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Ethmoid
The ETHMOID BONE (/ˈɛθmɔɪd/ ; from Greek ethmos, "sieve") is an unpaired bone in the skull that separates the nasal cavity from the brain . It is located at the roof of the nose , between the two orbits . The cubical bone is lightweight due to a spongy construction. The ethmoid bone is one of the bones that make up the orbit of the eye. CONTENTS* 1 Structure * 1.1 Articulations * 1.2 Development * 2 Function * 2.1 Role in magnetoception * 3 Clinical significance * 4 History * 5 Additional images * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links STRUCTUREThe ethmoid bone is an anterior cranial bone located between the eyes. It contributes to the medial wall of the orbit, the nasal cavity, and the nasal septum. The ethmoid has three parts: cribriform plate , ethmoidal labyrinth , and perpendicular plate
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Blood-brain Barrier
The BLOOD–BRAIN BARRIER (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS). The blood–brain barrier is formed by brain endothelial cells and it allows the passage of water, some gases, and lipid-soluble molecules by passive diffusion , as well as the selective transport of molecules such as glucose and amino acids that are crucial to neural function. Furthermore, it prevents the entry of lipophilic potential neurotoxins by way of an active transport mechanism mediated by P-glycoprotein . Astrocytes have been claimed to be necessary to create the blood–brain barrier. A few regions in the brain, including the circumventricular organs , do not have a blood–brain barrier. The blood–brain barrier occurs along all capillaries and consists of tight junctions around the capillaries that do not exist in normal circulation
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Exophthalmos
EXOPHTHALMOS (also called EXOPHTHALMUS, EXOPHTHALMIA, PROPTOSIS, or EXORBITISM) is a bulging of the eye anteriorly out of the orbit . Exophthalmos
Exophthalmos
can be either bilateral (as is often seen in Graves\' disease ) or unilateral (as is often seen in an orbital tumor). Complete or partial dislocation from the orbit is also possible from trauma or swelling of surrounding tissue resulting from trauma. In the case of Graves' disease, the displacement of the eye is due to abnormal connective tissue deposition in the orbit and extraocular muscles which can be visualized by CT or MRI
MRI
. If left untreated, exophthalmos can cause the eyelids to fail to close during sleep leading to corneal dryness and damage. Another possible complication would be a form of redness or irritation called " Superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis ", where the area above the cornea becomes inflamed as a result of increased friction when blinking
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Articulation (anatomy)
A JOINT or ARTICULATION (or ARTICULAR SURFACE) is the connection made between bones in the body which link the skeletal system into a functional whole. They are constructed to allow for different degrees and types of movement. Some joints, such as the knee, elbow, and shoulder, are self-lubricating, almost frictionless, and are able to withstand compression and maintain heavy loads while still executing smooth and precise movements. Other joints such as sutures between the bones of the skull permit very little movement (only during birth) in order to protect the brain and the sense organs. The connection between a tooth and the jawbone is also called a joint, and is described as a fibrous joint known as a gomphosis . Joints are classified both structurally and functionally
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Anatomical Terminology
ANATOMICAL TERMINOLOGY is a form of scientific terminology used by anatomists , zoologists , and health professionals such as doctors. Anatomical terminology
Anatomical terminology
uses many unique terms, suffixes , and prefixes deriving from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
and Latin
Latin
. These terms can be confusing to those unfamiliar with them, but can be more precise reducing ambiguity and errors. Also, since these anatomical terms are not used in everyday conversation, their meanings are less likely to change, and less likely to be misinterpreted. To illustrate how inexact day-to-day language can be: a scar "above the wrist" could be located on the forearm two or three inches away from the hand or at the base of the hand; and could be on the palm-side or back-side of the arm. By using precise anatomical terminology such ambiguity is eliminated
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Public Domain
The term PUBLIC DOMAIN has two senses of meaning. Anything published is out in the public domain in the sense that it is available to the public . Once published, news and information in books are in the public domain, although they may also be copyrighted. In the sense of intellectual property, works in the public domain are those whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired, have been forfeited, have been expressly waived, or are inapplicable. For example, the works of Shakespeare
Shakespeare
and Beethoven , and most of the early silent films , are all now in the public domain by either being created before copyrights existed or leaving the copyright term . Examples for works not covered by copyright which are therefore in the public domain, are the formulae of Newtonian physics , cooking recipes , and all software before 1974
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Vestigial Structure
VESTIGIALITY is the retention during the process of evolution of genetically determined structures or attributes that have lost some or all of their ancestral function in a given species. Assessment of the vestigiality must generally rely on comparison with homologous features in related species. The emergence of vestigiality occurs by normal evolutionary processes, typically by loss of function of a feature that is no longer subject to positive selection pressures when it loses its value in a changing environment. The feature may be selected against more urgently when its function becomes definitively harmful, but if the lack of the feature provides no advantage, and its presence provides no disadvantage, the feature may not be phased out by natural selection and persist across species. Typical examples of both types occur in the loss of flying capability in island-dwelling species
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Magnetic Field
A MAGNETIC FIELD is the magnetic effect of electric currents and magnetic materials . The magnetic field at any given point is specified by both a direction and a magnitude (or strength); as such it is represented by a vector field . The term is used for two distinct but closely related fields denoted by the symbols B and H, where H is measured in units of amperes per meter (symbol: A⋅m−1 or A/m) in the SI . B is measured in teslas (symbol: T) and newtons per meter per ampere (symbol: N⋅m−1⋅A−1 or N/(m⋅A)) in the SI . B is most commonly defined in terms of the Lorentz force it exerts on moving electric charges. Magnetic fields can be produced by moving electric charges and the intrinsic magnetic moments of elementary particles associated with a fundamental quantum property , their spin
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Fetus
A FETUS is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms . In human development , a FETUS or FOETUS (/ˈfiːtəs/ ; plural FETUSES or FOETUSES) is a prenatal human between the embryonic state and birth . The fetal stage of development tends to be taken as beginning at the gestational age of eleven weeks, i.e. nine weeks after fertilization . In biological terms, however, prenatal development is a continuum, with no clear defining feature distinguishing an embryo from a fetus. The use of the term "fetus" generally implies that an embryo has developed to the point of being recognizable as a human ; this is the point usually taken to be the ninth week after fertilization. A fetus is also characterized by the presence of all the major body organs, though they will not yet be fully developed and functional and some not yet situated in their final anatomical location
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Magnetoception
MAGNETORECEPTION (also MAGNETOCEPTION) is a sense which allows an organism to detect a magnetic field to perceive direction, altitude or location. This sensory modality is used by a range of animals for orientation and navigation , and as a method for animals to develop regional maps. For the purpose of navigation, magnetoreception deals with the detection of the Earth\'s magnetic field . Magnetoreception is present in bacteria , arthropods , molluscs and members of all major taxonomic groups of vertebrates . Humans are not thought to have a magnetic sense, but there is a protein (a cryptochrome ) in the eye which could serve this function
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Bird
BIRDS (AVES) are a group of endothermic vertebrates , characterised by feathers , toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart , and a strong yet lightweight skeleton . Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich . They rank as the class of tetrapods with the most living species, at approximately ten thousand, with more than half of these being passerines , sometimes known as perching birds. Birds are the closest living relatives of crocodilians . Birds are descendants of extinct dinosaurs with feathers , making them the only surviving dinosaurs according to cladistics
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Magnetite
MAGNETITE is a mineral and one of the main iron ores. With the chemical formula Fe3O4 , it is one of the oxides of iron . Magnetite is ferrimagnetic ; it is attracted to a magnet and can be magnetized to become a permanent magnet itself. It is the most magnetic of all the naturally-occurring minerals on Earth. Naturally-magnetized pieces of magnetite, called lodestone , will attract small pieces of iron, which is how ancient peoples first discovered the property of magnetism . Today it is mined as iron ore . Small grains of magnetite occur in almost all igneous and metamorphic rocks . Magnetite
Magnetite
is black or brownish-black with a metallic luster, has a Mohs hardness of 5–6 and leaves a black streak . The chemical IUPAC name is iron(II,III) oxide and the common chemical name is FERROUS-FERRIC OXIDE
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Ossified
OSSIFICATION (or OSTEOGENESIS) in bone remodeling is the process of laying down new bone material by cells called osteoblasts . It is synonymous with bone tissue formation. There are two processes resulting in the formation of normal, healthy bone tissue: Intramembranous ossification is the direct laying down of bone into the primitive connective tissue (mesenchyme ), while endochondral ossification involves cartilage as a precursor. In fracture healing , endochondral osteogenesis is the most commonly occurring process, for example in fractures of long bones treated by plaster of Paris , whereas fractures treated by open reduction and internal fixation with metal plates, screws, pins, rods and nails may heal by intramembranous osteogenesis. Heterotopic ossification is a process resulting in the formation of bone tissue that is often atypical, at an extraskeletal location. Calcification
Calcification
is often confused with ossification
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Gray's Anatomy
GRAY\'S ANATOMY is an English-language textbook of human anatomy originally written by Henry Gray
Henry Gray
and illustrated by Henry Vandyke Carter . Earlier editions were called ANATOMY: DESCRIPTIVE AND SURGICAL and GRAY\'S ANATOMY: DESCRIPTIVE AND APPLIED, but the book's name is commonly shortened to, and later editions are titled, Gray's Anatomy. The book is widely regarded as an extremely influential work on the subject, and has continued to be revised and republished from its initial publication in 1858 to the present day. The latest edition of the book, the 41st, was published in September 2015
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
, Italian and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Anatomical Terms Of Bone
Many ANATOMICAL TERMS DESCRIPTIVE OF BONE are defined in anatomical terminology , and are often derived from Greek and Latin. CONTENTS* 1 Types of bone * 1.1 Long bones * 1.2 Short bones * 1.3 Flat bones * 1.4 Irregular bones * 1.5 Sesamoid bones * 2 Protrusions * 2.1 Rounded * 2.2 Pointed * 2.3 Special
Special
* 3 Cavities * 3.1 Openings * 3.2 Blind-ended * 3.3 Walls * 4 Joints * 5 Features of long bones * 5.1 Gross features * 5.2 Internal regions * 5.3 Internal and external * 6 Notes * 7 References TYPES OF BONE Different types of bone LONG BONES Main article: Long bone
Long bone
A long bone is one that is cylindrica