed it in subclass Dilleniidae . It used the following circumscription : * order Dilleniales
Dilleniales
family Dilleniaceae family Paeoniaceae The Takhtajan system of 1969 had the families Dilleniaceae and Crossosomataceae in the order
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Saxifragales
As of the APG III system : * Altingiaceae
Altingiaceae
* Aphanopetalaceae * Cercidiphyllaceae * Crassulaceae
Crassulaceae
* Daphniphyllaceae * Grossulariaceae * Haloragaceae * Hamamelidaceae * Iteaceae (including Pterostemonaceae ) * Paeoniaceae * Penthoraceae * Peridiscaceae (including Medusandraceae ) * Saxifragaceae * Tetracarpaeaceae SYNONYMS Cercidiphyllales, Crassulales, Daphniphyllales, Grossulariales, Haloragales, Hamamelidales, Iteales, Paeoniales, Sedales The SAXIFRAGALES are an order of flowering plants . Their closest relatives are a large eudicot group known as the rosids by the definition of rosids given in the APG II classification system
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Rosids
The ROSIDS are members of a large clade (monophyletic group) of flowering plants , containing about 70,000 species , more than a quarter of all angiosperms. The clade is divided into 16 to 20 orders , depending upon circumscription and classification . These orders, in turn, together comprise about 140 families . Fossil rosids are known from the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period. Molecular clock estimates indicate that the rosids originated in the Aptian or Albian stages of the Cretaceous, between 125 and 99.6 million years ago. CONTENTS * 1 Name * 2 Relationships * 3 Classification * 3.1 Orders * 4 Phylogeny
Phylogeny
* 5 References * 6 External links NAMEThe name is based upon the name " Rosidae ", which had usually been understood to be a subclass
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Berberidopsidales
Aextoxicaceae Berberidopsidaceae BERBERIDOPSIDALES is an order of Southern Hemisphere woody flowering plants . The name is newly accepted in the APG III system of plant taxonomy. APG II system , of 2003, mentions the possibility of recognizing the order, as comprising the families Berberidopsidaceae and Aextoxicaceae . However, APG II left the families unplaced as to order, assigning them to the clade CORE EUDICOTS . The APG III system of 2009 formally recognized the order. The family Aextoxicaceae is a monotypic family native to Chile
Chile
; Berberidopsidaceae is a family of 2 genera and 3 species native to Chile
Chile
and eastern Australia
Australia
. REFERENCES * ^ Reveal, James L. (2011). "Summary of recent systems of angiosperm classification". Kew Bulletin. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 66: 5–48
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