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Esa-Pekka Salonen
ESA-PEKKA SALONEN ( pronunciation (help ·info ): ; born June 30, 1958) is a Finnish orchestral conductor and composer . He is currently Principal Conductor and Artistic Advisor of the Philharmonia Orchestra in London
London
, Conductor Laureate of the Los Angeles Philharmonic
Los Angeles Philharmonic
, Composer-In-Residence at the New York Philharmonic , Artistic Director and cofounder of the Baltic Sea Festival, and Artist in Association at the Finnish National Opera
Finnish National Opera
and Ballet
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Conducting
CONDUCTING is the art of directing a musical performance, such as an orchestral or choral concert . The primary duties of the CONDUCTOR are to interpret the score created by a composer in a manner which is reflective of those specific indications within that score, set the tempo , ensure correct entries by various members of the ensemble, and to "shape" the phrasing where appropriate. To convey their ideas and interpretation, a conductor communicates with their musicians primarily through hand gestures, typically though not invariably with the aid of a baton , and may use other gestures or signals, such as eye contact with relevant performers. A conductor's directions will almost invariably be supplemented or reinforced by verbal instructions or suggestions to their musicians in rehearsal prior to a performance. The conductor typically stands on a raised podium with a large music stand for the full score , which contains the musical notation for all the instruments or voices. Since the mid-19th century, most conductors have not played an instrument when conducting, although in earlier periods of classical music history, leading an ensemble while playing an instrument was common
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Composer
A COMPOSER ( Latin _compōnō_; literally "one who puts together") is a person who creates or writes music , which can be vocal music (for a singer or choir ), instrumental music (e.g., for solo piano , string quartet , wind quintet or orchestra ) or music which combines both instruments and voices (e.g., opera or art song , which is a singer accompanied by a pianist). The core meaning of the term refers to individuals who have contributed to the tradition of Western classical music through creation of works expressed in written musical notation (e.g., sheet music scores). Many composers are also skilled performers, either as singers, instrumentalists , or conductors . Examples of composers who are also well known for their ability as performers include J. S. Bach (an organist ), Mozart (violin and piano ), and Beethoven , Liszt and Chopin (all skilled pianists). Involvement in practical music-making provides a composer with insight into the diverse musical elements needed for a good piece of music and it can give them practical guidance with their compositions. In broader usage, "composer" can designate people who participate in other musical traditions who create music, as well as those who create music by means other than written notation: for example, Blues or folk singers and guitarists who create songs through improvisation and recording and popular music writers of musical theatre songs and arrangements
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Philharmonia Orchestra
The PHILHARMONIA ORCHESTRA is a British orchestra based in London. It was founded in 1945 by Walter Legge , a classical music record producer for EMI . Since 1995, the orchestra has been based in the Royal Festival Hall . The Philharmonia also has residencies at De Montfort Hall , Leicester , the Corn Exchange, Bedford , and The Anvil, Basingstoke . Esa-Pekka Salonen has been the orchestra's principal conductor and artistic advisor since 2008. Helen Sprott is the orchestra's current managing director, The Philharmonia Orchestra performs more than 160 concerts a year and tours widely, and also records music for films and computer games. Since its inception in 1945, the Philharmonia has commissioned more than 100 compositions from composers that include Sir Harrison Birtwistle, Sir Peter Maxwell Davies, Mark-Anthony Turnage and James MacMillan. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Early decades * 1.2 Recent decades * 2 Recordings * 3 Other activities * 4 Principal Conductors * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYEARLY DECADESThe orchestra was founded in 1945 by Walter Legge . As Legge was a recording producer for EMI , it was believed that the orchestra was primarily formed for recording purposes, but that was not Legge's intention
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London
LONDON /ˈlʌndən/ ( listen ) is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom . Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain , London has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans , who named it _ Londinium _. London's ancient core, the City of London
City of London
, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries. Since at least the 19th century, "London" has also referred to the metropolis around this core, historically split between Middlesex , Essex , Surrey , Kent , and Hertfordshire , which today largely makes up Greater London
Greater London
, a region governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly . London is a leading global city in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism, and transportation. It is crowned as the world's largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world . London is a world cultural capital. It is the world's most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the world\'s largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic
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Los Angeles Philharmonic
The LOS ANGELES PHILHARMONIC (LA Phil, LAP,) is an American orchestra based in Los Angeles, California, United States. It has a regular season of concerts from October through June at the Walt Disney Concert Hall , and a summer season at the Hollywood Bowl from July through September. Gustavo Dudamel is the current Music Director, and Esa-Pekka Salonen is Conductor Laureate. Deborah Borda is the current President and CEO. Music critics have described the orchestra as the most "contemporary minded", "forward thinking", "talked about and innovative", "venturesome and admired" orchestra in America. According to Salonen, "We are interested in the future. We are not trying to re-create the glories of the past, like so many other symphony orchestras." “Especially since we moved into the new hall,” continues Borda, “our intention has been to integrate 21st-century music into the orchestra’s everyday activity.” Since the opening of the Walt Disney Concert Hall on October 23, 2003, the Los Angeles Philharmonic has presented 57 world premieres, 1 North American premiere, 26 U.S. premieres and has commissioned or co-commissioned 63 new works
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New York Philharmonic
The NEW YORK PHILHARMONIC, officially the PHILHARMONIC-SYMPHONY SOCIETY OF NEW YORK, INC., globally known as NEW YORK PHILHARMONIC ORCHESTRA (NYPO) or NEW YORK PHILHARMONIC-SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, is a symphony orchestra based in New York City in the United States. It is one of the leading American orchestras popularly referred to as the "Big Five ". The Philharmonic's home is David Geffen Hall , located in New York's Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts . Founded in 1842, the orchestra is one of the oldest musical institutions in the United States and the oldest of the "Big Five" orchestras. Its record-setting 14,000th concert was given in December 2004
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Finnish National Opera
The FINNISH NATIONAL OPERA (Finnish : _Suomen Kansallisooppera_; Swedish : _Finlands Nationalopera_) is a Finnish opera company based in Helsinki
Helsinki
. Its home base is the Opera
Opera
House on Töölönlahti bay in Töölö , which opened in 1993, and is state-owned through Senate Properties . The Opera
Opera
House features two auditoriums, the main auditorium with 1,350, seats and a smaller studio auditorium with 300-500 seats. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Personnel * 3 Productions * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYRegular opera performances began in Finland in 1873 with the founding of the Finnish Opera
Opera
by Kaarlo Bergbom . Prior to that, opera had been performed in Finland sporadically by touring companies, and on occasion by Finnish amateurs, the first such production being _The Barber of Seville _ in 1849. However, the Finnish Opera
Opera
company soon plunged into a financial crisis and folded in 1879. During its six year's of operation, Bergbom’s opera company had given 450 performances of a total of 26 operas, and the company had managed to demonstrate that opera can be sung in Finnish too
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Helsinki
HELSINKI (/hɛlˈsɪŋki/ ; Finnish pronunciation: (_ listen ); Swedish : Helsingfors_; Swedish pronunciation: ( listen )) is the capital and largest city of Finland . It is in the region of Uusimaa , in southern Finland, on the shore of the Gulf of Finland . Helsinki has a population of 629,512, an urban population of 1,231,595, and a metropolitan population of over 1.4 million, making it the most populous municipality and urban area in Finland. Helsinki is located some 80 kilometres (50 mi) north of Tallinn , Estonia , 400 km (250 mi) east of Stockholm , Sweden , and 390 km (240 mi) west of Saint Petersburg , Russia . Helsinki has close historical connections with these three cities. The Helsinki metropolitan area includes the urban core of Helsinki, Espoo , Vantaa , Kauniainen , and surrounding commuter towns . It is the world's northernmost metro area of over one million people, and the city is the northernmost capital of an EU member state . The Helsinki metropolitan area is the third largest metropolitan area in the Nordic countries after Stockholm and Copenhagen , and the City of Helsinki being the third largest after Stockholm and Oslo
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French Horn
The FRENCH HORN (since the 1930s known simply as the "horn" in some professional music circles) is a brass instrument made of tubing wrapped into a coil with a flared bell. The DOUBLE HORN IN F/B♭ (technically a variety of German horn ) is the horn most often used by players in professional orchestras and bands. A musician who plays any kind of horn is generally referred to as a horn player (or less frequently, a hornist). Pitch is controlled through the combination of the following factors: speed of propulsion of air through the instrument (controlled by the player's lungs and thoracic diaphragm ); diameter and tension of lip aperture (controlled by the player's lip muscles—the embouchure ) in the mouthpiece; plus, in a modern French horn, the operation of valves by the left hand, which route the air into extra sections of tubing. Most horns have lever-operated rotary valves , but some, especially older horns, use piston valves (similar to a trumpet 's) and the Vienna horn uses double-piston valves, or pumpenvalves . The backward-facing orientation of the bell relates to the perceived desirability to create a subdued sound, in concert situations, in contrast to the more piercing quality of the trumpet. A horn without valves is known as a natural horn, changing pitch along the natural harmonics of the instrument (similar to a bugle ). Pitch may also be controlled by the position of the hand in the bell, in effect reducing the bell's diameter
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Musical Composition
MUSICAL COMPOSITION can refer to an original piece of music , either a song or an instrumental music piece, the structure of a musical piece, or the process of creating or writing a new song or piece of music. People who create new compositions are called composers in classical music . In popular music and traditional music , the creators of new songs are usually called songwriters ; with songs, the person who writes new words for a song is the lyricist . "Composition" is the act or practice of creating a song or other piece of music. In many cultures, including Western classical music , the act of composing typically includes the creation of music notation , such as a sheet music "score" , which is then performed by the composer or by other instrumental musicians or singers. In popular music and traditional music, songwriting may involve the creation of a basic outline of the song, called the lead sheet , which sets out the melody , lyrics and chord progression. In classical music, orchestration (choosing the instruments of a large music ensemble such as an orchestra which will play the different parts of music, such as the melody, accompaniment , countermelody , bassline and so on) is typically done by the composer, but in musical theatre and in pop music , songwriters may hire an arranger to do the orchestration
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Sibelius Academy
The SIBELIUS ACADEMY (Finnish : _Taideyliopisto Sibelius-Akatemia_, Swedish : _Konstuniversitetets Sibelius-Akademi_) is part of the University of the Arts Helsinki and a university-level music school which operates in Helsinki
Helsinki
and Kuopio , Finland
Finland
. It also has an adult education centre in Järvenpää and a training centre in Seinäjoki . The Academy is the only music university in Finland. It is among the biggest European music universities with roughly 1,700 enrolled students. The Sibelius Academy
Sibelius Academy
is one of the organizers of the International Jean Sibelius Violin Competition held every five years in Helsinki. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Degrees * 3 Degree programmes * 4 Notable students and faculty (past and present) * 4.1 Composers * 4.2 Conductors * 4.3 Instrumentalists * 4.4 Vocalists * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYThe academy was founded in 1882 by Martin Wegelius as _Helsingfors musikinstitut_ (" Helsinki
Helsinki
Music Institute") and renamed _Sibelius-Akatemia_ in 1939 to honour its own former student and Finland's most celebrated composer Jean Sibelius
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Jorma Panula
JORMA PANULA (born 10 August 1930 in Kauhajoki ) is a Finnish conductor, composer, and teacher of conducting. He has mentored many notable Finnish conductors, such as Esa-Pekka Salonen , Mikko Franck , Sakari Oramo , Jukka-Pekka Saraste , and Osmo Vänskä . CAREERPanula studied church music and conducting at the Sibelius Academy. His teachers included Leo Funtek , Dean Dixon , Albert Wolff and Franco Ferrara . Apart from conducting, he has composed a wide variety of music. His operas Jaakko Ilkka and the River Opera established a new genre called "performance opera", which fused music, visual art and the art of daily life. Panula's other compositions include musicals , church music, a violin concerto, jazz capriccio and numerous pieces of vocal music. Panula was the artistic director and chief conductor of the Turku Philharmonic Orchestra from 1963 to 1965, the Helsinki
Helsinki
Philharmonic Orchestra from 1965 to 1972 and the Aarhus Symphony Orchestra from 1973 to 1976. He has also conducted his own opera Jaakko Ilkka at the Finnish National Opera
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Jukka-Pekka Saraste
JUKKA-PEKKA SARASTE (born April 22, 1956, Lahti ) is a Finnish conductor and violinist. Saraste was trained as a violinist. He later studied conducting at the Sibelius Academy with Jorma Panula in the same class as Esa-Pekka Salonen and Osmo Vänskä . Before becoming a conductor, Saraste was co-principal second violinist and later an associate to Leif Segerstam , with the Finnish Radio Symphony Orchestra (RSO). In 1983, Esa-Pekka Salonen and Saraste co-founded the Avanti! Chamber Orchestra, which specialises in performances of contemporary music. In 2000, Saraste also founded the Ekenäs Summer Concerts-Festival with the Finnish Chamber Orchestra, and he is currently the artistic advisor to both Festival and Orchestra. Saraste has directed the Finnish Chamber orchestra on several tours, including tours in the United States and China. In 1987, Saraste became the chief conductor of the RSO, and held the position until 2001. In 1987, he also became the principal conductor of the Scottish Chamber Orchestra and remained with the orchestra until 1991. Saraste now holds the title of Conductor Laureate of the RSO. He has twice recorded the complete symphonies of Jean Sibelius with the RSO. Saraste became Music Director of the Toronto Symphony Orchestra in 1994
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Osmo Vänskä
OSMO ANTERO VäNSKä (born 28 February 1953) is a Finnish conductor , clarinetist and composer . He started his musical career as an orchestral clarinetist with the Turku Philharmonic (1971–76). He then became the principal clarinet of the Helsinki Philharmonic from 1977 to 1982. During this time, he started to study conducting with Jorma Panula at the Sibelius Academy , where his classmates included Esa-Pekka Salonen and Jukka-Pekka Saraste . In 1982, he won the International Besançon Competition for Young Conductors . Vänskä became principal guest conductor of the Lahti Symphony Orchestra in 1985, and chief conductor in 1988. He concluded his tenure with the Lahti Symphony Orchestra in 2008 and is now the orchestra's Conductor Laureate. His complete set of Sibelius symphonies with the Lahti Symphony Orchestra , also on the BIS label, has garnered widespread acclaim. He has recorded extensively with the Lahti orchestra for the BIS label, including music by Kalevi Aho , Einojuhani Rautavaara , Bernhard Crusell , Uuno Klami , Tauno Marttinen , Robert Kajanus , Sofia Gubaidulina , Joonas Kokkonen , Jan Sandström , Jean Sibelius , and Fredrik Pacius . Vänskä was chief conductor of the Iceland Symphony Orchestra from 1993 to 1996
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Magnus Lindberg
MAGNUS GUSTAF ADOLF LINDBERG (born 27 June 1958) is a Finnish composer and pianist. He was the New York Philharmonic 's composer-in-residence from 2009 to 2012 and has been the London Philharmonic Orchestra 's composer-in-residence since the beginning of the 2014-15 season. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Compositions and style * 3 Awards and honors * 4 Works * 4.1 Orchestral * 4.2 Chamber orchestra or ensemble * 4.3 Soloist(s) and orchestra * 4.4 Wind orchestra * 4.5 Small ensemble * 4.6 Solo instrument * 4.7 Vocal * 5 References * 6 Sources * 7 External links EARLY LIFELindberg was born in Helsinki , where he studied at the Sibelius Academy under Einojuhani Rautavaara and Paavo Heininen , beginning with piano. He attended summer courses in Siena (with Franco Donatoni ) and Darmstadt (with Brian Ferneyhough ). After graduating in 1981, he traveled widely in Europe, attending private studies with Vinko Globokar and Gérard Grisey in Paris , and observing Japanese drumming and punk rock in Berlin. COMPOSITIONS AND STYLELindberg's juvenilia include the large orchestral work Donor, composed at age 16. Quintetto dell’Estate (1979) is generally held to be Lindberg's first opus
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