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Equirectangular Projection
The equirectangular projection (also called the equidistant cylindrical projection, geographic projection, or la carte parallélogrammatique projection, and which includes the special case of the plate carrée projection or geographic projection) is a simple map projection attributed to Marinus of Tyre, who Ptolemy
Ptolemy
claims invented the projection about AD 100.[1] The projection maps meridians to vertical straight lines of constant spacing (for meridional intervals of constant spacing), and circles of latitude to horizontal straight lines of constant spacing (for constant intervals of parallels). The projection is neither equal area nor conformal. Because of the distortions introduced by this projection, it has little use in navigation or cadastral mapping and finds its main use in thematic mapping
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Web Mercator
Web Mercator, Google Web Mercator, Spherical Mercator, WGS 84 Web Mercator[1] or WGS 84/Pseudo-Mercator is a variant of the Mercator projection and is the de facto standard for Web mapping applications. It rose to prominence when Google Maps
Google Maps
adopted it[2] in 2005. It is used by virtually all major online map providers, including Google Maps, Bing Maps, OpenStreetMap, Mapquest, Esri, and many others.[3] Its official EPSG
EPSG
identifier is EPSG:3857, although others have been used historically.Contents1 Properties1.1 Formulas 1.2 Spherical or ellipsoidal? 1.3 Advantages and disadvantages2 Identifiers2.1 OpenLayers:900913 2.2 EPSG:3785 2.3 EPSG:3857 2.4 Other identifiers3 WKT definition 4 ReferencesProperties[edit] Web Mercator
Web Mercator
is a slight variant of the Mercator projection, one used primarily in Web-based mapping programs
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Celestia
Celestia
Celestia
is a 3D astronomy program created by Chris Laurel. The program is based on the Hipparcos Catalogue
Hipparcos Catalogue
(HIP) and allows users to virtually travel through an extensive universe, modeled after reality, at any speed, in any direction, and at any time in history. Celestia displays and interacts with objects ranging in scale from small spacecraft to entire galaxies in three dimensions using OpenGL, from perspectives which would not be possible from a classic planetarium or other ground-based display. NASA
NASA
and ESA have used Celestia
Celestia
in their educational[3] and outreach programs,[4] as well as for interfacing to trajectory analysis software.[5] Celestia
Celestia
is available for AmigaOS 4, Linux, macOS, and Microsoft Windows
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Cartography
Cartography
Cartography
(from Greek χάρτης khartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps. Combining science, aesthetics, and technique, cartography builds on the premise that reality can be modeled in ways that communicate spatial information effectively. The fundamental problems of traditional cartography are to:Set the map's agenda and select traits of the object to be mapped. This is the concern of map editing. Traits may be physical, such as roads or land masses, or may be abstract, such as toponyms or political boundaries. Represent the terrain of the mapped object on flat media. This is the concern of map projections. Eliminate characteristics of the mapped object that are not relevant to the map's purpose. This is the concern of generalization. Reduce the complexity of the characteristics that will be mapped
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Figure Of The Earth
The figure of the Earth
Earth
is the size and shape of the Earth
Earth
in geodesy. Its specific meaning depends on the way it is used and the precision with which the Earth's size and shape is to be defined
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Pixel
In digital imaging, a pixel, pel,[1] dots, or picture element[2] is a physical point in a raster image, or the smallest addressable element in an all points addressable display device; so it is the smallest controllable element of a picture represented on the screen. Each pixel is a sample of an original image; more samples typically provide more accurate representations of the original. The intensity of each pixel is variable
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NASA World Wind
World Wind is an open-source (released under the NOSA license) virtual globe. It was first developed by NASA
NASA
in 2003 for use on personal computers and then further developed in concert with the open source community since 2004. As of 2017, a web based version of World Wind is available online.[1] An Android version is also available.[2] The original version relied on .NET Framework, which ran only on Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows. The more recent Java version, World Wind Java, is cross platform, a software development kit (SDK) aimed at developers and, unlike the old .NET version, not a standalone virtual globe application in the style of Google Earth
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French Language
French (le français [lə fʁɑ̃sɛ] ( listen) or la langue française [la lɑ̃ɡ fʁɑ̃sɛz]) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin
Latin
in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France
France
and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages
Celtic languages
of Northern Roman Gaul
Gaul
like Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders
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Thematic Map
A thematic map is a type of map specifically designed to "show a particular theme connected with a specific geographic area.Contents1 Overview 2 History 3 Uses. 4 Data terminology 5 Mapping methods5.1 Choropleth 5.2 Proportional symbol 5.3 Isarithmic or Isopleth 5.4 Dot 5.5 Cartograms6 See also 7 References 8 Further readingOverview[edit] Map
Map
of the total fertility rate in Slovakia
Slovakia
by region (2014)  1.5 - 1.7   1.4 - 1.5   1.3 - 1.4   < 1.3A thematic map is a map that focuses on a specific theme or subject area. This is in contrast to general reference maps, which regularly show the variety of phenomena—geological, geographical, political—together.[1][2] The contrast between them lies in the fact that thematic maps use the base data, such as coastlines, boundaries and places, only as points of reference for the phenomenon being mapped
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Navigation
Navigation
Navigation
is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.[1] The field of navigation includes four general categories: land navigation, marine navigation, aeronautic navigation, and space navigation.[2] It is also the term of art used for the specialized knowledge used by navigators to perform navigation tasks
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Conformal Map Projection
In cartography, a conformal map projection is one in which any angle on Earth (a sphere or an ellipsoid) is preserved in the image of the projection, i.e. the projection is a conformal map in the mathematical sense.Contents1 Properties 2 List of conformal projections 3 Applications3.1 Large scale 3.2 For small scale4 Sources 5 ReferencesProperties[edit] We can define a conformal projection as one that is locally conformal at any point on the earth. Thus, any small figure on the earth is nearly similar to its image on the map. The projection preserves the ratio of two lengths in the small domain. All Tissot's indicatrices
Tissot's indicatrices
of the projections are circles. Conformal projections preserve only small figures. Large figures are distorted, even by conformal projections. In a conformal projection, any small figure is similar to the image, but the ratio of similarity (scale) varies by location
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Meridian (geography)
A (geographical) meridian (or line of longitude) is the half of an imaginary great circle on the Earth's surface, terminated by the North Pole and the South Pole, connecting points of equal longitude. The position of a point along the meridian is given by its latitude indicating how many degrees north or south of the Equator
Equator
the point is. Each meridian is perpendicular to all circles of latitude. Each is also the same length, being half of a great circle on the Earth's surface and therefore measuring 20,003.93 km (12,429.9 miles).Contents1 Etymology 2 Geographic 3 Magnetic 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksEtymology[edit] The term "meridian" comes from the Latin meridies, meaning "midday"; the sun crosses a given meridian midway between the times of sunrise and sunset on that meridian. The same Latin stem gives rise to the terms a.m. (ante meridiem) and p.m
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Cadastral
A cadastre (also spelled cadaster) is a comprehensive land recording of the real estate or real property's metes-and-bounds of a country.[1][2] In most countries, legal systems have developed around the original administrative systems and use the cadastre to define the dimensions and location of land parcels described in legal documentation. The cadastre is a fundamental source of data in disputes and lawsuits between landowners. In the United States, Cadastral Survey within the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) maintains records of all public lands
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Ptolemy
Claudius
Claudius
Ptolemy
Ptolemy
(/ˈtɒləmi/; Greek: Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos [kláwdios ptolɛmɛ́ːos]; Latin: Claudius
Claudius
Ptolemaeus; c. AD 100 – c. 170)[2] was a Greco-Roman[3] mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.[4][5] He lived in the city of Alexandria
Alexandria
in the Roman province of Egypt, wrote in Koine Greek, and held Roman citizenship.[6] The 14th-century astronomer Theodore Meliteniotes gave his birthplace as the prominent Greek city Ptolemais Hermiou
Ptolemais Hermiou
(Greek: Πτολεμαΐς ‘Ερμείου) in the Thebaid
Thebaid
(Greek: Θηβαΐδα [Θηβαΐς])
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