HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff
[::MainTopicLength::#1500] [::ListTopicLength::#1000] [::ListLength::#15] [::ListAdRepeat::#3]

picture info

Epicureanism
EPICUREANISM is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus
Epicurus
, founded around 307 BC. Epicurus
Epicurus
was an atomic materialist , following in the steps of Democritus
Democritus
. His materialism led him to a general attack on superstition and divine intervention . Following Aristippus —about whom very little is known— Epicurus
Epicurus
believed that what he called "pleasure" was the greatest good, but that the way to attain such pleasure was to live modestly, to gain knowledge of the workings of the world, and to limit one's desires. This would lead one to attain a state of tranquility (ataraxia ) and freedom from fear as well as an absence of bodily pain (aponia ). The combination of these two states constitutes happiness in its highest form
[...More...]

"Epicureanism" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Epicurean (other)
EPICUREANISM is a system of philosophy developed by Epicurus
Epicurus
ca. 300 BCE
[...More...]

"Epicurean (other)" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Epicurus
EPICURUS (/ˌɛpɪˈkjʊərəs/ or /ˌɛpɪˈkjɔːrəs/ ; Greek : Ἐπίκουρος, _Epíkouros_, "ally, comrade"; 341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who founded the school of philosophy called Epicureanism . Only a few fragments and letters of Epicurus's 300 written works remain. Much of what is known about Epicurean philosophy derives from later followers and commentators. For Epicurus, the purpose of philosophy was to attain the happy, tranquil life, characterized by _ataraxia _—peace and freedom from fear—and _aponia _—the absence of pain—and by living a self-sufficient life surrounded by friends. He taught that pleasure and pain are measures of what is good and evil; death is the end of both body and soul and therefore should not be feared; the gods neither reward nor punish humans; the universe is infinite and eternal; and events in the world are ultimately based on the motions and interactions of atoms moving in empty space
[...More...]

"Epicurus" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Philosophy
PHILOSOPHY (from Greek φιλοσοφία, _philosophia_, literally "love of wisdom" ) is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence , knowledge , values , reason , mind , and language . The term was probably coined by Pythagoras (c. 570–495 BCE). Philosophical methods include questioning , critical discussion , rational argument and systematic presentation. Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it? What is most real ? However, philosophers might also pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live? Is it better to be just or unjust (if one can get away with it)? Do humans have free will ? Historically, "philosophy" encompassed any body of knowledge. From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, "natural philosophy " encompassed astronomy , medicine and physics
[...More...]

"Philosophy" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Atomism
ATOMISM (from Greek ἄτομον, atomon, i.e. "uncuttable", "indivisible" ) is a natural philosophy that developed in several ancient traditions. The atomists theorized that nature consists of two fundamental principles: atom and void. Unlike their modern scientific namesake in atomic theory , philosophical atoms come in an infinite variety of shapes and sizes, each indestructible, immutable and surrounded by a void where they collide with the others or hook together forming a cluster. Clusters of different shapes, arrangements, and positions give rise to the various macroscopic substances in the world. References to the concept of atomism and its atoms are found in ancient India
India
and ancient Greece . In the West, atomism emerged in the 5th century BCE with Leucippus
Leucippus
and Democritus
Democritus

[...More...]

"Atomism" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Materialism
MATERIALISM is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature , and that all things, including mental things and consciousness , are results of material interactions. Materialism is closely related to physicalism , the view that all that exists is ultimately physical. Philosophical physicalism has evolved from materialism with the discoveries of the physical sciences to incorporate more sophisticated notions of physicality than mere ordinary matter, such as: spacetime , physical energies and forces , dark matter , and so on. Thus the term "physicalism" is preferred over "materialism" by some, while others use the terms as if they are synonymous . Philosophies contradictory to materialism or physicalism include idealism , pluralism , dualism , and other forms of monism
[...More...]

"Materialism" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Democritus
DEMOCRITUS (/dɪˈmɒkrɪtəs/ ; Greek : Δημόκριτος, Dēmókritos, meaning "chosen of the people"; c. 460 – c. 370 BC) was an influential Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
pre-Socratic philosopher primarily remembered today for his formulation of an atomic theory of the universe . Democritus
Democritus
was born in Abdera , Thrace
Thrace
, around 460 BC, although, some thought it was 490 BC. His exact contributions are difficult to disentangle from those of his mentor Leucippus
Leucippus
, as they are often mentioned together in texts. Their speculation on atoms, taken from Leucippus, bears a passing and partial resemblance to the 19th-century understanding of atomic structure that has led some to regard Democritus
Democritus
as more of a scientist than other Greek philosophers; however, their ideas rested on very different bases
[...More...]

"Democritus" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Religious Skepticism
RELIGIOUS SKEPTICISM is a type of skepticism relating to religion . Religious skeptics question religious authority and are not necessarily anti-religious but are those skeptical of a specific or all religious beliefs and/or practices. Some are deists , believing in a non-interventionist god(s) and rejecting mainstream religions. Socrates
Socrates
was one of the first religious skeptics of whom there are records; he questioned the legitimacy of the beliefs of his time in the existence of the Greek gods . CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links OVERVIEW Religious skepticism
Religious skepticism
generally refers to doubting given religious beliefs or claims
[...More...]

"Religious Skepticism" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Aristippus
ARISTIPPUS OF CYRENE (/ˌærəˈstɪpəs/ ; Greek : Ἀρίστιππος ὁ Κυρηναῖος; c. 435 – c. 356 BCE) was the founder of the Cyrenaic school of Philosophy. He was a pupil of Socrates
Socrates
, but adopted a very different philosophical outlook, teaching that the goal of life was to seek pleasure by adapting circumstances to oneself and by maintaining proper control over both adversity and prosperity. Among his pupils was his daughter Arete . There are indications that he was conflated with his grandson, Aristippus the Younger
[...More...]

"Aristippus" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Ataraxia
ATARAXIA (ἀταραξία, "not perturbed") is a Greek term used by Pyrrho
Pyrrho
and subsequently Epicurus
Epicurus
for a lucid state of robust equanimity , characterized by ongoing freedom from distress and worry. The ancient Greek author Sextus Empiricus gave this definition: "ataraxia is an untroubled and tranquil condition of the soul." In non-philosophical usage, the term was used to describe the ideal mental state for soldiers entering battle. CONTENTS * 1 Epicureanism
Epicureanism
* 2 Pyrrhonism * 3 Stoicism
Stoicism
* 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links EPICUREANISMFor Epicureanism
Epicureanism
, ataraxia was synonymous with the only true happiness possible for a person
[...More...]

"Ataraxia" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Aponia
"APONIA" (Ancient Greek : ἀπονία) means the absence of pain , and was regarded by the Epicureans
Epicureans
to be the height of bodily pleasure. As with the other Hellenistic schools of philosophy , the Epicureans believed that the goal of human life is happiness . The Epicureans defined pleasure as the absence of pain (mental and physical), and hence pleasure can only increase until the point in which pain is absent. Beyond this, pleasure cannot increase further, and indeed one cannot rationally seek bodily pleasure beyond the state of aponia. For Epicurus
Epicurus
, aponia was one of the static (katastematic) pleasures, that is, a pleasure one has when there is no want or pain to be removed. To achieve such a state, one has to experience kinetic pleasures, that is, a pleasure one has when want or pain is being removed
[...More...]

"Aponia" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Hedonism
HEDONISM is a school of thought that argues that pleasure and happiness are the primary or most important intrinsic goods and the proper aim of human life. A hedonist strives to maximize net pleasure (pleasure minus pain ), but when having finally gained that pleasure, either through intrinsic or extrinsic goods, happiness remains stationary. Ethical hedonism is the idea that all people have the right to do everything in their power to achieve the greatest amount of pleasure possible to them. It is also the idea that every person's pleasure should far surpass their amount of pain. Ethical hedonism is said to have been started by Aristippus of Cyrene, a student of Socrates . He held the idea that pleasure is the highest good. Hedonism is a sub-philosophy of utilitarianism , which says to act in a way that maximizes utility
[...More...]

"Hedonism" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Colloquially
EVERYDAY LANGUAGE, EVERYDAY SPEECH, COMMON PARLANCE, INFORMAL LANGUAGE, COLLOQUIAL LANGUAGE, GENERAL PARLANCE, or VERNACULAR (but this has other meanings too), is the most used variety of a language , which is usually employed in conversation or other communication in informal situations. An example of such language is called a COLLOQUIALISM, or CASUALISM. The most common term used by dictionaries to label such an expression is COLLOQUIAL. Many people however misunderstand this label and confuse it with the word local because it sounds somewhat similar and because informal expressions are often only used in certain regions. (But a regionalism is not the same thing as a colloquialism, and a regionalism can be local formal speech). Much of the misunderstanding is ironically caused by the dictionary label itself being formal and not part of everyday speech
[...More...]

"Colloquially" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Platonism
PLATONISM, rendered as a proper noun , is the philosophy of Plato or the name of other philosophical systems considered closely derived from it. In narrower usage, PLATONISM, rendered as a common noun (with a lower case "p" subject to sentence case ), refers to the philosophy that affirms the existence of abstract objects , which are asserted to "exist" in a "third realm" distinct both from the sensible external world and from the internal world of consciousness, and is the opposite of nominalism . Lower case "platonists" need not accept any of the doctrines of Plato. In a narrower sense, the term might indicate the doctrine of Platonic realism . The central concept of Platonism, a distinction essential to the Theory of Forms , is the distinction between the reality which is perceptible but unintelligible, and the reality which is imperceptible but intelligible
[...More...]

"Platonism" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Stoicism
STOICISM is a school of Hellenistic philosophy that flourished throughout the Roman and Greek world until the 3rd century AD. Stoicism is predominantly a philosophy of personal ethics which is informed by its system of logic and its views on the natural world. According to its teachings, as social beings, the path to happiness for humans is found in accepting that which we have been given in life, by not allowing ourselves to be controlled by our desire for pleasure or our fear of pain, by using our minds to understand the world around us and to do our part in nature's plan, and by working together and treating others in a fair and just manner. It was founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early 3rd century BC
[...More...]

"Stoicism" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo