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Eocene
The Eocene
Eocene
( /ˈiːəˌsiːn, ˈiːoʊ-/[2][3]) Epoch, lasting from 56 to 33.9 million years ago, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic
Cenozoic
Era. The Eocene
Eocene
spans the time from the end of the Paleocene Epoch to the beginning of the Oligocene
Oligocene
Epoch. The start of the Eocene is marked by a brief period in which the concentration of the carbon isotope 13C in the atmosphere was exceptionally low in comparison with the more common isotope 12C. The end is set at a major extinction event called the Grande Coupure (the "Great Break" in continuity) or the Eocene– Oligocene
Oligocene
extinction event, which may be related to the impact of one or more large bolides in Siberia and in what is now Chesapeake Bay
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Coal
Coal
Coal
is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure. Coal
Coal
is composed primarily of carbon, along with variable quantities of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen.[1] Coal
Coal
is a fossil fuel that forms when dead plant matter is converted into peat, which in turn is converted into lignite, then sub-bituminous coal, after that bituminous coal, and lastly anthracite. This involves biological and geological processes
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Ancient Greek
The Ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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International Commission On Stratigraphy
The International Commission on Stratigraphy
Stratigraphy
(ICS), sometimes referred to by the unofficial name "International Stratigraphic Commission" is a daughter or major subcommittee grade scientific daughter organization that concerns itself with stratigraphy, geological, and geochronological matters on a global scale. It is a subordinate body of the International Union of Geological Sciences—of which it is the largest body within the organisation—and of which it is essentially a permanent working subcommittee that meets far more regularly than the quadrennial meetings scheduled by the IUGS, when it meets as a congress or membership of the whole.
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Carbon
Carbon
Carbon
(from Latin: carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent—making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds. It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table.[13] Three isotopes occur naturally, 12C and 13C being stable, while 14C is a radionuclide, decaying with a half-life of about 5,730 years.[14] Carbon
Carbon
is one of the few elements known since antiquity.[15] Carbon
Carbon
is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth's crust, and the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. Carbon's abundance, its unique diversity of organic compounds, and its unusual ability to form polymers at the temperatures commonly encountered on Earth
Earth
enables this element to serve as a common element of all known life
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Isotope
Isotopes
Isotopes
are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number. All isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons in each atom. The term isotope is formed from the Greek roots isos (ἴσος "equal") and topos (τόπος "place"), meaning "the same place"; thus, the meaning behind the name is that different isotopes of a single element occupy the same position on the periodic table. The number of protons within the atom's nucleus is called atomic number and is equal to the number of electrons in the neutral (non-ionized) atom. Each atomic number identifies a specific element, but not the isotope; an atom of a given element may have a wide range in its number of neutrons
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Carbon-13
Carbon-13 (13C) is a natural, stable isotope of carbon with a nucleus containing six protons and seven neutrons. As one of the environmental isotopes, it makes up about 1.1% of all natural carbon on Earth. Contents1 Detection by mass spectrometry 2 Uses in science 3 See also 4 NotesDetection by mass spectrometry[edit] A mass spectrum of an organic compound will usually contain a small peak of one mass unit greater than the apparent molecular ion peak (M) of the whole molecule. This is known as the M+1 peak and comes from the handful of molecules that contain a 13C atom in place of a 12C. A molecule containing one carbon atom will be expected to have an M+1 peak of approximately 1.1% of the size of the M peak, as 1.1% of the molecules will have a 13C rather than a 12C
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Carbon-12
Carbon-12 is the more abundant of the two stable isotopes of carbon ( Carbon-13 being the other), amounting to 98.93% of the element carbon;[1] its abundance is due to the triple-alpha process by which it is created in stars. Carbon-12 is of particular importance in its use as the standard from which atomic masses of all nuclides are measured. Its mass number is 12 by definition and contains 6 protons, 6 neutrons and 6 electrons.Contents1 History 2 Hoyle state 3 Isotopic purification 4 See also 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] Before 1959 both the IUPAP
IUPAP
and IUPAC
IUPAC
used oxygen to define the mole; the chemists defining the mole as the number of atoms of oxygen which had mass 16 g, the physicists using a similar definition but with the oxygen-16 isotope only
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Bolide
A bolide (French via Latin from the Greek βολίς bolís, "missile"[2][3]) is an extremely bright meteor, especially one that explodes in the atmosphere. In astronomy, it refers to a fireball about as bright as the full moon, and it is generally considered a synonym for a fireball
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Stratum
In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface[1], with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers. The "stratum" is the fundamental unit in a stratigraphic column and forms the basis of the study of stratigraphy.Contents1 Characteristics 2 Naming 3 Gallery 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksCharacteristics[edit]The Permian
Permian
through Jurassic
Jurassic
strata in the Colorado Plateau
Colorado Plateau
area of southeastern Utah
Utah
demonstrates the principles of stratigraphy. These strata make up much of the famous prominent rock formations in widely spaced protected areas such as Capitol Reef National Park
Capitol Reef National Park
and Canyonlands National Park
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Dawn
Dawn, from an Old English
Old English
verb dagian: "to become day", is the time that marks the beginning of twilight before sunrise. It is recognized by the appearance of indirect sunlight being scattered in the atmosphere, when the centre of the Sun's disc reaches 18° below the horizon.[1] This dawn twilight period will last until sunrise (when the Sun's upper limb breaks the horizon), as the diffused light becomes direct sunlight.Civil, nautical, and astronomical dawn, when defined as the beginning time of the corresponding twilight[2]Contents1 Types of dawn1.1 Astronomical dawn 1.2 Nautical dawn 1.3 Civil dawn2 Effects of latitude2.1 Equator 2.2 Polar regions2.2.1 Example3 Mythology and religion 4 Dawn
Dawn
in art 5 Literature 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksTypes of dawn[edit] Dawn
Dawn
begins with the first sight of lightness in the morning, and continues until the sun breaks the horizon
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Fauna
Fauna
Fauna
is all of the animal life of any particular region or time. The corresponding term for plants is flora. Flora, fauna and other forms of life such as fungi are collectively referred to as biota. Zoologists and paleontologists use fauna to refer to a typical collection of animals found in a specific time or place, e.g. the " Sonoran Desert
Sonoran Desert
fauna" or the " Burgess Shale
Burgess Shale
fauna". Paleontologists sometimes refer to a sequence of faunal stages, which is a series of rocks all containing similar fossils
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Rocks
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids. For example, granite, a common rock, is a combination of the minerals quartz, feldspar and biotite. The Earth's outer solid layer, the lithosphere, is made of rock. Rock has been used by humankind throughout history. The minerals and metals in rocks have been essential to human civilization.[1] Three major groups of rocks are defined: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. The scientific study of rocks is called petrology, which is an essential component of geology.Contents1 Classification1.1 Igneous rock 1.2 Sedimentary rock 1.3 Metamorphic rock2 Human use2.1 Mining3 See also 4 References 5 External linksClassification See also: Formation of rocksRock outcrop along a mountain creek near Orosí, Costa Rica.Rocks are composed of grains of minerals, which are homogeneous solids formed from a chemical compound arranged in an orderly manner
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Megaannum
A year is the orbital period of the Earth
Earth
moving in its orbit around the Sun. Due to the Earth's axial tilt, the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons, marked by changes in weather, the hours of daylight, and, consequently, vegetation and soil fertility. In temperate and subpolar regions around the planet, four seasons are generally recognized: spring, summer, autumn and winter. In tropical and subtropical regions several geographical sectors do not present defined seasons; but in the seasonal tropics, the annual wet and dry seasons are recognized and tracked. The current year is 2018. A calendar year is an approximation of the number of days of the Earth's orbital period as counted in a given calendar. The Gregorian, or modern, calendar, presents its calendar year to be either a common year of 365 days or a leap year of 366 days, as do the Julian calendars; see below
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Absolute Dating
Absolute dating
Absolute dating
is the process of determining an age on a specified chronology in archaeology and geology. Some scientists prefer the terms chronometric or calendar dating, as use of the word "absolute" implies an unwarranted certainty of accuracy.[1][2] Absolute dating provides a numerical age or range in contrast with relative dating which places events in order without any measure of the age between events. In archaeology, absolute dating is usually based on the physical, chemical, and life properties of the materials of artifacts, buildings, or other items that have been modified by humans and by historical associations with materials with known dates (coins and written history)
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Age (geology)
A geologic age is a subdivision of geologic time that divides an epoch into smaller parts. A succession of rock strata laid down in a single age on the geologic timescale is a stage. See also[edit]List of geochronologic namesReferences[edit]^ Cohen, K.M.; Finney, S.; Gibbard, P.L
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