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Eocene
The EOCENE ( /ˈiːəˌsiːn, ˈiːoʊ-/ ) Epoch, lasting from 56 to 33.9 million years ago, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era. The Eocene
Eocene
spans the time from the end of the Paleocene Epoch to the beginning of the Oligocene
Oligocene
Epoch. The start of the Eocene
Eocene
is marked by a brief period in which the concentration of the carbon isotope 13C in the atmosphere was exceptionally low in comparison with the more common isotope 12C . The end is set at a major extinction event called the Grande Coupure (the "Great Break" in continuity) or the Eocene– Oligocene
Oligocene
extinction event , which may be related to the impact of one or more large bolides in Siberia and in what is now Chesapeake Bay
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Bolide
A BOLIDE (French via Latin from the Greek βολίς bolís, "missile" ) is an extremely bright meteor , especially one that explodes in the atmosphere. In astronomy, it refers to a fireball about as bright as the full moon , and it is generally considered a synonym of a fireball. In geology, a bolide is a very large impactor . One definition describes a bolide as a fireball reaching an apparent magnitude of −14 or brighter – more than twice as bright as the full moon. Another definition describes a bolide as any generic large crater-forming impacting body whose composition (for example, whether it is a rocky or metallic asteroid , or an icy comet ) is unknown. A SUPERBOLIDE is a bolide which reaches an apparent magnitude of −17 or brighter. Recent examples of superbolides include the Sutter\'s Mill meteorite and the Chelyabinsk meteor
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Stratum
In geology and related fields, a STRATUM (plural: STRATA) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers. The "stratum" is the fundamental unit in a stratigraphic column and forms the basis of the study of stratigraphy . CONTENTS * 1 Characteristics * 2 Naming * 3 Gallery * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links CHARACTERISTICS The Permian
Permian
through Jurassic
Jurassic
strata in the Colorado Plateau area of southeastern Utah
Utah
demonstrates the principles of stratigraphy . These strata make up much of the famous prominent rock formations in widely spaced protected areas such as Capitol Reef National Park
Capitol Reef National Park
and Canyonlands National Park
Canyonlands National Park

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Ancient Greek
ANCIENT GREEK includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period (3rd century BC to the 6th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
. The language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine (common). Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek . Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects
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Carbon-12
CARBON-12 is the more abundant of the two stable isotopes of carbon ( Carbon-13 being the other), amounting to 98.93% of the element carbon ; its abundance is due to the triple-alpha process by which it is created in stars. Carbon-12 is of particular importance in its use as the standard from which atomic masses of all nuclides are measured: its mass number is 12 by definition and contains 6 protons , 6 neutrons and 6 electrons . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Hoyle state * 3 Isotopic purification * 4 See also * 5 References HISTORYBefore 1959 both the IUPAP
IUPAP
and IUPAC
IUPAC
used oxygen to define the mole ; the chemists defining the mole as the number of atoms of oxygen which had mass 16 g, the physicists using a similar definition but with the oxygen-16 isotope only. The two organizations agreed in 1959/60 to define the mole as follows
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Carbon-13
CARBON-13 (13C) is a natural, stable isotope of carbon with a nucleus containing six protons and seven neutrons . As one of the environmental isotopes , it makes up about 1.1% of all natural carbon on Earth. CONTENTS * 1 Detection by mass spectrometry * 2 Uses in science * 3 See also * 4 Notes DETECTION BY MASS SPECTROMETRYA mass spectrum of an organic compound will usually contain a small peak of one mass unit greater than the apparent molecular ion peak (M) of the whole molecule. This is known as the M+1 peak and comes from the handful of molecules that contain a 13C atom in place of a 12C. A molecule containing one carbon atom will be expected to have an M+1 peak of approximately 1.1% of the size of the M peak, as 1.1% of the molecules will have a 13C rather than a 12C
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International Commission On Stratigraphy
The INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON STRATIGRAPHY (ICS), sometimes referred to by the unofficial name "INTERNATIONAL STRATIGRAPHIC COMMISSION" is a daughter or major subcommittee grade scientific daughter organization that concerns itself with stratigraphy , geological , and geochronological matters on a global scale. It is a subordinate body of the International Union of Geological Sciences —of which it is the largest body within the organisation—and of which it is essentially a permanent working subcommittee that meets far more regularly than the quadrennial meetings scheduled by the IUGS, when it meets as a congress or membership of the whole
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Carbon
CARBON (from Latin
Latin
: carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent —making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds . Three isotopes occur naturally, 12C and 13C being stable, while 14C is a radioactive isotope , decaying with a half-life of about 5,730 years. Carbon
Carbon
is one of the few elements known since antiquity . Carbon
Carbon
is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth\'s crust , and the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen , helium , and oxygen . Carbon's abundance, its unique diversity of organic compounds , and its unusual ability to form polymers at the temperatures commonly encountered on Earth
Earth
enables this element to serve as a common element of all known life . It is the second most abundant element in the human body by mass (about 18.5%) after oxygen
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Isotope
ISOTOPES are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number . All isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons in each atom . The term isotope is formed from the Greek roots isos (ἴσος "equal") and topos (τόπος "place"), meaning "the same place"; thus, the meaning behind the name is that different isotopes of a single element occupy the same position on the periodic table . The number of protons within the atom\'s nucleus is called atomic number and is equal to the number of electrons in the neutral (non-ionized) atom. Each atomic number identifies a specific element, but not the isotope; an atom of a given element may have a wide range in its number of neutrons . The number of nucleons (both protons and neutrons) in the nucleus is the atom's mass number , and each isotope of a given element has a different mass number
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Dawn
DAWN (from an Old English verb dagian "to become day") or ASTRONOMICAL DAWN is the time that marks, depending on the specific usage, the beginning of the twilight before sunrise , the period of the pre-sunrise twilight or the time of sunrise. When identified as the beginning of or the period of twilight, it is recognized by the presence of weak sunlight, while the Sun
Sun
itself is still below the horizon . CONTENTS* 1 Types of dawn * 1.1 Astronomical dawn * 1.2 Nautical dawn * 1.3 Civil dawn * 2 Effects of latitude * 2.1 Equator * 2.2 Polar regions * 2.2.1 Example * 3 Mythology and religion * 4 Dawn
Dawn
in art * 5 Literature * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links TYPES OF DAWN Main article: Twilight
Twilight
Civil, nautical, and astronomical dawn, when defined as the beginning time of the corresponding twilight
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Fauna
FAUNA is all of the animal life of any particular region or time. The corresponding term for plants is flora . Flora, fauna and other forms of life such as fungi are collectively referred to as biota . Zoologists and paleontologists use fauna to refer to a typical collection of animals found in a specific time or place, e.g. the " Sonoran Desert fauna" or the " Burgess Shale
Burgess Shale
fauna". Paleontologists sometimes refer to a sequence of faunal stages , which is a series of rocks all containing similar fossils
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Methane
M ETHANE
ETHANE
(US : /ˈmɛθeɪn/ or UK : /ˈmiːθeɪn/ ) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula CH4 (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen ). It is a group-14 hydride and the simplest alkane , and is the main constituent of natural gas . The relative abundance of methane on Earth
Earth
makes it an attractive fuel , though capturing and storing it poses challenges due to its gaseous state under normal conditions for temperature and pressure . Natural methane is found both below ground and under the sea floor . When it reaches the surface and the atmosphere , it is known as atmospheric methane . The Earth's atmospheric methane concentration has increased by about 150% since 1750, and it accounts for 20% of the total radiative forcing from all of the long-lived and globally mixed greenhouse gases (these gases don't include water vapor, which is by far the largest component of the greenhouse effect )
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Coal
COAL is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called COAL BEDS or COAL SEAMS. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal , can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure . Coal
Coal
is composed primarily of carbon , along with variable quantities of other elements, chiefly hydrogen , sulfur , oxygen , and nitrogen . A fossil fuel , coal forms when dead plant matter is converted into peat , which in turn is converted into lignite , then sub-bituminous coal, after that bituminous coal , and lastly anthracite . This involves biological and geological processes that take place over time. Throughout human history, coal has been used as an energy resource, primarily burned for the production of electricity and heat, and is also used for industrial purposes, such as refining metals
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Carbon Dioxide
CARBON DIOXIDE (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of air (1.225 g/L) that is odorless at normally encountered concentrations. Carbon
Carbon
dioxide consists of a carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It occurs naturally in Earth\'s atmosphere as a trace gas at a concentration of about 0.04 percent (400 ppm ) by volume. Natural sources include volcanoes , hot springs and geysers , and it is freed from carbonate rocks by dissolution in water and acids. Because carbon dioxide is soluble in water, it occurs naturally in groundwater , rivers and lakes , ice caps , glaciers and seawater . It is present in deposits of petroleum and natural gas
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Age (geology)
A geologic AGE is a subdivision of geologic time that divides an epoch into smaller parts. A succession of rock strata laid down in a single age on the geologic timescale is a stage . SEE ALSO * List of geochronologic names REFERENCES * ^ Cohen, K.M.; Finney, S.; Gibbard, P.L
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Rocks
ROCK or STONE is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids . For example, granite , a common rock, is a combination of the minerals quartz , feldspar and biotite . The Earth's outer solid layer, the lithosphere , is made of rock. Rock has been used by mankind throughout history. The minerals and metals found in rocks have been essential to human civilization. Three major groups of rocks are defined: igneous , sedimentary , and metamorphic . The scientific study of rocks is called petrology , which is an essential component of geology. CONTENTS* 1 Classification * 1.1 Igneous rock * 1.2 Sedimentary rock * 1.3 Metamorphic rock * 2 Human use * 2.1 Mining
Mining
* 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links CLASSIFICATION See also: Formation of rocks Rock outcrop along a mountain creek near Orosí , Costa Rica
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