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Eternity
ETERNITY in common parlance is either an infinite or an indeterminately long period of time . In classical philosophy , however, eternity is defined as what exists outside time while sempiternity is the concept that corresponds to the colloquial definition of eternity. Eternity
Eternity
is an important concept in many religions , where the god or gods are said to endure eternally. Some, such as Aristotle
Aristotle
, would say the same about the natural cosmos in regard to both past and future eternal duration, and like the eternal Platonic forms , immutability was considered essential. CONTENTS * 1 Philosophy * 2 Symbolism * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links PHILOSOPHY See also: Philosophy of space and time Aristotle
Aristotle
argued that the cosmos has no beginning
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Minimum Total Potential Energy Principle
The MINIMUM TOTAL POTENTIAL ENERGY PRINCIPLE is a fundamental concept used in physics , chemistry , biology , and engineering . It dictates that (at low temperatures) a structure or body shall deform or displace to a position that (locally) minimizes the total potential energy , with the lost potential energy being converted into kinetic energy (specifically heat). SOME EXAMPLES * A free proton and free electron will tend to combine to form the lowest energy state (the ground state ) of a hydrogen atom , the most stable configuration . This is because that state's energy is 13.6 electron volts (eV) lower than when the two particles separated by an infinite distance . The dissipation in this system takes the form of spontaneous emission of electromagnetic radiation , which increases the entropy of the surroundings. * A rolling ball will end up stationary at the bottom of a hill, the point of minimum potential energy
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Gradient
In mathematics , the GRADIENT is a multi-variable generalization of the derivative . While a derivative can be defined on functions of a single variable, for functions of several variables , the gradient takes its place. The gradient is a vector-valued function , as opposed to a derivative, which is scalar-valued . Like the derivative, the gradient represents the slope of the tangent of the graph of the function . More precisely, the gradient points in the direction of the greatest rate of increase of the function, and its magnitude is the slope of the graph in that direction. The components of the gradient in coordinates are the coefficients of the variables in the equation of the tangent space to the graph. This characterizing property of the gradient allows it to be defined independently of a choice of coordinate system, as a vector field whose components in a coordinate system will transform when going from one coordinate system to another
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Unmoved Mover
The UNMOVED MOVER (Ancient Greek : ὃ οὐ κινούμενον κινεῖ, ho ou kinoúmenos kineî, "that which moves without being moved") or PRIME MOVER (Latin : primum movens) is a concept advanced by Aristotle
Aristotle
as a primary cause or "mover " of all the motion in the universe . As is implicit in the name, the "unmoved mover" moves other things, but is not itself moved by any prior action. In Book 12 (Greek "Λ") of his Metaphysics , Aristotle
Aristotle
describes the unmoved mover as being perfectly beautiful, indivisible, and contemplating only the perfect contemplation : itself contemplating. He equates this concept also with the active intellect . This Aristotelian concept had its roots in cosmological speculations of the earliest Greek Pre-Socratic philosophers and became highly influential and widely drawn upon in medieval philosophy and theology . St
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Platonic Realism
PLATONIC REALISM is a philosophical term usually used to refer to the idea of realism regarding the existence of universals or abstract objects after the Greek philosopher Plato
Plato
(c. 427–c. 347 BC), a student of Socrates
Socrates
. As universals were considered by Plato
Plato
to be ideal forms , this stance is ambiguously also called Platonic idealism . This should not be confused with idealism as presented by philosophers such as George Berkeley
George Berkeley
: as Platonic abstractions are not spatial, temporal, or mental, they are not compatible with the later idealism's emphasis on mental existence. Plato's Forms include numbers and geometrical figures, making them a theory of mathematical realism ; they also include the Form of the Good , making them in addition a theory of ethical realism
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Boethius
ANICIUS MANLIUS SEVERINUS BOëTHIUS, commonly called BOETHIUS (English: /boʊˈiːθiəs/ ; also BOETIUS /boʊˈiːʃəs/ ; c. 480–524 AD), was a Roman senator , consul , magister officiorum , and philosopher of the early 6th century. He was born four years after Odoacer
Odoacer
deposed the last Roman Emperor and declared himself King of Italy , and entered public service under Ostrogothic King Theodoric the Great , who later imprisoned and executed him in 524 on charges of conspiracy to overthrow him. While jailed, Boethius
Boethius
composed his Consolation of Philosophy , a philosophical treatise on fortune, death, and other issues, which became one of the most popular and influential works of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages

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Chronology Of The Universe
The CHRONOLOGY OF THE UNIVERSE describes the history and future of the universe according to Big Bang
Big Bang
cosmology. The metric expansion of space is estimated to have begun 13.8 billion years ago
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Internet Encyclopedia Of Philosophy
The INTERNET ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PHILOSOPHY (IEP) is a free online encyclopedia on philosophical topics and philosophers founded by James Fieser in 1995. The current general editors are James Fieser and Bradley Dowden . The staff also includes numerous area editors as well as volunteers. At present the IEP is visited over 1,700,000 times per month. CONTENTS * 1 About the IEP * 2 See also * 3 Notes and references * 4 External links ABOUT THE IEPThe IEP is a non-profit organization that receives no funding. The mission statement of the IEP is as follows: The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Philosophy
was founded in 1995 for the purpose of providing detailed, scholarly information on key topics and philosophers in all areas of philosophy. The IEP is free of charge and available to all internet users world wide
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Stanford Encyclopedia Of Philosophy
The STANFORD ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PHILOSOPHY (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely accessible to Internet users. It is maintained by Stanford University
Stanford University
. Each entry is written and maintained by an expert in the field, including professors from many academic institutions worldwide. Authors contributing to the encyclopedia give Stanford University
Stanford University
the permission to publish the articles, but retain the copyright to those articles. CONTENTS * 1 Approach and history * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links APPROACH AND HISTORYAs of January 2017, the SEP has 1,554 published entries
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Planck Epoch
In particle physics and physical cosmology , PLANCK UNITS are a set of units of measurement defined exclusively in terms of five universal physical constants , in such a manner that these five physical constants take on the numerical value of 1 when expressed in terms of these units. Originally proposed in 1899 by German physicist Max Planck
Max Planck
, these units are also known as NATURAL UNITS because the origin of their definition comes only from properties of nature and not from any human construct . Planck units are only one system of several systems of natural units , but Planck units are not based on properties of any prototype object or particle (that would be arbitrarily chosen), but rather on only the properties of free space . Planck units have significance for theoretical physics since they simplify several recurring algebraic expressions of physical law by nondimensionalization
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Cosmos
The COSMOS (UK : /ˈkɒzmɒs/ , US : /ˈkɒzmoʊs/ ) is the universe regarded as a complex and orderly system; the opposite of chaos . The philosopher Pythagoras
Pythagoras
used the term cosmos ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: κόσμος) for the order of the universe, but the term was not part of modern language until the 19th century geographer and polymath, Alexander von Humboldt
Alexander von Humboldt
, resurrected the use of the word from the ancient Greek, assigned it to his multi-volume treatise, Kosmos , which influenced modern and somewhat holistic perception of the universe as one interacting entity . CONTENTS * 1 Cosmology
Cosmology
* 2 Theology
Theology
* 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links COSMOLOGY The Ancient and Medieval cosmos as depicted in Peter Apian 's Cosmographia (Antwerp, 1539)
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Tibetan Buddhism
NEW BRANCHES: * Blue Lotus Assembly * Gateway of the Hidden Flower
Gateway of the Hidden Flower
* New Kadampa Buddhism
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Sempiternal (album)
SEMPITERNAL is the fourth studio album by British rock band Bring Me the Horizon . It was released on 1 April 2013 worldwide through RCA , a subsidiary label of Sony Music Entertainment
Sony Music Entertainment
, and 2 April 2013 in the United States and Canada through Epitaph . It is the first album to feature former Worship keyboardist Jordan Fish and was believed to be the last album to feature guitarist Jona Weinhofen . However, Weinhofen's role within the album's development has been faced with controversy. Written and recorded throughout 2012, Sempiternal showed the band pool diverse influences from electronic music , ambient music and pop . "Sempiternal" is an archaic English word denoting the concept of "everlasting time" that can never actually come to pass. It stems from the Latin word "sempiternus" (a concatenation of root "semper" and suffix "aeternum")
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Infinity
INFINITY (symbol: ∞) is an abstract concept describing something without any bound or larger than any number. Philosophers have speculated about the nature of the infinite, such as Zeno of Elea , who proposed many paradoxes involving infinity, and Eudoxus of Cnidus , who used the idea of infinitely small quantities in his method of exhaustion . Modern mathematics uses the general concept of infinity in the solution of many practical and theoretical problems, such as in calculus and set theory , and the idea also is used in physics and the other sciences. In mathematics, "infinity" is often treated as a number (i.e., it counts or measures things: "an infinite number of terms") but it is not the same sort of number as either a natural or a real number. Georg Cantor formalized many ideas related to infinity and infinite sets during the late 19th and early 20th centuries
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Allegorical
As a literary device , an ALLEGORY is a metaphor whose vehicle may be a character, place or event, representing real-world issues and occurrences. Allegory
Allegory
(in the sense of the practice and use of allegorical devices and works) has occurred widely throughout history in all forms of art , largely because it can readily illustrate or convey complex ideas and concepts in ways that are comprehensible or striking to its viewers, readers, or listeners. Writers or speakers typically use allegories as literary devices or as rhetorical devices that convey (semi-)hidden meanings through symbolic figures, actions, imagery, or events, which together create the moral, spiritual, or political meaning the author wishes to convey
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Hourglass
An HOURGLASS (or SANDGLASS, SAND TIMER, SAND WATCH, or SAND CLOCK) is a device used to measure the passage of time . It comprises two glass bulbs connected vertically by a narrow neck that allows a regulated trickle of material (historically sand ) from the upper bulb to the lower one. Factors affecting the time interval measured include sand quantity, sand coarseness, bulb size, and neck width. Hourglasses may be reused indefinitely by inverting the bulbs once the upper bulb is empty. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Antiquity * 1.2 Reappearance in the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
* 2 Design * 3 Material * 4 Practical uses * 4.1 Modern practical uses * 5 Symbolic uses * 5.1 Modern symbolic uses * 6 Hourglass
Hourglass
motif * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading HISTORYANTIQUITY Sarcophagus
Sarcophagus
dated c
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