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Eudaemonist
Eudaimonia
Eudaimonia
(Greek: εὐδαιμονία [eu̯dai̯moníaː]), sometimes anglicized as eudaemonia or eudemonia /juːdɪˈmoʊniə/, is a Greek word commonly translated as happiness or welfare; however, "human flourishing or prosperity" has been proposed as a more accurate translation.[1] Etymologically, it consists of the words "eu" ("good") and "daimōn" ("spirit")
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Eudaemonia (moth)
Eudaemonia is a genus of moths in the Saturniidae
Saturniidae
family. They are native to Sub-Saharan Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa
and have remarkable, extremely elongated "tails" on the hindwings. Species[edit] The genus includes the following species: Eudaemonia argiphontes Maassen, 1877 Eudaemonia argus
Eudaemonia argus
(Fabricius, 1777) Eudaemonia troglophylla
Eudaemonia troglophylla
Hampson, 1919References[edit]Eudaemonia at Markku Savela's Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
and Some Other Life Forms Natural History Museum Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
genus databaseTaxon identifiersWd: Q73391 ButMoth: 10788.0 EoL: 48781 GBIF: 1868035 LepIndex: 67004.0 NCBI: 1337353This article on a moth of the Saturniidae
Saturniidae
family is a stub
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Rationality
Rationality is the quality or state of being rational – that is, being based on or agreeable to reason.[1][2] Rationality implies the conformity of one's beliefs with one's reasons to believe, and of one's actions with one's reasons for action. "Rationality" has different specialized meanings in philosophy,[3] economics, sociology, psychology, evolutionary biology, game theory and political science. To determine what behavior is the most rational, one needs to make several key assumptions, and also needs a quantifiable formulation[dubious – discuss] of the problem. When the goal or problem involves making a decision, rationality factors in all information that is available (e.g. complete or incomplete knowledge). Collectively, the formulation and background assumptions are the model within which rationality applies
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Sophist
A sophist (Greek: σοφιστής, sophistes) was a specific kind of teacher in ancient Greece, in the fifth and fourth centuries BC. Many sophists specialized in using the tools of philosophy and rhetoric, though other sophists taught subjects such as music, athletics, and mathematics. In general, they claimed to teach arete ("excellence" or "virtue", applied to various subject areas), predominantly to young statesmen and nobility. The term originated from Greek σόφισμα, sophisma, from σοφίζω, sophizo "I am wise"; confer σοφιστής, sophistēs, meaning "wise-ist, one who does wisdom," and σοφός, sophós means "wise man". There are not many writings from and about the first sophists
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Thrasymachus
Thrasymachus (/θræˈsiːməkəs/; Greek: Θρασύμαχος Thrasýmachos; c. 459 – c. 400 BC) was a sophist of ancient Greece best known as a character in Plato's Republic.Contents1 Life, date, and career 2 Fragment 1 3 In Plato3.1 Quotes from Plato's Republic4 References 5 External linksLife, date, and career[edit] Thrasymachus was a citizen of Chalcedon, on the Bosphorus. His career appears to have been spent as a sophist at Athens, although the exact nature of his work and thought is unclear
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Nietzsche
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche
Nietzsche
(/ˈniːtʃə/[6] or /ˈniːtʃi/;[7] German: [ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈniːtʃə] ( listen); 15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist, and Latin
Latin
and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.[8][9][10][11] He began his career as a classical philologist before turning to philosophy
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The School Of Athens
The School of Athens
The School of Athens
(Italian: Scuola di Atene) is one of the most famous frescoes by the Italian Renaissance
Italian Renaissance
artist Raphael. It was painted between 1509 and 1511 as a part of Raphael's commission to decorate the rooms now known as the Stanze di Raffaello, in the Apostolic Palace
Apostolic Palace
in the Vatican
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Raffaello Sanzio
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino[2] (Italian: [raffaˈɛllo ˈsantsjo da urˈbiːno]; March 28 or April 6, 1483 – April 6, 1520),[3] known as Raphael
Raphael
(/ˈræfeɪəl/, US: /ˈræfiəl, ˌrɑːfaɪˈɛl/), was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, and visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur.[4] Together with Michelangelo
Michelangelo
and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period.[5] Raphael
Raphael
was enormously productive, running an unusually large workshop and, despite his death at 37, leaving a large body of work. Many of his works are found in the Vatican Palace, where the frescoed Raphael Rooms were the central, and the largest, work of his career
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Eudemian Ethics
[*]: Authenticity disputed strikethrough: Generally agreed to be spuriousv t eThe Eudemian Ethics
Ethics
(Greek: Ἠθικὰ Εὐδήμεια; Latin: Ethica Eudemia[1]), sometimes abbreviated EE in scholarly works, is a work of philosophy by Aristotle. Its primary focus is on Ethics, making it one of the primary sources available for study of Aristotelian Ethics. It is named for Eudemus of Rhodes, a pupil of Aristotle
Aristotle
who may also have had a hand in editing the final work.[2] It is commonly believed to have been written before the Nicomachean Ethics, though this is not without controversy.[2][3] Overview[edit] The Eudemian Ethics
Ethics
is less well-known than Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics, and when scholars refer simply to the Ethics
Ethics
of Aristotle, the latter is generally intended
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Reason
Reason
Reason
is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.[1] It is closely associated with such characteristically human activities as philosophy, science, language, mathematics, and art and is normally considered to be a distinguishing ability possessed by humans.[2] Reason, or an aspect of it, is sometimes referred to as rationality. Reasoning is associated with thinking, cognition, and intellect. The philosophical field of logic studies ways in which humans reason formally through argument.[3] Reasoning may be subdivided into forms of logical reasoning (forms associated with the strict sense): deductive reasoning, inductive reasoning, abductive reasoning; and other modes of reasoning considered more informal, such as intuitive reasoning and verbal reasoning
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Essentialism
Essentialism
Essentialism
is the view that every entity has a set of attributes that are necessary to its identity and function.[1] In early Western thought Plato's idealism held that all things have such an "essence," an "Idea" or "Form". Likewise, in Categories Aristotle
Aristotle
proposed that all objects have a substance that, as George Lakoff
George Lakoff
put it "... make the thing what it is, and without which it would be not that kind of thing".[2] The contrary view, non-essentialism, denies the need to posit such an "essence'". Essentialism
Essentialism
has been controversial from its beginning
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Human Nature
Human nature refers to the distinguishing characteristics—including ways of thinking, feeling, and acting—which humans tend to have naturally.[1][2][3][4] The questions of whether there truly are fixed characteristics, what these natural characteristics are, and what causes them are among the oldest and most important questions in philosophy and science. The concept of human nature is traditionally contrasted not only with unusual human characteristics, but also with characteristics which are derived from specific cultures, and upbringings. The "nature versus nurture" debate is a well-known modern discussion about human nature in the natural science. These questions have particularly important implications in economy, ethics, politics, and theology
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Energeia
In philosophy, potentiality and actuality[1] are principles of a dichotomy which Aristotle
Aristotle
used to analyze motion, causality, ethics, and physiology in his Physics, Metaphysics, Nicomachean Ethics
Nicomachean Ethics
and De Anima, which is about the human psyche.[2] The concept of potentiality, in this context, generally refers to any "possibility" that a thing can be said to have. Aristotle
Aristotle
did not consider all possibilities the same, and emphasized the importance of those that become real of their own accord when conditions are right and nothing stops them.[3] Actuality, in contrast to potentiality, is the motion, change or activity that represents an exercise or fulfillment of a possibility, when a possibility becomes real in the fullest sense.[4] These concepts, in modified forms, remained very important into the middle ages, influencing the development of medieval theology in several ways
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Republic (Plato)
A republic (Latin: res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are not inherited. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch.[1][2][3] In American English, the definition of a republic refers specifically to a form of government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body[2] and exercise power according to the rule of law under a constitution, including separation of powers with an elected head of state, referred to as a constitutional republic[4][5][6][7] or representative democracy. [8] As of 2017[update], 159 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names – not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor is the word "republic" used in the names of all nations with elected governments
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Chance (philosophy)
Indeterminism is the idea that events (certain events, or events of certain types) are not caused, or not caused deterministically. It is the opposite of determinism and related to chance. It is highly relevant to the philosophical problem of free will, particularly in the form of metaphysical libertarianism. In science, most specifically quantum theory in physics, indeterminism is the belief that no event is certain and the entire outcome of anything is probabilistic. The Heisenberg uncertainty relations and the "Born rule", proposed by Max Born, are often starting points in support of the indeterministic nature of the universe.[1] Indeterminism is also asserted by Sir Arthur Eddington, and Murray Gell-Mann. Indeterminism has been promoted by the French biologist Jacques Monod's essay "Chance and Necessity"
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