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Estlink
ESTLINK is a set of HVDC submarine power cables between Estonia
Estonia
and Finland
Finland
. Estlink
Estlink
1 is the first interconnection between the Baltic and Nordic electricity markets following by Estlink
Estlink
2 in 2014. The main purpose of the Estlink
Estlink
connection is to secure power supply in both regions to integrate the Baltic and Nordic energy markets. CONTENTS* 1 Estlink
Estlink
1 * 1.1 History * 1.2 Description * 1.3 Sites * 2 Estlink
Estlink
2 * 2.1 History * 2.2 Description * 2.3 Sites * 2.4 Waypoints of overhead line in Finland
Finland
* 3 See also * 4 Gallery * 5 References * 6 External links ESTLINK 1HISTORYFirst plans for a submarine power cable between the Baltic and the Nordic regions were proposed in 1990s. Negotiations between Eesti Energia , Pohjolan Voima , Helsingin Energia , Graninge (now E.ON Sverige ), Latvenergo , Statkraft and TXE Nordic Energy, a subsidiary of TXU (now Energy Future Holdings Corporation ) started In 1999, and on 9 October 2001 a contract was signed in Tallinn
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Estonia
ESTONIA (/ɛˈstoʊniə/ (_ listen ); Estonian : Eesti_ ), officially the REPUBLIC OF ESTONIA (Estonian: _Eesti Vabariik_), is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe . It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland , to the west by the Baltic Sea , to the south by Latvia (343 km), and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia (338.6 km). Across the Baltic Sea lies Sweden in the west and Finland in the north. The territory of Estonia consists of a mainland and 2,222 islands and islets in the Baltic Sea, covering 45,339 km2 (17,505 sq mi) of land and water, and is influenced by a humid continental climate . The territory of Estonia has been inhabited since at least 6500 BC, with Finno-Ugric speakers – the linguistic ancestors of modern Estonians – arriving no later than around 1800 BC
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Finland
FINLAND (/ˈfɪnlənd/ (_ listen ); Finnish : Suomi_ (_ listen ); Swedish : Finland_ ), officially the REPUBLIC OF FINLAND, is a sovereign state in Northern Europe . A peninsula with the Gulf of Finland to the south and the Gulf of Bothnia to the west, the country has land borders with Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north, and Russia to the east. Estonia is south of the country across the Gulf of Finland. Finland is a Nordic country situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia , which also includes Scandinavia . Finland's population is 5.5 million (2014), and the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region. 88.7% of the population is Finnish people who speak Finnish , a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages; the second major group are the Finland-Swedes (5.3%). In terms of area, it is the eighth largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union . Finland is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital Helsinki , local governments in 311 municipalities , and an autonomous region , the Åland Islands . Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which produces a third of the country's GDP
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Gulf Of Finland
The GULF OF FINLAND (Finnish : Suomenlahti; Estonian : Soome laht; Russian : Фи́нский зали́в, tr. Finskiy zaliv; IPA: ; Swedish : Finska viken) is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
. It extends between Finland
Finland
(to the north) and Estonia
Estonia
(to the south) all the way to Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
in Russia
Russia
, where the river Neva
Neva
drains into it. Other major cities around the gulf include Helsinki
Helsinki
and Tallinn
Tallinn
. The eastern parts of the Gulf of Finland
Finland
belong to Russia, and some of Russia's most important oil harbours are located farthest in, near Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
(including Primorsk ). As the seaway to Saint Petersburg, the Gulf of Finland
Finland
has been and continues to be of considerable strategic importance to Russia. Some of the environmental problems affecting the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
are at their most pronounced in the shallow gulf
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Espoo
ESPOO (Finnish pronunciation: ; Swedish : _Esbo_, ) is the second largest city and municipality in Finland . The population of the city of Espoo was 270,416 as of 31 March 2016 . It is part of the Finnish Capital Region , and most of its population lives in the inner urban core of the Helsinki metropolitan area , along with the cities of Helsinki , Vantaa , and Kauniainen . Espoo shares its eastern border with Helsinki and Vantaa, while enclosing Kauniainen. The city is on the shore of the Gulf of Finland , in the region of Uusimaa . Other bordering municipalities of Espoo are Nurmijärvi and Vihti in the north, and Kirkkonummi in the west. The national park of Nuuksio is situated in northwestern Espoo. Espoo encompasses 312 square kilometres (120 sq mi), of which 312 km2 (120 sq mi) is land. Espoo doesn't have a traditional city center at all, but it has several local regional centers. Espoo is thus divided into seven major areas (Finnish : _suuralueet_, Swedish : _storområden_): Vanha-Espoo (with administrative center ), Suur-Espoonlahti , Pohjois-Espoo , Suur-Kauklahti , Suur- Leppävaara , Suur-Matinkylä , and Suur-Tapiola
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Elering
ELERING (former name: PõHIVõRK) is a national transmission system operator for electricity and natural gas with headquarters in Tallinn , Estonia . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Electricity market * 3 Natural gas market * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYElering was established on 1 November 1998 under the name of Põhivõrk as an operating unit of the Estonian national power company Eesti Energia . On 1 April 2004, it became a private limited company , OÜ Põhivõrk, as a subsidiary of Eesti Energia. On 10 June 2009, the company changed its name to Elering. To implement the EU 3rd energy package , the Government of Estonia decided on 28 August 2009 to go for an ownership unbundling and to buy out Elering from Eesti Energia. The transaction was concluded on 28 January 2010. On 25 February 2011, Elering was transformed to a public limited company , AS Elering. In November 2014, Elering entered to the natural gas transmission market by acquiring a majority stake in the holding company AS Võrguteenus Valdus, an owner of EG Võrguteenus (later renamed: Elering Gaas). EG Võrguteenus was established in 2005 as a subsidiary of Eesti Gaas . Originally it operated both—a transmission network and a distribution network—but in 2013 the distribution network was separated from the company. In November 2013, to implement the EU 3rd energy package EG Võrguteenus was separated from Eesti Gaas
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Fingrid
FINGRID OYJ is a Finnish national electricity transmission grid operator. It is owned by the Finnish state (53.1 %) and various financial and insurance institutions (46.9 %). In 2011, power companies Fortum Power and Heat Oy and Pohjolan Voima sold their stakes in Fingrid (25% each), because of EU Internal Market Directive in Electricity, which requires that power production and ownership of the transmission systems should be separate. CEO of the company is Jukka Ruusunen
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ABB Group
ABB (ASEA Brown Boveri) is a Swedish-Swiss multinational corporation headquartered in Zürich , Switzerland , operating mainly in robotics and the power and automation technology areas. It ranked as the 286th largest company by revenue for 2016 in the Fortune Global 500 list. ABB is one of the largest engineering companies as well as one of the largest conglomerates in the world. ABB has operations in around 100 countries, with approximately 132,000 employees in December 2016. ABB is traded on the SIX Swiss Exchange in Zürich, Nasdaq Stockholm and the New York Stock Exchange in the United States. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Organizational structure * 2.1 Electrification Products * 2.2 Robotics and Motion * 2.3 Industrial Automation * 2.4 Power Grids * 3 Other * 4 Management * 4.1 Primary investors * 5 See also * 6 Main competitors * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links HISTORY See also: Allmänna Svenska Elektriska Aktiebolaget and Brown, Boveri & Cie ABB's history goes back to the late 19th century. ASEA was founded in 1883 by Ludvig Fredholm in Västerås as manufacturer of electrical light and generators. Brown, Boveri ">_ ABB around the world
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Global Marine Systems
GLOBAL MARINE SYSTEMS is a specialist provider of installation, maintenance and repairs of submarine communications cable for the Telecommunications, Oil & Gas and Deep Sea Research industries. Global Marine provides engineering and underwater services in response to the subsea cable installation, maintenance and burial requirements of their customers around the world. With a fleet of vessels, ROVs and specialised subsea trenching and burial equipment, Global Marine offers solutions to the Oil "> Global Marine's Cable Innovator conducting a repair Global Marine Systems. Global Marine, the legacy of Cable "> Global Marine has a worldwide presence, with offices in Chelmsford , UK and Singapore; Depots in Portland, UK; Bermuda; Vancouver, Canada; Batangas , Philippines and Batam , Indonesia; Ships stationed around the world to support both installation of new cables and maintenance/protection of existing cables; and joint ventures with China Telecom and Huawei . Since 2002 Global Marine has become increasingly active in the installation of submarine power cables and gained significant market share in the European Offshore Renewables market, in addition to undertaking a number of large power interconnect projects
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CS Sovereign
CS SOVEREIGN is a class DP2 type cable ship used for subsea cable installation and repair works. The ship was designed by BT Marine with Hart Fenton CS Sovereign laid the remainder) * 1995–1996 – TAT-12/13 * 1999 – ESAT 2 (Ainsdale Sands , England – Dublin , Ireland ) * 2006 – Estlink (power cable) * 2008 – BT LIBERTY (Guernsey –England) * 2008 – NORTHERN LIGHTS (Dunnet Bay , Scotland – Skaill, Orkney Islands) * 2009 – HANNIBAL (Kelibia , Tunisia – Mazara del Vallo , Italy ) * 2010 - SGSCS (Port of Spain , Trinidad - Georgetown, Guyana - Paramaribo , Suriname ) * 2010 - EMEC (power cable installation for various tidal and wave generators in Orkney Islands , Scotland ) * 2010/2011 - JUDY (power/fibre cable installation between oil/gas platforms in the North Sea)REFERENCES * ^ A B C "C.S. Sovereign" (PDF). Global Marine Systems . Retrieved 2010-06-15. * ^ "CSS Sovereign - Cable Laying Ship". Hart Fenton & Company. Archived from the original on January 6, 2009. Retrieved 2010-06-15. * ^ A B Glover, Bill. "History of the Atlantic Cable & Undersea Communications from the first submarine cable of 1850 to the worldwide fiber optic network. CS Sovereign". Atlantic-Cable.com. Retrieved 2010-06-15. This article about a specific civilian ship or boat is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=CS_Sovereign additional terms may apply
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Submarine Power Cable
A SUBMARINE POWER CABLE is a major transmission cable for carrying electric power below the surface of the water. These are called "submarine" because they usually carry electric power beneath salt water (arms of the ocean , seas , straits , etc.) but it is also possible to use submarine power cables beneath fresh water (large lakes and rivers ). Examples of the latter exist that connect the mainland with large islands in the St. Lawrence River . CONTENTS * 1 Design technologies * 2 Selection between AC and DC * 3 Operational submarine power cables * 3.1 Alternating current cables * 3.2 Direct current cables * 4 Proposed submarine power cables * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links DESIGN TECHNOLOGIESThe purpose of submarine power cables is the transport of electric current at high voltage. The electric core is a concentric assembly of inner conductor, electric insulation and protective layers. The conductor is made from copper or aluminum wires, the latter material having a small but increasing market share. Conductor sizes ≤ 1200 are most common, but sizes ≥ 2400 mm2 have been made occasionally. For voltages ≥ 12 kV the conductors are round. Three different types of electric insulation around the conductor are mainly used today. Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) is used up to 420 kV system voltage. It is produced by extrusion in insulation thickness of up to about 30 mm
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Püssi
PüSSI is a town in Lüganuse Parish , Ida-Viru County , in northeastern Estonia , with a population of 1,783 as of 2012 . It is located near the road between Tallinn and St. Petersburg . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Economy * 3 Culture * 4 Notable person * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYFollowing the end of the Soviet Union 's 45-year rule over Estonia, Püssi saw a sharp economic downturn and a population exodus. In 1989 the population of Püssi stood at 2,400 people, and 20 years later, in 2009, was only 1,809. The population has continued to decrease and by 2012 stood at 1,783 people. In October 2013, Püssi along with Maidla Parish were merged into Lüganuse Parish , and therefore ceased to exist as sovereign municipalities. ECONOMYBy 2002 Püssi had accumulated 20 million kroons of debt, the equivalent to 1.3 million euros ; and property values had become so low that apartments were valued around zero. Since then, the city's economy has begun to recover. Püssi has planned the construction of an industrial park . The Chairman of the town council, in an interview with The Baltic Times , marketed Püssi by stating that property values in the city were only 1% of those of the capital city of Tallinn . Püssi has historically served as a production center for particle board
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Nexans
NEXANS S.A. is a French company which manufactures copper and optical fiber cable products for the infrastructure , industrial (particularly the shipbuilding , petroleum and aeronautical sectors) and construction markets. It is the world's second largest manufacturer of cables after Prysmian S.p.A. . It has an industrial presence in nearly 40 countries, over 25,000 employees and sales of around €6 billion a year. Nexans was founded in 2000 as a business unit of the telecommunications firm Alcatel after its acquisition of a number of companies in the cable sector. It was spun out and listed on the Paris stock exchange the following year. It is currently a member of the CAC Mid 60 stock index. REFERENCES * ^ "Prysmian Group Tops Nexans in the Global Specialty Cable Market in 2011". * ^ "Nexans rises on debut". CNN Money . 13 June 2001
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Siemens
SIEMENS AG (German pronunciation: ) is a German conglomerate company headquartered in Berlin
Berlin
and Munich
Munich
and the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe with branch offices abroad. The principal divisions of the company are _Industry_, _Energy_, _Healthcare_ ( Siemens Healthineers ), and _Infrastructure "> Werner von Siemens
Siemens
, co-founder of Siemens & Halske . Siemens & Halske was founded by Werner von Siemens and Johann Georg Halske on 12 October 1847. Based on the telegraph , their invention used a needle to point to the sequence of letters, instead of using Morse code . The company, then called _Telegraphen-Bauanstalt von Siemens
Siemens
500 km from Berlin
Berlin
to Frankfurt am Main
Frankfurt am Main
. In 1850, the founder's younger brother, Carl Wilhelm Siemens, later Sir William Siemens
Siemens
, started to represent the company in London. The London agency became a branch office in 1858. In the 1850s, the company was involved in building long distance telegraph networks in Russia. In 1855, a company branch headed by another brother, Carl Heinrich von Siemens
Siemens
, opened in St Petersburg
St Petersburg
, Russia
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Empower Group
EMPOWER is a service company which operates in energy , industry and telecom sectors in the Nordic countries and in the Baltic region . HISTORYEmpower’s roots are in a company called Pohjolan Voima . Its service company PVO-Palvelut Oy was named to Empower Oy in 1999. Since then operations have extended to the Baltics and Sweden. BUSINESSThe Empower Group's business operations are divided into four areas: * Telecom Network Services * Industry Services * Power Network Services * Information Management ServicesOver half of the turnover arises from Finland (61% in 2015), one fifth from Sweden (20%) and one fifth from the Baltics (19%). The biggest sector is energy services (41% in 2015). REFERENCES * ^ http://www.empower.eu/history * ^ http://www.empower.eu/business-services * ^ http://www.empower.eu/annual-review-2015 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Empower_Group additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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HVDC
A HIGH-VOLTAGE, DIRECT CURRENT (HVDC) electric power transmission system (also called a POWER SUPER HIGHWAY or an ELECTRICAL SUPER HIGHWAY) uses direct current for the bulk transmission of electrical power, in contrast with the more common alternating current (AC) systems. For long-distance transmission, HVDC systems may be less expensive and suffer lower electrical losses. For underwater power cables , HVDC avoids the heavy currents required to charge and discharge the cable capacitance each cycle. For shorter distances, the higher cost of DC conversion equipment compared to an AC system may still be justified, due to other benefits of direct current links. HVDC allows power transmission between unsynchronized AC transmission systems. Since the power flow through an HVDC link can be controlled independently of the phase angle between source and load, it can stabilize a network against disturbances due to rapid changes in power. HVDC also allows transfer of power between grid systems running at different frequencies, such as 50 Hz and 60 Hz. This improves the stability and economy of each grid, by allowing exchange of power between incompatible networks. The modern form of HVDC transmission uses technology developed extensively in the 1930s in Sweden
Sweden
(ASEA ) and in Germany
Germany

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