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Epiglottitis
Epiglottitis
Epiglottitis
is inflammation of the epiglottis—the flap at the base of the tongue that keeps food from going into the trachea (windpipe).[7] Symptoms are usually rapid in onset and include trouble swallowing which can result in drooling, changes to the voice, fever, and an increased breathing rate.[1][2] As the epiglottis is in the upper airway, swelling can interfere with breathing.[7] People may lean forward in an effort to open the airway.[1] As the condition worsens stridor and bluish skin may occur.[1] Ep
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Hypopharynx
The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs. The pharynx is an organ found in vertebrates and invertebrates, though the structure is not universally the same across all of those species. In humans the pharynx is part of the digestive system and also of the conducting zone of the respiratory system. (The conducting zone also includes the nostrils of the nose, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles, and their function is to filter, warm, and moisten air and conduct it into the lungs.[1]) The pharynx makes up the part of the throat situated immediately behind the nasal cavity, behind the mouth and above the esophagus and larynx. The human pharynx is conventionally divided into three sections: the nasopharynx, the oropharynx and the laryngopharynx
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Crack Cocaine
Crack cocaine, also known simply as crack, is a free base form of cocaine that can be smoked. Crack offers a short but intense high to smokers. The Manual of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment calls it the most "addictive" (effective) form of cocaine.[1] Crack cocaine
Crack cocaine
is commonly used as a recreational drug
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Developing World
A developing country, also called a less developed country or an underdeveloped country, is a nation with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index
Human Development Index
(HDI) relative to other countries.[1] However, this definition is not universally agreed upon. There is also no clear agreement on which countries fit this category.[2] A nation's GDP per capita
GDP per capita
compared with other nations can also be a reference point. The term "developing" describes a currently observed situation and not a changing dynamic or expected direction of progress. Since the late 1990s developing countries tended to demonstrate higher growth rates than developed countries.[3] There is criticism for using the term developing country. The term implies inferiority of a developing country or undeveloped country compared with a developed country, which many countries dislike
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Intubation
Intubation (sometimes entubation) is a medical procedure involving the insertion of a tube into the body. Patients are generally anesthetized beforehand. Examples include tracheal intubation, and the balloon tamponade with a Sengstaken-Blakemore tube (a tube into the gastrointestinal tract).[1] See also[edit]Catheterization Nasogastric intubationReferences[edit]^ Goodman, RS (1986). "True vocal cord paralysis following entubation". The Laryngoscope. 96 (10): 1170. doi:10.1288/00005537-198610000-00021
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Dysphagia
Dysphagia is the medical term for the symptom of difficulty in swallowing.[1][2] Although classified under "symptoms and signs" in ICD-10,[3] the term is sometimes used as a condition in its own right.[4][5][6] People with dysphagia are sometimes unaware of having it.[7][8] It may be a sensation that suggests difficulty in the passage of solids or liquids from the mouth to the stomach,[9] a lack of pharyngeal sensation or various other inadequacies of the swallowing mechanism. Dysphagia is distinguished from other symptoms including odynophagia, which is defined as painful swallowing,[10] and globus, which is the sensation of a lump in the throat. A person can have dysphagia without odynophagia (dysfunction without pain), odynophagia without dysphagia (pain without dysfunction) or both together
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Asphyxiation
Asphyxia
Asphyxia
or asphyxiation is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from abnormal breathing. An example of asphyxia is choking. Asphyxia
Asphyxia
causes generalized hypoxia, which affects primarily the tissues and organs. There are many circumstances that can induce asphyxia, all of which are characterized by an inability of an individual to acquire sufficient oxygen through breathing for an extended period of time
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Bacteria
Acidobacteria Actinobacteria Aquificae Armatimonadetes Bacteroidetes Caldiserica Chlamydiae Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Elusimicrobia Fibrobacteres Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Synergistetes Tenericutes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermotogae VerrucomicrobiaSynonymsEubacteria Woese & Fox, 1977[2] Bacteria
Bacteria
(/bækˈtɪəriə/ ( listen); common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of its habitats
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Infection
Infection
Infection
is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.[1][2] Infectious disease, also known as transmissible disease or communicable disease, is illness resulting from an infection. Infections are caused by infectious agents including viruses, viroids, prions, bacteria, nematodes such as parasitic roundworms and pinworms, arthropods such as ticks, mites, fleas, and lice, fungi such as ringworm, and other macroparasites such as tapeworms and other helminths. Hosts can fight infections using their immune system
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Streptococcus Pneumoniae
Streptococcus
Streptococcus
pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic (under aerobic conditions) or beta-hemolytic (under anaerobic conditions), facultative anaerobic member of the genus Streptococcus.[1] They are usually found in pairs (diplococci) and do not form spores and are non-motile.[2] As a significant human pathogenic bacterium S. pneumoniae was recognized as a major cause of pneumonia in the late 19th century, and is the subject of many humoral immunity studies. S. pneumoniae resides asymptomatically in healthy carriers typically colonizing the respiratory tract, sinuses, and nasal cavity
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Streptococcus Pyogenes
Streptococcus
Streptococcus
pyogenes is a species of Gram-positive bacteria. These bacteria are aerotolerant and an extracellular bacterium, made up of non-motile and non-sporing cocci. As expected with a streptococci, it is clinically important in human illness. It is an infrequent, but usually pathogenic, part of the skin microbiota. It is the predominant species harboring the Lancefield group A antigen, and is often called group A streptococcus (GAS). However, both Streptococcus
Streptococcus
dysgalactiae and the Streptococcus
Streptococcus
anginosus group can possess group A antigen. Group A streptococci
Group A streptococci
when grown on blood agar typically produces small zones of beta-hemolysis, a complete destruction of red blood cells
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Staphylococcus Aureus
Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
aureus (also known as golden staph) is a Gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and it is a member of the normal flora of the body, frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin. It is often positive for catalase and nitrate reduction and is a facultative anaerobe that can grow without the need for oxygen.[1] Although S. aureus is not always pathogenic (and can commonly be found existing as a commensal), it is a common cause of skin infections including abscesses, respiratory infections such as sinusitis, and food poisoning. Pathogenic strains often promote infections by producing virulence factors such as potent protein toxins, and the expression of a cell-surface protein that binds and inactivates antibodies. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of S. aureus such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a worldwide problem in clinical medicine
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Graft Versus Host Disease
Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a medical complication following the receipt of transplanted tissue from a genetically different person. GvHD is commonly associated with stem cell transplants such as those that occur with bone marrow transplants. GvHD also applies to other forms of transplanted tissues such as solid organ transplants. White blood cells of the donor's immune system which remain within the donated tissue (the graft) recognize the recipient (the host) as foreign (non-self). The white blood cells present within the transplanted tissue then attack the recipient's body's cells, which leads to GvHD. This should not be confused with a transplant rejection, which occurs when the immune system of the transplant recipient rejects the transplanted tissue; GvHD occurs when the donor's immune system's white blood cells reject the recipient. The underlying principle (alloimmunity) is the same, but the details and course may differ
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Vancomycin
Vancomycin
Vancomycin
is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.[3] It is recommended intravenously as a treatment for complicated skin infections, bloodstream infections, endocarditis, bone and joint infections, and meningitis caused by methicillin-resistant S
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Lymphoproliferative Disorder
Lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) refer to several conditions in which lymphocytes are produced in excessive quantities. They typically occur in people who have a compromised immune system
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Diagnosis
Diagnosis
Diagnosis
is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon. Diagnosis
Diagnosis
is used in many different disciplines with variations in the use of logic, analytics, and experience to determine "cause and effect"
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