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Ethnic Groups
An ETHNIC GROUP or ETHNICITY is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestral , language , social , cultural or national experiences . Ethnicity is often an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. In some cases, it can be adopted if a person moves into another society. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage , ancestry , origin myth , history , homeland , language or dialect , symbolic systems such as religion , mythology and ritual , cuisine , dressing style, art , and physical appearance . Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population , often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool
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Primatology
PRIMATOLOGY is the scientific study of primates . It is a diverse discipline at the boundary between mammalogy and anthropology , and researchers can be found in academic departments of anatomy , anthropology , biology , medicine, psychology , veterinary sciences and zoology , as well as in animal sanctuaries, biomedical research facilities, museums and zoos. PRIMATOLOGISTS study both living and extinct primates in their natural habitats and in laboratories by conducting field studies and experiments in order to understand aspects of their evolution and behaviour
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Palaeoanthropology
PALEOANTHROPOLOGY or PALEO-ANTHROPOLOGY is a branch of archaeology with a human focus, which seeks to understand the early development of anatomically modern humans , a process known as hominization , through the reconstruction of evolutionary kinship lines within the family Hominidae
Hominidae
, working from biological evidence (such as petrified skeletal remains, bone fragments , footprints) and cultural evidence (such as stone tools , artifacts, and settlement localities). The field draws from and combines paleontology , biological anthropology , and cultural anthropology . As technologies and methods advance, genetics plays an ever-increasing role, in particular to examine and compare DNA structure as a vital tool of research of the evolutionary kinship lines of related species and genera
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Applied Anthropology
APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY refers to the application of the method and theory of anthropology to the analysis and solution of practical problems. In Applied Anthropology: Domains of Application, Kedia and Van Willigen define the process as a "complex of related, research-based, instrumental methods which produce change or stability in specific cultural systems through the provision of data, initiation of direct action, and/or the formulation of policy". More simply, applied anthropology is the praxis-based side of anthropological research; it includes researcher involvement and activism within the participating community
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Anthropology Of Art
ANTHROPOLOGY OF ART is a sub-field in social anthropology dedicated to the study of art in different cultural contexts. The anthropology of art focuses on historical, economic and aesthetic dimensions in non-Western art forms, including what is known as 'tribal art '. CONTENTS * 1 History
History
* 2 The Problem of Art
Art
* 3 Bibliography * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORY Franz Boas
Franz Boas
, one of the pioneers of modern anthropology , conducted many field studies of the arts, helping create a foundation to the field. His book, Primitive Art
Art
(1927), summarizes his main insights into so-called 'primitive' art forms, with a detailed case study on the arts of the Northwest Pacific Coast
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Cognitive Anthropology
COGNITIVE ANTHROPOLOGY is an approach within cultural anthropology in which scholars seek to explain patterns of shared knowledge, cultural innovation , and transmission over time and space using the methods and theories of the cognitive sciences (especially experimental psychology and evolutionary biology ) often through close collaboration with historians, ethnographers, archaeologists, linguists, musicologists and other specialists engaged in the description and interpretation of cultural forms. Cognitive anthropology is concerned with what people from different groups know and how that implicit knowledge, in the sense of what they think subconsciously, changes the way people perceive and relate to the world around them. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Scope * 3 Methods * 4 Relation with cognitive science * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 Further reading HISTORY Cognitive anthropology has strong ties to ethnoscience and linguistics
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Nutritional Anthropology
NUTRITIONAL ANTHROPOLOGY is the interplay between human biology, economic systems , nutritional status and food security , and how changes in the former affect the latter. If economic and environmental changes in a community affect access to food, food security, and dietary health, then this interplay between culture and biology is in turn connected to broader historical and economic trends associated with globalization. Nutritional status affects overall health status, work performance potential, and the overall potential for economic development (either in terms of human development or traditional western models) for any given group of people
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Neuroanthropology
NEUROANTHROPOLOGY is the study of the relationship between culture and the brain. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Further reading * 5 External links OVERVIEW Neuroanthropology
Neuroanthropology
explores how the brain gives rise to culture, how culture influences brain development, structure and function, and the pathways followed by the co-evolution of brain and culture. Moreover, neuroanthropologists consider how new findings in the brain sciences help us understand the interactive effects of culture and biology on human development and behavior. In one way or another, neuroanthropologists ground their research and explanations in how the human brain develops, how it is structured and how it functions within the genetic and cultural limits of its biology (see Biogenetic structuralism and related website)
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Biocultural Anthropology
BIOCULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY can be defined in numerous ways. It is the scientific exploration of the relationships between human biology and culture . "Instead of looking for the biology underlying biological roots of human behavior, biocultural anthropology attempts to understand how culture affects our biological capacities and limitations. Biocultural anthropology attempts to understand challenges to human biology in an ever increasing and diversified cultural environment." CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Key research * 3 Contemporary biocultural anthropology * 4 Controversy * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYPhysical anthropologists throughout the first half of the 20th century viewed this relationship from a racial perspective; that is, from the assumption that typological human biological differences lead to cultural differences
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Evolutionary Anthropology
EVOLUTIONARY ANTHROPOLOGY is the interdisciplinary study of the evolution of human physiology and human behaviour and the relation between hominids and non-hominid primates . Evolutionary anthropology is based in natural science and social science
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Molecular Anthropology
MOLECULAR ANTHROPOLOGY is a field of anthropology in which molecular analysis is used to determine evolutionary links between ancient and modern human populations, as well as between contemporary species. Generally, comparisons are made between sequence, either DNA or protein sequence, however early studies used comparative serology . By examining DNA sequences in different populations, scientists can determine the closeness of relationships between populations (or within populations). Certain similarities in genetic makeup let molecular anthropologists determine whether or not different groups of people belong to the same haplogroup , and thus if they share a common geographical origin. This is significant because it allows anthropologists to trace patterns of migration and settlement , which gives helpful insight as to how contemporary populations have formed and progressed over time
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Cyborg Anthropology
CYBORG ANTHROPOLOGY is a discipline that studies the interaction between humanity and technology from an anthropological perspective. The discipline is relatively new, but offers novel insights on new technological advances and their effect on culture and society. CONTENTS * 1 History
History
* 2 Methodology * 2.1 The cybor THành dab máter * 2.2 Digital vs. Cyborg Anthropology * 3 Key concepts and research * 3.1 Actor–network theory
Actor–network theory
* 3.2 Artificial Intelligence * 3.3 Posthumanism * 4 Notable Figures * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading HISTORY Donna Haraway ’s 1985 " "A Cyborg Manifesto" was the first widely-read academic text to explore the philosophical and sociological ramifications of the cyborg
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