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Eudicots
The EUDICOTS, EUDICOTIDAE or EUDICOTYLEDONS are a monophyletic clade of flowering plants that had been called TRICOLPATES or NON-MAGNOLIID DICOTS by previous authors. The botanical terms were introduced in 1991 by evolutionary botanist James A. Doyle and paleobotanist Carol L. Hotton to emphasize the later evolutionary divergence of tricolpate dicots from earlier, less specialized, dicots. The close relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains was initially seen in morphological studies of shared derived characters . These plants have a distinct trait in their pollen grains of exhibiting three colpi or grooves paralleling the polar axis. Later molecular evidence confirmed the genetic basis for the evolutionary relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains and dicotyledonous traits. The term means "true dicotyledons", as it contains the majority of plants that have been considered dicots and have characteristics of the dicots
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Early Cretaceous
The EARLY CRETACEOUS/MIDDLE CRETACEOUS (geochronological name) or the LOWER CRETACEOUS (chronostratigraphic name), is the earlier or lower of the two major divisions of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
. It is usually considered to stretch from 146 Ma to 100 Ma. During this time many new types of dinosaurs appeared or came into prominence, including Psittacosaurus , spinosaurids , carcharodontosaurids and coelurosaurs , while survivors from the Late Jurassic
Jurassic
continued. Angiosperms (flowering plants) appear for the first time. SEE ALSO * Geology portal * Palaeontology portal * Time portal * Geologic Period REFERENCES * ^ http://www.stratigraphy.org/index.php/ics-chart-timescale * ^ Sun, G., Q. Ji, D.L. Dilcher, S. Zheng, K.C
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Synapomorphy
In phylogenetics , APOMORPHY and SYNAPOMORPHY refer to derived characteristics of a clade . Apomorphy implies a characteristic that is different from the form of an ancestor, i.e., an innovation, of use in determining membership in a clade. Synapomorphy is a shared DERIVED CHARACTER or trait state that distinguishes a clade from other organisms. In other words, it is an apomorphy shared by members of a monophyletic group, and thus assumed to be present in their most recent common ancestor . The word synapomorphy, coined by German entomologist Willi Hennig
Willi Hennig
, is derived from the Greek words σύν, syn = shared; ἀπό, apo = away from; and μορφή, morphe = shape. A derived character is a character that is derived from an ancestral character over evolutionary history. Derived characters are used in determining phylogenetic relationships
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Clade
A CLADE (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: κλάδος, klados, "branch") is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants , and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life ". The common ancestor may be an individual, a population , a species (extinct or extant ), and so on right up to a kingdom . Clades are nested, one in another, as each branch in turn splits into smaller branches. These splits reflect evolutionary history as populations diverged and evolved independently. Clades are termed monophyletic (Greek: "one clan") groups. Over the last few decades, the cladistic approach has revolutionized biological classification and revealed surprising evolutionary relationships among organisms. Increasingly, taxonomists try to avoid naming taxa that are not clades; that is, taxa that are not monophyletic
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Phenotypic Trait
A PHENOTYPIC TRAIT, or simply TRAIT, is a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism ; it may be either inherited or determined environmentally, but typically occurs as a combination of the two. For example, eye color is a CHARACTER of an organism, while blue, brown and hazel are traits. CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Genetic origin of traits in diploid organisms * 3 Mendelian expression of genes in diploid organisms * 4 Biochemistry
Biochemistry
of dominance and extensions to expression of traits * 5 Schizotypy * 6 See also * 7 Citations * 8 References DEFINITIONA phenotypic trait is an obvious, observable, and measurable trait; it is the expression of genes in an observable way. An example of a phenotypic trait is hair color; underlying genes, which make up the genotype , "control" the hair color, but the actual hair color, the part we see, is the phenotype
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Botany
BOTANY, also called PLANT SCIENCE(S), PLANT BIOLOGY or PHYTOLOGY, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology . A BOTANIST or PLANT SCIENTIST is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
word βοτάνη (botanē) meaning "pasture ", "grass", or "fodder "; βοτάνη is in turn derived from βόσκειν (boskein), "to feed" or "to graze". Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress
International Botanical Congress
. Nowadays, botanists (in the strict sense) study approximately 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants (including ca 369,000 species of flowering plants ), and ca 20,000 are bryophytes
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Paraphyletic
In taxonomy , a group is PARAPHYLETIC if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups. The group is said to be paraphyletic with respect to the excluded subgroups. The arrangement of the members of a paraphyletic group is called a PARAPHYLY. The term is commonly used in phylogenetics (a subfield of biology ) and in linguistics . The term was coined to apply to well-known taxa like reptiles (Reptilia) which, as commonly named and traditionally defined, is paraphyletic with respect to mammals and birds. Reptilia contains the last common ancestor of reptiles and all descendants of that ancestor—including all extant reptiles as well as the extinct synapsids —except for mammals and birds . Other commonly recognized paraphyletic groups include fish , monkeys and lizards . If many subgroups are missing from the named group, it is said to be polyparaphyletic
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Ginkgo Biloba
GINKGO BILOBA, commonly known as GINKGO or GINGKO (both pronounced /ˈɡɪŋkoʊ/ ), also known as the GINKGO TREE or the MAIDENHAIR TREE, is the only living species in the division Ginkgophyta, all others being extinct. It is found in fossils dating back 270 million years. Native to China, the tree is widely cultivated and was introduced early to human history . It has various uses in traditional medicine and as a source of food. The genus name Ginkgo
Ginkgo
is regarded as a misspelling of the Japanese gin kyo, "silver apricot"
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Cabbage
CABBAGE or HEADED CABBAGE (comprising several cultivars of BRASSICA OLERACEA ) is a leafy green or purple biennial plant , grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads. It is descended from the wild cabbage, B. oleracea var. oleracea , and is closely related to broccoli and cauliflower (var. botrytis), Brussels sprouts (var. gemmifera) and savoy cabbage (var. sabauda) which are sometimes called cole crops . Cabbage
Cabbage
heads generally range from 0.5 to 4 kilograms (1 to 9 lb), and can be green, purple and white. Smooth-leafed firm-headed green cabbages are the most common, with smooth-leafed red and crinkle-leafed savoy cabbages of both colors seen more rarely. It is a multi-layered vegetable. Under conditions of long sunlit days such as are found at high northern latitudes in summer, cabbages can grow much larger. Some records are discussed at the end of the history section
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Monophyletic
In cladistics , a MONOPHYLETIC group is a taxon (group of organisms) which forms a clade , meaning that it consists of an ancestral species and all its descendants. Monophyletic groups are typically characterised by shared derived characteristics (synapomorphies ). The arrangement of the members of a monophyletic group is called a MONOPHYLY, synonymous with the uncommon term HOLOPHYLY. Monophyly is contrasted with paraphyly and polyphyly , as shown in the second diagram. A paraphyletic group consists of all of the descendants of a common ancestor minus one or more monophyletic groups. Thus, a paraphyletic group is 'nearly' monophyletic (hence the prefix 'para', meaning 'near' or 'alongside'.) A polyphyletic group is characterized by convergent features or habits (for example, night-active primates, fruit trees, aquatic insects); the features by which the group is differentiated from others are not inherited from a common ancestor
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Molecular
A MOLECULE is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds . Molecules are distinguished from ions by their lack of electrical charge . However, in quantum physics , organic chemistry , and biochemistry , the term molecule is often used less strictly, also being applied to polyatomic ions . In the kinetic theory of gases , the term molecule is often used for any gaseous particle regardless of its composition. According to this definition, noble gas atoms are considered molecules as they are in fact monoatomic molecules. A molecule may be homonuclear , that is, it consists of atoms of one chemical element , as with oxygen (O2); or it may be heteronuclear , a chemical compound composed of more than one element, as with water (H2O). Atoms and complexes connected by non-covalent interactions , such as hydrogen bonds or ionic bonds , are generally not considered single molecules
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy
Linnaean taxonomy
for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Tricolpate
"TRICOLPATE" is a synonym for the " Eudicot
Eudicot
" monophyletic group, the "true dicotyledons " (which are distinguished from all other flowering plants by their TRICOLPATE pollen structure). The number of pollen grain furrows or pores helps classify the flowering plants , with eudicots having three colpi (TRICOLPATE), and other groups having one sulcus . Pollen
Pollen
apertures are any modification of the wall of the pollen grain. These modifications include thinning, ridges and pores, they serve as an exit for the pollen contents and allow shrinking and swelling of the grain caused by changes in moisture content. The elongated apertures/ furrows in the pollen grain are called colpi (singular colpus), which, along with pores, are a chief criterion for identifying the pollen classes. REFERENCES * ^ Kenneth R. Sporne (1972). "Some Observations on the Evolution of Pollen
Pollen
Types in Dicotyledons"
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Basal Angiosperms
The BASAL ANGIOSPERMS are the flowering plants which diverged from the lineage leading to most flowering plants. In particular, the most basal angiosperms were called the ANITA GRADE which is made up of Amborella
Amborella
(a single species of shrub from New Caledonia), Nymphaeales (water lilies, together with some other aquatic plants) and Austrobaileyales
Austrobaileyales
(woody aromatic plants including star anise). ANITA stands for Amborella
Amborella
, Nymphaeales
Nymphaeales
and Illiciales , Trimeniaceae - Austrobaileya
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Forget-me-not
MYOSOTIS (/ˌmaɪ.əˈsoʊtɪs/ ; from the Greek : μυοσωτίς "mouse's ear", after the leaf) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Boraginaceae
Boraginaceae
. In the northern hemisphere they are commonly called FORGET-ME-NOTS or SCORPION GRASSES. The common name "forget-me-not" was calqued from the German Vergissmeinnicht, and first used in English in 1398 AD via King Henry IV . Similar names and variations are found in many languages. Myosotis alpestris is the state flower of Alaska
Alaska
and Dalsland
Dalsland
Sweden
Sweden
. Plants of this genus are commonly confused with Chatham Islands
Chatham Islands
forget-me-nots which belong to a related genus, Myosotidium
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Dandelion
TARAXACUM (/təˈræksəkʊm/ ) is a large genus of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae
Asteraceae
which consists of species commonly known as DANDELION. They are native to Eurasia
Eurasia
and North America, but the two commonplace species worldwide, T. officinale and T. erythrospermum , were introduced from Europe
Europe
and now propagate as wildflowers. Both species are edible in their entirety. The common name dandelion (/ˈdændɪlaɪ.ən/ DAN-di-ly-ən , from French dent-de-lion, meaning "lion's tooth") is given to members of the genus . Like other members of the Asteraceae
Asteraceae
family, they have very small flowers collected together into a composite flower head . Each single flower in a head is called a floret
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